Historical Auxiliary Sciences: Complete Definition, Functions and Various Kinds
2.1 Definition of History
The word "history" originally came from the Arabic "syajaratun" (read; syajarah) meaning "wood tree". History means history in English but means objects in Greek. Trees describe the continuous growth from the earth into the air by having branches, branches and leaves, flowers or flowers and fruit. Indeed, in the word history is stored the meaning of growth or genealogy. (Yamin, 1958:4). According to Edward Halett Carr, history is a continuous process of interaction between the historian and his facts, and unending dialogue between the present and the past. So, Carr argues that history is a process of continuous interaction between the historian and the facts that hope for him; an unending dialogue between the present and the past. Robert V. Daniels (1966:3) explains that history is the memory of human experience ( history is the memory of human group experience ). Meanwhile, according to Yamin (1957: 4) history is science in general, which relates to historical stories as a result of interpretations of events in human society in the past, or other signs. In the General Indonesian Dictionary written by WJS Poerwadar Minta, history contains three meanings, namely: 1. History means genealogy or origin.
2. history means events and events that really happened in the past
3. history means science, knowledge, story lessons about events or events that really happened in the past.
Moh. Ali in his book Introduction to Indonesian History emphasized the understanding of history as follows:
1. The number of changes, occurrences or events in the reality around us
2. Stories about changes, events or events in the reality around us
3. The science in charge of investigating changes in events and events in the reality around us
However, when viewed from some of the meanings above, it can be concluded that history is a science that examines events that occurred to humans in the past.
2.2 Functions of Historical Auxiliary Sciences
Historical auxiliary sciences have the meaning of sciences that can be used as the main sources for historians in research and historical reconstruction. Historical auxiliary science has the following functions: as "tools" that assist critical and scientific analysis. These auxiliary sciences function as historical support or are called auxiliary sciences / sister disciplines . Historical auxiliary science is very helpful for historians so that the works produced are truly scientific
2.3 Kinds of Historical Auxiliary Sciences
A science that studies ancient life forms that once existed on earth, especially in fossils, is called paleontology. The word fossil comes from the Greek word fissilis which means what is dug up or removed from the ground. Then this word has a special meaning regarding all the remains of animals and plants that ever lived in the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic eras. The relics (remains) of animals and plants are preserved because they helped and were stored for hundreds of millions of years. The study of paleontology is closely related to geology, physics, botany (plants), zoology (animal science). To determine the age of the fossils that have been found, you can use the Radiocarbon methodin order to determine the age of these fossils up to hundreds of years. From the findings of these fossils, it can be arranged through the evolution of the development of animals and plants related to the geological layers at their time of life. For the science of history, paleontology plays a role when humans are still considered not to exist on this earth. Therefore, the help of paleontology for history is that this science can show hypothetically in which geological layers or approximately when humans began to exist in geological evolution. In Indonesia, the fossils of ancient animals such as elephants, buffaloes, and giant rhinos were found in the Sangiran valley area, Pacitan, East Java. Among the ancient animal fossils, many are kept in the Bandung Geological Museum.
Paleonthropology is the science that studies the fossils of early humans, often also referred to as physical anthropology. The object of paleoanthropology is the ancient humans themselves. This science aims to reconstruct human origins, evolution, distribution, environment, way of life and culture (Teuku Jacob, 1990:65-66). In Indonesia, human fossils were found in the Pleistocene layers. It all started with the findings of E. Dubois (1890), namely the jaw bone near the village of Trinil, on the edge of the Bengawan Solo stream, not far from Ngawi. Then after that it was found in a different place but at a different time. Other researchers, namely GHR Von Koeningswald and F. Weidenrich between 1931-1934 found eleven early human fossils but these fossils were more perfect than pithecanthropus erectus may have been a human so they named it Homo Soloensis (solo man).
2.3 3. Archeology
Archeology is the science that studies ancient objects. The world of archeology is closely related to assumptions about a very long span of time. Archeology covers both historical and prehistoric times. Archeology is also a science that studies humans and their culture, that is, it can be explained that humans interacting with their environment can produce culture, the resulting culture is ancient objects that are studied in this archeology. In Indonesia itself the prehistoric period ended in the fourth century. Archeology is one of the major sources of historical collections in many places. The objects studied in archeology are artifacts, ecofacts, features. Site. The oldest site is a warka site in the Mesopotamia region which is now southern Iraq. in his time, humans always leave things that were originally as a practical function. Archeology tries to interpret and reconstruct the culture or events that occurred at that time.
Paleography is one of the auxiliary sciences of history that studies writings that existed in the past (ancient writings). Paleography generally identifies ancient writings written on papyrus, clay tablets, parchment (vellum), paper, palm leaves, and so on. This paleography includes the science of reading in determining the time (date) of ancient writings. In these ancient writings, it is usually difficult to translate, so it is necessary to reveal the meaning of the ancient writings that are found. Sometimes the meaning of these ancient writings is a history of the occurrence of something that is considered important. Apart from being useful for reading ancient writings,
Epigraphy is a historical aid science that learns about how to read, show the time (date), identify ancient writings written on hard objects. The similarity between Epigraphy and Paleography lies in the discussion, namely ancient writings. The difference between the two lies in the material used for writing. One of the examples studied by the science of epigraphy is the inscription. Inscriptions are written sources that can provide information about past events, it could also be in the inscriptions, describing kings and queens in the past.
Is the study of statues or statues from prehistoric times to history. Statues in prehistoric times were buildings that generally symbolized ancestors and became a place of worship. Statues and statues found in Indonesia are made of clay, stone and metal (bronze, silver and gold).
In historical times, statues were more intended to describe people who were considered important, such as kings and queens. The statues depicting historical figures include Rajasa (founder of the Singgosari kingdom), Prajnaparamita (portraying Ken Dedes), Kertanegara, Kertarajasa Jawardana (Raden Wijaya founder of Majapahit), Hayam Wuruk, Gajah Mada Aditiawarman and Putrid Tribuana. These statues and statues can stand alone or form religious buildings such as temples, churches or temples.
Numismatics is the study of coins, their origins, manufacturing techniques, history, mythology and art. Currency is a medium of exchange in its time, these coins are not the same weight. The currency was not only in the form of metal but also in the form of paper, but people in ancient times liked to use coins because the money was durable, durable and did not tear like paper money. For the history of Indonesia, old currency is an important source because it shows the existence of economic activities, trade relations between the Indonesian archipelago and outside Indonesia, as well as political and cultural relations. The oldest currency in the form of gold dinars was found in excavations at the former Ratu Boko palace, Yogyakarta.
2.3.8. Ceramic Science
Ceramic is the general name for pottery, china and porcelain. Knowledge of ceramics is an important auxiliary science of history and art. The results of studies on these objects are important material for the preparation of history both in the prehistoric and historical periods. From the study of ceramics, it will be known about the time, owners or supporters of ceramic culture, trade traffic and interactions between regions and nations. Pottery in Indonesia is usually in the form of kitchen utensils made of fired clay. These pottery fragments have been found in the Mesolithic period (middle stone) such as kitchen waste (kjokkenmoddinger) found on the east coast of Sumatra. By the Neolithic (new stone) period, the pottery found had been decorated and refined.
Knowledge of the origins of the ancestors or descendants of a person's family or people. Usually in ancient times the kings made a family tree by describing a tree where the youngest branches were their descendants who were babies, and the leaves that had fallen were them. who is dead. Writing
Family history generally uses genealogy as its basis.
Philology is the science that studies ancient texts. These ancient texts were written in ancient Javanese, ancient Sundanese, or Malay. Some examples of these texts are:
220.127.116.11 . Negarakertagama
Negarakertagama is a palm-leaf manuscript that was found and confiscated by the Dutch at Puri Cakranegara Lombok in 1894. This manuscript uses Old Javanese, is written in Balinese letters and is in the form of poetry (kakawin). This manuscript was written by Mpu Prapanca, a Majapahit poet, written in 1365, a year after Gajah Mada died. Now this manuscript is kept at Leiden University in the Netherlands. Several historians have translated texts such as those by Brandes and H. Kern. Meanwhile, the Indonesian historian who translated this manuscript was Prof. Slamet Mulyono (1953).
Broadly speaking, the contents of the Negarakertagama manuscript include: an overview of Prapanca's philosophy and the purpose of writing, the composition of the central government and domestic government of Majapahit, the archipelago controlled by Majapahit, broadcasting of Hindu-Buddhist religions, notes on Hayam Wuruk's journey to Central and East Java, history Singasari-Majapahit from Ken Arok to Hayam Wuruk and Gajah Mada, great ceremonies at Majapahit, and regulations regarding agrarian land.
2 .3.10.2. Pararaton
This manuscript uses Old Javanese, in prose form, the author is unknown and was compiled around the 16th century. Pararaton contains the history of Ken Arok. In 1920 the Pararaton manuscript was written into Roman and translated by Brandes. The Pararaton manuscript contains the story of Ken Arok as the founder of the Rajasa dynasty, his wife Ken Dedes and the history of Majapahit 1486.
18.104.22.168. Sunday song
Kidung Sundayana is in the form of poetry (kidung). This manuscript was found in Bali and uses Old Javanese with an unknown author. The general content of the Song Sundayana text tells of the chronology of the Bubat war, which begins with Hayam Wuruk's desire to find a consort. So the princess from the kingdom of Pajajaran was chosen named Citraloka. The Pajajaran entourage and Citraloka's daughter finally came to Majapahit. This is where the problem started when Gajah Mada was not happy with Hayam Wuruk's way of welcoming the kingdom of Pajajaran. A disagreement arose between Gajah Mada, Hayam Wuruk and the Pajajaran party. The absence of a party agreement led to a battle between the two sides. King Pajajaran was killed in this incident and Citraloka finally committed suicide.
22.214.171.124. Babad Tanah Jawi
This text tells about the ups and downs of Javanese history which covers the end of the Majapahit kingdom in 1525 until the Giyanti Agreement in 1755 which divided Mataram into Surakarta and Yogyakarta. In detail, the contents of the Chronicle of Tanah Jawi are the Demak Bintoro Kingdom, Mataram, the walisongo, especially the Sunan Kalijaga figure and the Mataram split.
126.96.36.199 . Story of Parahiyangan
This manuscript in Old Sundanese language and script was written on palm leaves. This manuscript was transcribed and translated into Dutch by Pleyte with notes from Purbacaraka. The contents are about the ancestors of the Sundanese kings (the hiyangs) starting from the Galuh kingdom (Ciamis) until the collapse of the Pajajaran kingdom due to Islamic attacks. What is unique about this manuscript is that it contains the name of King Sanjaya from the Mataram kingdom.
188.8.131.52. The story of the Kings of Pasai
This manuscript was written in Malay around the 16th century and is now kept in the Royal Society library in London. This saga tells of the kingdom of Pasai (Aceh) in the 13-16th century AD. The short contents are about the king of Pasai who converted to Islam, namely Raja Ahmad and his brother Muhammad, about the first Samudra king, namely Merah Silu who converted to Islam with the title Malik as- Saleh, about the big buffalo fighting between Majapahit (Raja Sang Nata and Gajah Mada) and baby buffaloes from Minangkabau (Patih Suatang and Patih Katamanggungan). What's interesting about this saga contains the names of 35 regions of the archipelago and the Malay Peninsula that were conquered by Majapahit.
184.108.40.206. Malay history
This Malay script using the Arabic-Malay script was written by Tun Sri Lanang (1565-1642), a treasurer from the Johor Sultanate. This book was written around 1612, a century after Malacca was subdued by the Portuguese in 1511. Writing was often delayed because Aceh often attacked Johor, so the writer had to flee. This manuscript is now kept in the British Museum London. In short, this manuscript originates from Sang Tri Buana who descended from Seguntang Hill, Palembang until Malacca was captured by the Portuguese in 1511. Sang Tri Buana is considered the base of the four royal families that ruled Palembang, Majapahit, Malay and Minangkabau.
Language is very important in assisting historical science because having adequate knowledge of the language will greatly help in conducting research and writing history, especially in conducting research on foreign nations. That knowledge does not have to make him an expert in the language, but can be useful in understanding what is written in a foreign language.
Documents are the first sources of history (primary sources ) which are stored in archives written in certain local languages or foreign languages. If you want to do historical research about a foreign region or nation, you must understand a foreign language which is needed to carry out further research. For example, if you want to do research on Indonesian history regarding the period of the first half of the 20th century or the previous century, then in addition to the local language, or Malay, or Indonesian, the historian must also know Dutch because many documents are written in that language. Dutch.
Statistics helps history to be scientific because it uses facts and quantitative data. (Wilson Gee, 1950:253) says that statistics should not be regarded as a subject that has a relationship only with the physical sciences, chemistry, economics, and sociology. Statistics is not a science , but a scientific method . Statistics is used as a scientific method in social sciences such as anthropology, sociology, social psychology, economics, politics and history. For history, statistics use past facts or quantitative data in their collection, presentation, discussion and interpretation.
Ethnography is a branch of anthropology that explains culture within ethnic groups. Ethnography comes from the word ethnic namely ethnicity and logos which means science, so it can be said that ethnography is the study of ethnicity. At first Europe colonized Africa, Asia, America, Australia, and Oceania, but in the 16th century, Europeans began to care about the nations they colonized and studied the cultural differences of each nation, so that the study of culture emerged, namely anthropology and its branches. which specializes in discussing ethnicity is called ethnography. Koentjaraningrat (1997:92) explains that ethnography is part of an anthropological study that holistically describes the culture of a society, and which should be based on an understanding of the results of fieldwork from more recent laws.
Field research is researching one ethnic group in a small unit in society. The ethnic group in question is starting from the level of village, sub-district, city, small island, province, even one country at a time. Ethnicity is a collective that has an awareness of cultural unity, which is often marked by national unity (Koentjaraningrat 1969). In Indonesia, ethnography is not only in the form of writings about a culture, ethnicity, but there is supporting evidence, namely pictures, photographs, films, and documentation from the results of research on a culture. Ethnography in Indonesia was created by enemies, priests, poets, Christians, scholars of Indonesian (Nusantara) languages, natural investigators, officials of the colonial government.
2.3.14. Social sciences
To study society and its culture, a researcher certainly really needs the knowledge used to study it. Social sciences such as economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, politicology have become one of the important sciences in the development of historical science. These concepts of historical science are used as a tool to study history in an analytical-critical and scientific way.
These auxiliary sciences are used by historians as the main source in the reconstruction of historical events. To reconstruct historical events, these auxiliary sciences are adapted to the period and topic.
In the prehistoric, Hindu-Buddhist, Islamic periods, as well as the arrival of Europeans to Indonesia, the auxiliary sciences used were paleography, palonthropology, archeology, paleology, numismatics, iconography, philology, ceramics sciences, epigraphy. Whereas in the early period of modern and contemporary history, social sciences, ethnographic materials, statistics, were more often used in the preparation of history.
History is a science that examines events that happened to humans in the past. In history, there is such a thing as historical assistance science, history auxiliary science has the meaning of sciences that can be used as the main sources for historians in research and historical reconstruction. Historical auxiliary science has the following functions: as "tools" that assist critical and scientific analysis. Social auxiliary science consists of:
8. Ceramic science
14. Social sciences
For young researchers, use historical aids in research, so they can find out the classification of objects to be studied, and will make it easier to do research
Sjamsuddin, H. & Ismaun. 1996. Introduction to History. Jakarta
Hadi. 2010 . History aids. (online), ( www.google.com ) accessed 13 September 2013