Kamis, 14 Desember 2017

Understanding the Science of Genetic Engineering and its Complete Example - Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification, is a direct manipulation of a genomic organism using biotechnology. This is a set of technologies used to change the genetic makeup of cells, including the transfer of inner genes and across species boundaries to produce novel or novel organisms. New DNA can be included in the host genome by first isolating and copying compelling genetic material using molecular cloning methods to generate DNA sequences, or by DNA synthesis, and then incorporating this build into the host organism. Genes can be removed, or "knocked out", using nuclease. Targeting genes are different techniques that use homologous recombination to alter the endogenous genes, and can be used to remove genes, remove exons, add genes, or introduce point mutations. Organisms produced by genetic engineering are considered to be genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The first GMO bacteria produced in 1973 and GM mice in 1974. Insulin-producing bacteria were commercialized in 1982 and genetically modified foods have been sold since 1994. Glofish, the first GMO designed as a pet, was first sold in America United in December 2003. Genetic engineering techniques have been applied in various fields including research, agriculture, biotechnology industry, and medicine. Enzymes used in detergents and drugs such as insulin and human growth hormone are now produced in GM cells, experimental GM cell lines and GM animals such as mice or zebra fish used for research purposes, and transgenic crops have been commercialized. Genetic engineering alters the genetic make-up of an organism using a technique that removes inherited matter or that introduces DNA prepared outside the organism either directly into the host or into a cell that then merges or hybridizes with the host. This involves using recombinant nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) techniques to form new combinations of inherited genetic material followed by the incorporation of materials either indirectly through the system vector or directly through micro-injection, macro-injection and micro-encapsulation techniques. Genetic engineering is abnormal including traditional animal and plant breeding, in vitro fertilization, polyploid induction, mutagenesis and fusion cell techniques that do not use recombinant nucleic acid or genetically engineered organisms in the process. However the European Commission has also defined genetic engineering widely as including selective breeding and other means of artificial selection. Cloning and stem cell research, although not considered genetically engineered, are closely related and genetic engineering can be used within them. Synthetic biology is an emerging discipline that takes genetic engineering a step further by introducing artificially synthesized materials from raw materials into an organism. If the genetic material of another species is added to the host, the resulting organism is called transgenic. If the genetic material of the same species or species that can naturally reproduce by the host is used the resulting organism is called cisgenic. Genetic engineering can also be used to remove genetic material from the target organism, creating the organism's knockout gene. in Europe genetic modification is identical to genetic engineering while in the United States it can also refer to conventional breeding methods. Canada's regulatory system is based on whether a product has a novel that has regardless of the original method. In other words, the product is regulated as genetic engineering if it carries some properties previously not found in the species whether it is produced using traditional methods of breeding (eg, selective breeding, fusion cells, mutation breeding) or genetic engineering. in the scientific community, term genetic engineering is not commonly used; More specific terms such as GMOs are preferred.

Source: blograntaimakanan


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