Minggu, 15 Januari 2023

System of government, belief, science and technology of ancient civilizations in Africa

1. Government System

As a region based on large agriculture, Ancient Egypt was ruled by a Pharaoh. In the regions there are 20 provinces, each headed by a governor.

The Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt played the role of God Kings. Only in 2133 BC, Pharaoh was only recognized as "descendant of the gods". At first, Egypt was divided into two, namely Lower Egypt (Downstream/North) with its capital in Memphis and Upper Egypt (Upstream/South) with its capital in Thebe. Since Pharaoh Menes of House I (3100-2890 BC) came to power, the two Egypts could be united. This union is marked by the crown worn by Menes in the form of a two-tiered crown. This Menes celebration by his successors was developed by expansion into Sudan, Nubia and Libya.


During the reign of Dynasty III (2686-2613 BC), the government was held by Pharaoh Joser. At that time, Egypt succeeded in controlling the Lower Nubia area.

During the reign of House IV (2613-2494 BC), there were several prominent Pharaohs including Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure. At that time, Egypt was at war with Nubia and Libya. In 1674-1567 BC, Egypt was invaded and occupied by the Hyksos.

Furthermore, Ahmosis I of the XVIII dynasty (1567-1320 BC) succeeded in expelling the Hyksos and restoring the independence and glory of Egypt. Pharaoh Thutmosis III extended Egypt's dominion to the banks of the Euphrates River.

During the reign of the XX Dynasty (1200 BC), the glory of Egypt slowly began to fade. Several Asian colonies broke away, even in 524~04 BC, Egypt was ruled by the Persians. During the reign of the XXVII Dynasty (404-398 BC) the Persians were driven out of Egypt with the help of the Greeks.

In 332 BC, Alexander Macedonian invaded Asia and Egypt. Since then Egypt was ruled by Greece until the reign of the Ptolemaic dynasty (with its famous king, Cleopatra). Egypt fell to the Romans in 30 BC.

2. Trust

The religion of the Egyptians was polytheistic. The gods worshiped by the Egyptians included the god Amon-Ra (the sun-moon god), the god Osiris (the god of judgment in the afterlife), and the god Isis (the god of the rivers). They also believe that the soul of someone who dies will live on as long as the body remains intact. For this reason, the corpse is embalmed or preserved, which is called a mummy.

3. Science and Technology

In the field of science and technology, the people of Ancient Egypt were able to study and recognize the natural order of their environment. The ancient Egyptians, who lived from farming, had a lot of free time to gain knowledge about life, both material and spiritual. The ancient Egyptians believed that the spirits (souls) of people who had died would still live and inhabit their bodies, if their bodies were not damaged. Therefore, the body of the deceased is put in various herbs and spices and then wrapped in cloth so that it is in the form of a mummy that cannot be damaged or rotted.

The mummies of nobles and wealthy people were kept in tombs on rocks, which were decorated with sculptural paintings, while the mummies of kings were kept in very magnificent buildings called pyramids. The system of preservation and burial of the bodies shows that the people of Ancient Egypt were familiar with high science and technology.

4. Script

The ancient Egyptians already knew a script which was a sound symbol in the form of a pictograph script called hieroglyph script (sacred images/carvings). The script was found on the walls of the tombs of rulers in Ancient Egypt. Maybe the alphabet is an invaluable contribution of Egyptian society to the development of science.


hieroglyphic script is the oldest form, then developed into hieratic and demotic forms, which are simpler in form. The hieratic form was used by the clergy while the demotis was used by the people.

5. Astronomy and Calendar

In 2776 BC, the people of Ancient Egypt already knew a calendar based on the solar circulation system. The need for a calendar system is due to the Ancient Egyptians who lived from agriculture, which every year had to cope with flooding. They divided the year into 12 months and each month consisted of 30 days. They also know there is a leap year.

The Egyptians also knew astronomy or astrology which was closely related to agricultural life. For example, they use the stars as a benchmark to determine the season or time of planting and so on.

6. Building Art

The Ancient Egyptians were very skilled at making monumental buildings such as palaces, paradigm buildings, grain warehouses, even the most monumental ones were building temples to worship the gods, tombs of kings, and pyramids.

Temples to the gods were built in the upper reaches of the Nile from around Thebe by carving out rock cliffs. At first the royal tombs were just brick stilt-like structures called mastabas. However, since the time of the Ancient Egyptian Kingdom, the mummies of the kings were kept in pyramids of large stones. The pyramid building is considered the "home of immortality". The famous pyramids of Ancient Egypt were built in the Gizeh area as burials for the Pharaohs Khufu (Cheops), Khafre, and Menkaure. In front of these pyramids are placed sphinx statues (lion statues with human heads).

7. Cultural Relics

a. Hieroglyphic writing

Hieroglyphs were used continuously until the 5th century BC. However, because the Egyptians were suppressed by the Romans, the priests no longer had time to learn hieroglyphics, so they were eventually forgotten by the Egyptians.

Around 3000 BC, the kings of Egypt started building the pyramids. The largest pyramid is the pyramid of King Khufu (Cheops). The height of the pyramid reaches 137 meters and in front of it there is a sphinx statue, which is a lion with a human head.

b. Arithmetic

At first the Egyptians used very simple arithmetic, especially addition and subtraction. Next, multiply and divide. Their knowledge of geometry (geometry) has reached a level of expertise that is quite astonishing.

c. Sphinx

The Sphinx is a statue of a lion with a human head erected in front of a pyramid. The Sphinx is a symbol of power and reign of an Egyptian king who is buried in the pyramid.

d. Obelisk

The obelisk is a stone monument erected by the Egyptians to worship the god Arnon-Ra (the sun-moon god).

And. Mummi

Mummies are the preserved bodies of kings or nobles. The making of this mummy is based on the belief of the Egyptian people that the soul of a person who has died will continue to live on and be in his physical body if his physical body is not damaged.

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