THE BIRTH of Islamic theology was a reaction to the political schism (division) of Muslims. The tragedy of schism is enshrined in the phrase "al-fitnah al-kubra". The process of schism began with the killing of Usman Ibn Affan, which in the end had similar implications for the fourth caliph, Ali ibn Abi Talib. When the two caliphs were killed, the political turmoil discourse then developed into religious discourse (theology).

1. The Khawarij flow

The Khawarij school is the oldest theological school which is the first school to appear in Islamic theology. According to Ibn Abi Bakar Ahmad Al-Syahrastani, what is called Khawarij is anyone who leaves the rightful imam and has been agreed upon by the congregation, whether he left during the time of the Companions of the Rashidun Khulafaur, or during the tabi'in period in a good manner . According to the language, the name khawarij comes from the word "kharaja" which means out. This name was given to those who left Ali's ranks. This group also sometimes called itself Syurah, which means "a group that sacrifices itself for Allah. In addition, another name for this khawarij is Haruriyah, this term comes from the word harura, the name of a place near Kufah. , which is where they shed their regrets on Ali bin abi Talib who wanted to make peace with Mu'awiyah. the seceders from the ranks of Ali ibn Abi Talib, accused that Ali ibn Abi Talib and Mu'awiyah and their followers were infidels, because they had made mistakes and grave sins. The reason is, because they do not decide matters (fellowship, war) by God's law.

Characters of the Khawarij

Among the most important khawarij figures are:

Abdullah bin Wahab al-Rasyidi, the leader of the group when they gathered in Harura (the first Khawarij leader), Urwah bin Hudair, Mustarid bin Sa'ad, Hausarah al-Asadi, Quraib bin Maruah, Nafi' bin al-azraq (the leader of al-Azariqah ), Abdullah bin Bashir, Zubair bin Ali, Qathari bin Fujaah, Abd al-Rabih, Abd al Karim bin Ajrad, Zaid bin Asfar, Abdullah bin Ibad.

In general, the main teachings of the Khawarij are:
Muslims who commit major sins are infidels; and must be killed.
The people involved in the Jamal war (the war between Aisyah, Talhah, and Zubair, with Ali bin Abi tahAlib) and the perpetrators of tahkim - including those who accept and allow it - are infidels;
The caliph must be directly elected by the people.
The Caliph does not have to be of Arab descent. Thus every Muslim has the right to become Caliph if he meets the conditions.
The caliph is permanently elected as long as he is fair and carries out Islamic law, and is sentenced to death if he is wrongful.

The caliph before Ali was legitimate, but after the seventh year of his caliphate Uthman ra was considered to have deviated,

Caliph Ali was deemed deviant after Tahkim (Arbitration) took place.

2. Murji'ah sect

A "moderate" school that tries to see that people who commit major sins are still believers, because determining whether a major sin is or not is only God's prerogative. Thus, the matter of having disbelieved or remaining a believer is God's business, not human's. According to the root word 'raja-yarju', it means to postpone or postpone. Namely suspending the decision until the final day, and God as a judge in the future who will determine the case.

The main teachings of murji'ah can be concluded as follows: .
Faith Justifies (confession) in the Heart
Muslims who commit major sins are not punished as infidels. The Muslim remains a believer as long as he acknowledges the two sentences of shahadat.
The law against human actions is postponed until the Day of Judgment

Moderate murji'ah figures include Hasan bin Muhammad bin Ali bin Abi Talib, Abu Hanifah, Abu Yusuf and several hadith experts who believe that, no matter how great a person's sins are, the possibility of getting forgiveness from God still exists. While the extreme among others is the Jahmiyah group, followers of Jaham bin Shafwan. This group believes that even if a person declares himself to be a polytheist, that person is not punished as an infidel.
3. Mu'tazilah flow.

A 'rationalist' school holds the view that people who commit major sins are placed in a “neutral” position, namely the position between infidels and believers or not disbelievers but also non-believers. In Mu'tazilah teachings, this neutral position is called al-manzilah bain al-manzilatain (the position between two positions). One must not assume that evil and injustice, disbelief or sin come from God, because if He (God) creates injustice, then He will be unjust. Mu'tazilah also have an understanding of al-wa'd wa al-wa'id (promises and threats), that God will surely fulfill His promises and threats at the end of the day. In addition, there are the notions of al-Adl (justice), al-Tauhid (the Oneness of God), and al-'Amr bi al-Ma'ruf wa Nahy 'an Munkar (orders to do good and prohibition to stay away from evil).

Mu'tazilah figures

Among the figures who influenced the Mu'tazilah, namely:
Washil bin Atha'
Abu Huzail al-Allaf
Al Nazzam
Ahlussunah Wal Jamaah


4. Asy'ari flow

Opposition to the Mu'tazilah sect. This flow believes that human actions are God's creation, this understanding is called al-kasb. In carrying out the created actions, the power that exists in humans has no influence or effect. Asy'ariyah also rejected the Mu'atazilah understanding of al-wa'd wa al-wa'id (promises and threats), God's justice (al-'Adl). Especially towards the Mu'tazilah understanding of the 'neutral position' (al-manzilah bain al-manzilatain).

Two streams of "monsters" were born that are famous until now as analytical knives, namely Qadariah and Jabariah. Two streams whose views are always diametrically opposed. Qadariyah sees that humans are essentially creatures that have freedom in their will (free will) and their actions (free act). On the other hand, Jabariah thinks that humans have no will, and all their behavior is a compulsion from God, so his understanding is known as predestination or fatalism.
5. Shi'a sect.

This flow is a loyal follower of Ali ibn Abi Talib. His doctrinal understandings talk a lot about political issues. Regarding the Caliphate and Imamate, for example, that a leader must be free or protected from sin (ma'shum), and must have the lineage of Ali. , Ghulat, and Ismaili. Of the five groups, some have Mu'tazilah views, some have orthodox views, while others have anthropomorphic (tasybiyah) views.

Principles of Shia Thoughts

The Shiites have five main principles that adherents must believe in. The five principles are:
al Tawhid

The Shi'ites fully believe that God exists, the One, the only one, the place of dependence, all creatures, not beget, not begotten, and there is no one equal to him. And also they believe in the existence of God's attributes.
al 'adl

The Shiites have the belief that Allah is Most Just. Allah does not commit wrongdoing and bad deeds, he does not commit bad deeds because he forbids evil, denounces injustice and those who commit injustice.
al Nubuwwah

The Shia belief in the Prophets is no different from the beliefs of other Muslims. According to them, God sent a number of prophets and apostles to earth to guide mankind.
al imamah

According to the Shia, Imamah means leadership in religious and worldly affairs at the same time.
al ma'ad

Ma'ad means the place of return (afterlife), the Shi'ah fully believe in the existence of the hereafter, that the hereafter will surely occur.

6. Qadariyah stream

Qadariyah is rooted in qadara which can mean deciding and having strength or ability. While as a trend in the science of kalam, qadariyah is the name used for a trend that emphasizes the freedom and strength of humans in producing their actions. In the concept of qadariyah, humans are seen as having the power or strength to carry out their will, and not from the understanding that humans have to submit to qadar and qada. This trend is a trend that likes to prioritize reason and thought over the principles of the teachings of the Qur'an and the hadith itself

The principles of Qadariyah teachings

According to Dr. Ahmad Amin in his book Fajrul Islam page 297/298, the principles of predestination are:
The person who is a big sinner is not a disbeliever, and is not a believer, but a wicked person and the wicked will go to hell eternally.
Allah SWT. He did not create human deeds, but humans created them and because of that, humans will receive good recompense (heaven) for all their good deeds, and receive bad recompense (hell) for all their wrong deeds and sins. Because of that, Allah has the right to be called fair.

7. Salafiyah sect

In language, salafiyah comes from the word salaf which means earlier, what is meant here is the former people who were during the time of the Prophet SAW, the companions, the tabi'in, and the tabi'in tabi'in. while salafiyah means people who follow the salaf. The famous figure of the salaf scholars is Ahmad bin Hambal. His full name, Ahmad, bin Muhammad bin Hambal, he is also known as the founder and figure of the Hambali school of thought.

In the 20th century AD this movement emerged with a new dimension. The characters are Jamaluddin al Afgani, Muhammad Abduh and Rashid Ridha. The new salafiyah al afgani consists of 3 main components namely:
The belief that the progress and glory of Muslims is only possible if they return to pure Islamic teachings and return to pure Islamic teachings, and emulate the life principles of the Prophet's companions. This first component is an element that was owned by the previous salfiyah.

resistance to colonialism and western dominance, be it political, economic or cultural.
recognition of western excellence in science and technology. (alfara27)