Rabu, 18 Januari 2023

Ancient Religions In A Lost And Forgotten World Part 2

1. Manichaeism

Founded in the 3rd century AD by a Persian man named Mani. Manichaeism was originally seen as a heretical Christian sect, but was later recognized as a separate religion. Its founder claims he unified all the world's religions, including Zoroastrianism , Buddhism, and Christianity.

His teachings focus on the difference between good and evil. Manichaeism is known for having knowledge as a path to salvation. The highest adherents to this religion are known as "Elect" or "perfect" and resemble Buddhist monks but they are required to be "nomadic". His followers then spread Mani's influence around the world until the religion lost its popularity in medieval times. Many of the reasons for the downfall of this religion are related to the misery and suffering of the lives of its followers. They suffered at the hands of the Chinese government, the ancient Roman government, or the Catholic Church. The greatest myth of Manichaeism is the creation myth of the world which describes the battle that was waged between the Worlds of Light and the World of Darkness, which were two separate realms.

Adam and Eve are said to have been created by evil beings, while Jesus and Mani are said to have been created by good beings, in order to reveal true spirituality to mankind.

Symbol of Manichaeism
2. Tengriism
It is one of the world's oldest religions and is believed to have originated in the Bronze Age (between 3600 and 1200 BC). Developed by people from the Altai Mountains in Central Asia . Tengriism is a monotheistic religion with elements of ancestor worship. This religion does not have holy books as in other religions and early belief systems were built on collective knowledge. However, it is believed that the Huns of the North Caucasus may have worshiped a god named Tengri by performing sacrifices on horses. The most important holiday is known as the Tengrian Epiphanyand takes place on December 23. Some traditions date back to the 5th century AD and with the tradition of bringing home the Yule tree and decorating it. This religion fell during the golden era of the Mongols. Today Tengriism is still practiced by politicians in Kyrgyzstan who are trying to make the state religion official.

Simbol Tengriism

3. Ashurism

It is the national cult of the Assyrian people . Ashurism is nearly identical to the religion of Ancient Babylon but with one major difference. Rather than worshiping Marduk as the supreme god, the Assyrians preferred to honor the god Ashur . Ashurism is a polytheistic religion with thousands of gods which contains about 20 important gods, including Ishtar and Marduk . Because it is very similar to the Babylonian religion, Ashurism has

a number of stories shared with Judaism and Christianity, namely the creation myth, the "Great Flood," and the Tower of Babel. They also share the apocryphal tale of Lilith, the woman-demon hybrid. Assyrian New Year, is the most revered date in Ashurism, which lasts 11 days, and Ashur is worshiped in this event. This religion was founded around the 18th century BC and lasted until the 5th century BC, when the Assyrian state was destroyed.

Ashurism Religion Symbol
4. Vedism
Vedism is an ancient Indo-Aryan religion which was popular in 1500 BC-500 BC. This can also be seen as the origin of the modern Hindu belief system, as they share the same sacred texts, the four Vedas, but there are differences between the two. Vedism is a polytheistic religion associated with nature. In this belief there are 2 categories of gods namely Devas, Gods of Nature and Asuras, Gods of Morals. Oral hymns which were very important to followers of Vedism and priests played a large role in various ceremonies, said to improve the lives of the followers by pleasing the gods. Vedism involved animal sacrifices but in small numbers, using mostly milk and grains. Indra is the supreme god of Vedism, and one of the most popular myths is the story between Indra and the children of Diti , the mother of demons. After Indra killed most of his children, Diti began to perform magic to help the last unborn child become stronger than Indra. When he found Diti, Indra threw lightning at her womb to destroy it, but it turned out that the child in Diti's womb survived.

5. Olmec religion

The Olmecs were the popular religion of the first Mesoamerican civilization , namely the Olmec civilization which lasted from 1200 BC until their destruction in 400 BC (there is no definite reason why they were destroyed, but volcanic activity or environmental changes are seen as the most likely causes). Since there is no direct evidence of their religion, archaeologists have compared their remains with those of the Mayans and Aztecs in search of similarities. This religion is closely related to shamanism. The most popular god for the Olmec people is the Jaguar Godwho was the god of rain and fertility (although some theories say there was no "Primary God" of the gods). Various sacrifices such as blood and jade were made to the gods, as well as a number of ritual dances and masks. Olmec priests are believed to have inhaled some form of hallucinogenic drug to help them communicate with spirits. So far, only 10 of the Olmec Gods have been identified by archaeologists. Because of its early origins, the Olmec religion is said to be a kind of "mother" to subsequent Mesoamerican religions, as they share a number of common elements.

Statue of One of the Olmec Gods
Source: www.listverse.com

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