Selasa, 24 Januari 2023

Complete Types of History and Examples

Understanding the Types of History

Understanding Types of History (Geographical, Economic, Social and Political History) - History as a science studies knowledge in the past within the scope of human life. Events in history can be classified into several types of history so that the discussion of history is more focused on one problem, even though the discussion is also related to various problems.

Therefore, what is meant by historical types and categories is a combination of characteristics that are basically considered as group characteristics and the ability to display historical types or types. According to Louis Gattaschalk in his book entitled Understanding History, translated by Nugroho Notosusanto in 1975, he divided history into three types:

1. what determines the survival of historical records is found only by chance;
2. For future historical writing using sampling techniques, concrete historical figures will be obtained;
3. writing history using par excellen examples, namely a prominent individual in the nation who has the character to be able to optimally improve the behavior of the nation as a whole.

There are also those who divide history based on the focus of the problem as follows.

Types of History
1. History of geography

This history of geography is associated with historical issues related to geography, to answer the question "where did the event take place?" either directly or indirectly. Historical events in the history of geography are associated with the place and location of their occurrence.

Therefore, knowledge of geography (geography) is needed, then the question arises "why in that place?". In addition, knowledge of geography is also important in the course of the history of the Indonesian people, the size of Indonesia's territory and natural conditions contribute to the occurrence of a historical event. Even customs also play a role. Likewise, natural conditions can be used as a consideration for creating strategies in war.

2. Economic history

The science that discusses human efforts to meet their needs is called economics. No human being can meet all the needs of his own life. To meet all their needs, they need the help of other people or parties. This situation then gave rise to the occurrence of an economic system in society (social economic system).

Indonesian people began to recognize the economic system since the time of farming with the barter system (goods exchanged for goods) because they were not familiar with the money economy system. Trade in the archipelago developed rapidly, the opening of land trade routes (silk roads) which later emerged sea trade routes (spice trade roads) made trade in the archipelago more widespread, so that the active role of Indonesian traders was increasingly visible in international relations.

It was through these economic relations and the advancement of trade that many Chinese and Indian traders entered the archipelago. Their presence has great influence, both in the economic, social, cultural, and religious fields. Even the kingdoms of the Archipelago could be known abroad due to the large number of foreign traders who stopped by the kingdom at that time. Thus the economic history of the Indonesian nation developed from a simple level towards a broad economy and even able to penetrate the international economy.

3. Social history

The social history of the Indonesian people cannot be separated from people's lives. Social problems are driving the emergence of historical events. Social history undergoes a process of development in accordance with the development of human life standards.

During the farming period, social life began to grow, gotong royong was felt as a fundamental obligation in everyday life. They live together in a social group, they are still food gathering (gathering food) which then increases to food producing (producing food).

Social history continues to experience development in harmony with the development of society from the simplest to the more advanced levels. The emergence of modernization of society will continue to build social progress. As in the simple standard of living during the cultivation period, social efforts emerge with the mutual cooperation community which is felt as a mandatory thing in the life of the wider community even to the rules of society that they need to obey together to maintain its sustainability.

After the arrival of Hinduism, the social life of the people got better, they even voluntarily and jointly were able to produce very large and sacred buildings, such as the Prambanan and Borobudur temples. The people are honest, voluntarily obey the creator, also obey the leaders, even within their families they obey and respect each other.

It was during this Hindu-Buddhist era that the first kingdoms appeared in Indonesia, such as the Kingdom of Kutai in the 5th century, Tarumanegara, then Sriwijaya in Sumatra. Close relations occurred inside or outside the palace, even though it had one direction in the centric palace and even a cult of kings emerged.

In the Islamic era, along with the development of the Islamic empire in the archipelago, society began to be orderly, social life increasingly seemed to bring about social welfare and improvement. Democratic life began to order

through the royal system. This system was then developed in the midst of the wider community by reducing feudal attitudes because the Islamic kings had given examples of democratic life. Therefore, social problems cannot be separated from the development of social life which creates the development of human history.

4. History of state administration and political history

Discussions about constitutional history or political history actually started from the pre-literate era. It's just that, how is the development or manifestation of this, many experts interpret various kinds, for example, primus inter pares.

Based on historical heritage, it is revealed that the pre-historic era was in the form of tribalism. However, after Hindu and Buddhist influences entered the archipelago, a new system emerged, namely the kingdom, for example, the Kingdom of Kutai. The kingdom system developed widely in the archipelago, both in Java and outside Java, many Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms emerged.

The entry of Islam into the archipelago gave a good wind for the growth of the kingdom, because it gave rise to a new system in the palace. During the Islamic era, the title of the head of state was sunan or sultan, which was one form of development in the history of state administration. There are also those who divide the types of history geographically as follows.

a. World history

World history tells of important events in a number of countries, concerning relations between countries, as well as historical events and facts from many countries in this part of the world. Many historians and researchers have published world history, such as the history of European countries, the history of Asian countries, the history of Egypt, the history of Africa, and the history of Australia which have been explained at length from the political, economic, social, and cultural aspects that occurring in these countries.

An example of writing world history is Soebantardjo's book entitled SariHistory of Asia – Australia. This book tells about the countries of Japan, China (China), India, Ceylon (Sri Lanka), Burma (Myanmar), Malaya, Muangthai (Thailand), Indochina, Iran, Afghanistan, Arabia, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Jordan, Palestine, Egypt, Turkey and Australia. Apart from that, Soebantardjo also wrote the history of European countries and America. So, world history tells how the situation of countries in all regions of the world and their relationship with one another.

b. National history

National history tells the history of the Indonesian nation from its inception until now. The history of ancient times contains the circumstances and capabilities of our ancestral society, their beliefs, and their cultural results. After the arrival of Hinduism, it is also told how the form of acculturation took place, then it is also told about the entry of Islam and the arrival of western nations which eventually emerged colonialism.

The Indonesian national movement described how active the national struggle was, which culminated in the proclamation and efforts to fill independence. Several security disturbances arose as well as attempts by the Dutch to regain control, although in the end we were able to overcome them and we defended this homeland. Entering the modern era, the Indonesian nation is still making its history. An example of compiling a national history was carried out by the Ministry of National Education and published as the Indonesian National History Book in six volumes.

c. Local history

Local history implies an event that occurred in the past and only occurred in a certain area or place that did not spread to other areas in Indonesia. The events that emerge are only from certain areas and contain problems that exist in that particular area as well, for example, local history of the Minahasa village, history of the Toraja tribe, the people of Nias, or the Dayak tribe in Kalimantan.

In local history, local figures emerged who fought for their territory, for example, the struggle of Imam Bonjol from West Sumatra, the struggle of Teuku Umar from Aceh, the struggle of Prince Diponegoro from Java (Yogyakarta), and other heroes from various regions in the archipelago.

Local history is important history, but we often get sources from other countries (for example, the Netherlands), although we also find historical evidence from all over the country. Historical evidence that has been transferred to other countries, for example, the original book of Negara kertagama and a statue of Ken Dedes (Prajna Paramita) which is in the Netherlands.

Dynamic and developing societies do occur everywhere, but on the other hand the impact of these developments makes it very difficult to reveal local historical evidence due to accelerated development, change of generations, and rapid population growth which adds to the splendor of this country.

Local history can be categorized into the history of past events, the history of the kingdoms in the archipelago, the history that expands the role of farmers and aristocrats as well as indentured laborers in the Dutch era, and local history which describes the ancient past to the present regarding traditions, customs, and confidence in certain areas. Therefore, we can observe how the reality in writing local history is as follows.

1) Local history only talks about certain areas, for example, the history of Madiun district, Tegal district history, or Yogyakarta history.
2) Local history emphasizes structure rather than process.
3) Local history only talks about certain events that are considered well-known in an area.
4) Local history only discusses certain aspects.

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