Selasa, 10 Januari 2023

WORLD HISTORY From Time to Time COMPLETE from the Paleolithic era (old stone age) to the present. consisting of studies of archaeological records and written records,

World history

World history is the history of mankind throughout the world, in all regions of the Earth, traced from the Paleolithic era (old stone age). In contrast to Earth history (which includes the geological history of the Earth and the eras before human existence), world history consists of the study of archaeological records and written records, from ancient times to the present. Historical records began when scripts and writing systems were created, but the origins of civilization date back to the period before the creation of writing, or prehistoric times. Prehistory starts from the Paleolithic (old stone age), followed by the Neolithic (young stone age) and the Agricultural Revolution (between 8000–5000 BC) in the Fertile Crescent region. The revolution was a major turning point in human history because since then they have been able to cultivate plants and animals. Along with the development of agriculture, the nomad lifestyle changed to a sedentary lifestyle as farmers. The progress of agriculture resulted in the division of labor strata in the harvest business. The working strata led to the emergence of social strata and the development of cities. Many ancient cities developed on the banks of bodies of water (lakes and rivers) that could support life. By 3000 BC, civilization had emerged in the Mesopotamian valley (the plain between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers) in the Middle East, on the banks of the Nile River, Egypt, and in the Indus River valley. Apart from that, a civilization also appeared in the Yellow River valley. In places where ancient civilizations developed, the growth of increasingly complex societies led to the creation of scripts to facilitate administration and commerce. the nomad lifestyle changed to a sedentary lifestyle as a farmer. The progress of agriculture resulted in the division of labor strata in the harvest business. The working strata led to the emergence of social strata and the development of cities. Many ancient cities developed on the banks of bodies of water (lakes and rivers) that could support life. By 3000 BC, civilization had emerged in the Mesopotamian valley (the plain between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers) in the Middle East, on the banks of the Nile River, Egypt, and in the Indus River valley. Apart from that, a civilization also appeared in the Yellow River valley. In places where ancient civilizations developed, the growth of increasingly complex societies led to the creation of characters to facilitate administration and commerce. the nomad lifestyle changed to a sedentary lifestyle as a farmer. The progress of agriculture resulted in the division of labor strata in the harvest business. The working strata led to the emergence of social strata and the development of cities. Many ancient cities developed on the banks of bodies of water (lakes and rivers) that could support life. By 3000 BC, civilization had emerged in the Mesopotamian valley (the plain between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers) in the Middle East, on the banks of the Nile River, Egypt, and in the Indus River valley. Apart from that, a civilization also appeared in the Yellow River valley. In places where ancient civilizations developed, the growth of increasingly complex societies led to the creation of characters to facilitate administration and commerce. The working strata led to the emergence of social strata and the development of cities. Many ancient cities developed on the banks of bodies of water (lakes and rivers) that could support life. By 3000 BC, civilization had emerged in the Mesopotamian valley (the plain between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers) in the Middle East, on the banks of the Nile River, Egypt, and in the Indus River valley. Apart from that, a civilization also appeared in the Yellow River valley. In places where ancient civilizations developed, the growth of increasingly complex societies led to the creation of characters to facilitate administration and commerce. The working strata led to the emergence of social strata and the development of cities. Many ancient cities developed on the banks of bodies of water (lakes and rivers) that could support life. By 3000 BC, civilization had emerged in the Mesopotamian valley (the plain between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers) in the Middle East, on the banks of the Nile River, Egypt, and in the Indus River valley. Apart from that, a civilization also appeared in the Yellow River valley. In places where ancient civilizations developed, the growth of increasingly complex societies led to the creation of scripts to facilitate administration and commerce. civilizations had emerged in the Mesopotamian valley (the plain between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers) in the Middle East, on the banks of the Nile, Egypt, and in the valley of the Indus River. Apart from that, a civilization also appeared in the Yellow River valley. In places where ancient civilizations developed, the growth of increasingly complex societies led to the creation of characters to facilitate administration and commerce. civilizations had emerged in the Mesopotamian valley (the plain between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers) in the Middle East, on the banks of the Nile, Egypt, and in the valley of the Indus River. Apart from that, a civilization also appeared in the Yellow River valley. In places where ancient civilizations developed, the growth of increasingly complex societies led to the creation of characters to facilitate administration and commerce.

Cuneiform from Sumer (2600 BC), the most ancient writing system known so far. After the writing system was created, humans were finally able to record their history.

The history of the Old World (especially Europe and the Mediterranean) is generally divided into Antiquity, which dates from before 476 AD; The Middle Ages, from the 5th to the 15th centuries, includes the Golden Age of Islam (ca. 750 AD to c. 1258 AD) and the Early European Renaissance (beginning c. 1300 AD); The Early Modern Age, from the 15th to the late 18th century, includes the Age of Enlightenment; and the Late Modern Ages, from the time of the Industrial Revolution to the present, including contemporary history. In Western European history, the "Fall of Rome" in 476 AD is generally seen as marking the end of Antiquity and the beginning of the Middle Ages. In contrast, Eastern Europe saw a transition from the Roman Empire to the Byzantine Empire, which did not collapse until many centuries later. In the middle of the 15th century, the modern printing technique discovered by Johannes Gutenberg revolutionized methods of communication, and was instrumental in bringing to an end the Middle Ages and was a precursor in the Scientific Revolution. In the 18th century, the accumulation of knowledge and technology—especially in Europe—had reached a critical mass leading to the Industrial Revolution.

Elsewhere, including the Ancient Near East, Ancient China, and Ancient India, different historical ranges occurred. In the 18th century, due to extensive international trade and colonization, the histories of various civilizations became significantly intertwined (see: globalization). In about a quarter of a millennium, population growth rates, knowledge, technology, the economy, the rate of loss of weapons, and environmental damage have increased dramatically, posing a risk to the habitability of the Earth.
  • Prehistoric
Ancient human

Map of distribution of humans and hominids (about 100,000 to 1500 years ago).
Homo sapiens (since 195,000 years ago)
Neanderthals (600,000–30,000 years ago)
Early hominids (2.5–0.6 million years ago)

The results of molecular clock calculations indicate that the hominid lineage leading to Homo sapiens branched off into the chimpanzee (modern humans' closest living relative) about five million years ago. According to experts, the genus Australopithecine, which was likely the first ape to walk upright, gradually gave way to the genus Homo. One of its species, Homo erectus (1.9 million–10,000 years ago) was able to use simple wood and stone tools for thousands of years, and over time, the tools used continued to improve and become more complex. Evidence that the use of fire by H. erectus dates back 400,000 years is widely supported by scientists, while claims that date back much earlier are less accepted because they are unconvincing and incomplete.

In the Paleolithic range (2.6 million–10,000 years ago), Homo heidelbergensis—a descendant of H. erectus—spread across Africa and Europe 600,000 years ago, and became the ancestor of Neanderthals and modern humans. In the Middle Paleolithic (300,000–30,000 years ago), anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens) appeared on the African continent about 200,000 years ago. They developed a language and a conceptual repertoire for the systematic burial of deceased relatives and the adornment of the living. During this period, mankind worked as hunter-gatherers. Living in the hope of success in the hunt also gave birth to ancient beliefs, or religions. Early artistic expression can be found in cave paintings and carvings made of wood or stone. In general, early humans described their prey or hunting activities. In addition, they generally live a nomadic life, often moving from one place to another depending on the number of game animals where they live. They reached the Near East about 125,000 years ago. From the Near East, their populations spread eastward to South Asia about 50,000 years ago, and to Australia around 40,000 years ago, and for the first time, H. sapiens reached territory that had never been reached by H. erectus.

H. sapiens spread rapidly from Africa to the ice-free regions of Europe and Asia around 60,000 years ago. They achieved an upgrade in temperament about 50,000 years ago. They reached Europe around 43,000 years ago, and eventually they replaced the Neanderthal population that had earlier occupied the area. At that time there was a late glacial period, when the temperature of the northern hemisphere was very uninhabitable. Eventually humans inhabited most of the ice-free part of the Earth until the end of the glacial, about 12,000 years ago. East Asia was reached about 30,000 years ago. The exact timing of the migration to North America is disputed; possibly around 30,000 years ago, or perhaps later, around 14,000 years ago.

The emergence of civilization

An overview of artistic activities achieved by humans in ancient times. Painting by Paul Jamin (1853–1903).

Bison painting made in the Upper Paleolithic Era (50,000–10,000 BC) in the Altamira cave, Spain. Ancient paintings are archaeological records of conditions before mankind created a writing system.

Archaeological data indicates that the domestication of a number of animals and the cultivation of plants developed in several places around the world, starting from the Holocene period (about 12,000–11,500 years ago to the present). In the Middle East, agriculture developed in the Fertile Crescent region from around 10000–9000 BC; in Europe, there is evidence of the cultivation of wheat, sheep, goats, and pigs indicating food production activities in Greece and the Aegean around 7000 BC; in China, millet cultivation dates back to 8000 BC; in America, pumpkin was cultivated from 10000–8000 BC, while maize since 7500 BC. The transition from hunting to farming in this period is known as the Neolithic Revolution. Agriculture suitable for very dense populations, and in its management a stratum of workers is created because not the entire population is directly involved in agriculture. In the end, the harvest process and strata of workers were organized into a sovereign territory. Agriculture also produces a food surplus capable of supporting the lives of those not directly involved in food production.

The development of agriculture led humans to the founding of the world's first cities. The area is a center of commerce, factories, and political power that produces almost no food on its own. The city creates a symbiosis with the surrounding village. The city received food products from the village, and in return the city provided factory products and stratified military protection and control.

The development of cities meant the emergence of civilizations. Early civilizations appeared first in Upper Mesopotamia (3500 BC), followed by the Egyptian civilization along the Nile (3300 BC) and the Harappan civilization in the Indus river basin (present-day Pakistan; 3300 BC) ). These societies developed a number of characteristics in common, such as a central government, a complex social and economic structure, a sophisticated writing and language system, and a distinctive religion and culture. Script was another important development in human history, as it supported the administration of cities and made expressing ideas easier.
  • The birth of civilization
The Bronze Age is part of a three-age system (Stone Age, Bronze Age, Iron Age) that provides an effective historical description of ancient civilizations for several regions of the world. During this era—in the most fertile regions—city-states arose and early civilizations began to develop in several parts of the world. These civilizations were centered on fertile river valleys: the Tigris and Euphrates in Mesopotamia, the Nile in Egypt, the Indus in South Asia, and the Yangtze and Yellow rivers in China. The civilization in the river area was a strong civilization at that time because water was needed to build an agrarian society. Transportation is also facilitated by waterways, either by river or by sea.


The ruins of the ancient city of Ur in Iraq, one of the flourishing places of the Sumerian civilization (c. 3000 BC), with the ziggurat of Ur (reconstruction) in the background.
are: Mesopotamia and Sumer

Mesopotamia is a region in the Fertile Crescent region, where several city-states were founded in ancient times. The confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in the region creates fertile soil and a steady supply of water for irrigation. The civilizations that arose around the river are the oldest non-nomadic civilizations known so far. Because the Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, and Babylonian cultures emerged in the area, the theory that Mesopotamia was the birthday of civilization was accepted by many scientists.

Sumer, one of the civilizations that flourished in the Mesopotamia region, is the first complex civilization known so far, developing from several city-states in the 4th millennium BC. It was in this civilization that bricks, wheels, plows and pottery were created for the first time in history. The Sumerian civilization arose during the Ubaid (6500–3800 BC) and Uruk (4000–3100 BC) periods. Eridu is the oldest Sumerian site, settled during the early Ubaid period. Located a few miles southwest of Ur, Eridu was a melting pot of temple cities in Sumer (southern Mesopotamia) with ancient settlements in the region dating back to around 5000 BC. The Sumerians cultivated crops in the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. A food surplus triggers a division of labour. This is because not everyone goes into agriculture. Finally, strata are created in society, so that a social pyramid is formed. In the Sumerians, kings, priests, and government officials were at the top of the pyramid. Under them are officials, traders, farmers, and fishermen. The base of the pyramid is a place for slaves. Slaves were usually former prisoners, convicts, or people who were in debt.

In the Mesopotamia region, the earliest form of writing, namely cuneiform, appeared around 3000 BC. Cuneiform originated as a system of pictographs. These representational images gradually become simpler and more abstract. Cuneiform was written on clay tablets, and the letters were drawn with a reed that served as a stylus. With the creation of writing, the administration of a large country became easier. For the Sumerians, only the children of the rich and nobles had the right to read and write. They study in a place called edubba. Only boys who study at edubba are entitled to serve as clerks or clerks. The culture of writing has contributed to the historical record of the existence of this civilization. One of the world's oldest written works, the epic Gilgamesh, originates from this civilization.

In the 24th century BC, the Akkadian Empire was established in Mesopotamia. Several centuries later, the early Assyrian empire was established, followed by Babylon.

Nil River

Painting of farming activities, from Ancient Egypt, around 1200 BC. In the birthplaces of civilization, farming ended the period of hunting and nomadic living.

The watershed of the Nile in North Africa is where the civilization of Ancient Egypt developed. Around 6000 BC, the people of Pre-Kingdom Egypt (before the monarchy system was established in Egypt) were able to cultivate crops and herd livestock. Early attempts at visual communication can be observed from symbols found on pottery from Gerzeh, around 4000 BC, which resemble Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic characters. Mortar began to be used as early as 4000 BC, and clear glaze earthenware began to be produced as early as 3500 BC. Hospitals or medical service centers were established at least as far back as 3000 BC.

Archaeological evidence indicates human presence in southwest Egypt, near the Sudanese border, around 8000 BC. From around 7000–3000 BC, the climate of the Sahara was more humid than it is today, making it possible to cultivate crops on land that is now arid. Climate change after 3000 BC caused a gradual process of aridity in the region. As a result of these changes, the ancient tribes of the inhabitants of the Sahara were forced to move to the area around the Nile around 2500 BC. There they developed an agrarian economy and a more complex social system. The tribes that have long inhabited the banks of the Nile have also developed their own society. Livestock were imported from Asia between 7500 BC and 4000 BC.

The Ancient Egyptians are known for a number of achievements and discoveries in their history, among them the building of their colossal pyramids, ancient surgery, mathematics, and transportation by boat. The rise of the Egyptian dynasties began after the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt around 3200 BC, and ended around 340 BC, when the Achaemenid dynasty began to rule over Egypt. The Egyptian kingdom was ruled by a monarch with the title pharaoh. At the height of his power, his empire stretched from the delta of the Nile to Mount Jebel Barkal in Sudan.

Ancient Egyptian society depended on a balance of natural and human resources, especially the irrigation of the Nile which aided their agriculture. This nation is known as a user of hieroglyphic writing, builders of pyramids, temples and underground cemeteries, as well as users of chariots as a support for their military strength. There are great differences in class in society. Most of the community members are farmers but they are not entitled to the agricultural products they cultivate. Agricultural produce belonged to the state, temple, or noble family who owned the farm. Slavery also existed, but its application to ancient Egyptian society is unclear.

Indus River Valley

Region of the Indus River valley civilization, with present-day state boundaries. Most of it is the territory of Pakistan, and parts of Iran, Afghanistan and India.

The Indus Valley Civilization or Harappan Civilization occurred around 3300 BC, and its earliest stages occurred before 4000 BC. The civilization was centered on the area around the Indus river (most of which was Pakistan, and a small part was Afghanistan, Iran and India), stretching eastward to the Ghaggar-Hakra river valley and its headwaters reaching the Ganges-Yamuna. the coast of Makran in Balochistan, northwards to Southeastern Afghanistan and southwards to Daimabad in Maharashtra. The development of this civilization was divided into several stages and marked the development of cities in the Indian subcontinent. It was in this area of ​​civilization that the first agricultural activities in South Asia took place. Wheat, barley and jujuba were cultivated around 9000 BC; sheep and goat cultivation followed later. The cultivation of barley and wheat as well as animal husbandry, particularly sheep and goats, flourished in Mehrgarh around 8000–6000 BC. During this period the domestication of elephants also occurred. Around the 5th millennium BC, an agrarian society spread across the Kashmir region. At burial sites from this civilization era, items that could have been produced at that time were found: baskets, stone and bone tools, necklaces, chains, and earrings. earrings. Trinkets and ornaments from seashells, limestone, turquoise, lapis lazuli, sandstone and copper were also found. an agrarian society spread across the Kashmir region. At the burial sites from this civilization era, items that could have been produced at that time were found, namely: baskets, stone and bone tools, necklaces, chains, and earrings. Trinkets and ornaments from seashells, limestone, turquoise, lapis lazuli, sandstone and copper were also found. an agrarian society spread across the Kashmir region. At the burial sites from this civilization era, items that could have been produced at that time were found, namely: baskets, stone and bone tools, necklaces, chains, and earrings. Trinkets and ornaments from seashells, limestone, turquoise, lapis lazuli, sandstone and copper were also found.

Within this civilization, several large cities developed, including: Harappa (3300 BC), Dholavira (2900 BC), Mohenjo-Daro (2500 BC), Lothal (2400 BC), and Rakhigarhi, as well as more than 1000 small towns and villages. Cities during this civilization were known for their brick-built architecture, roadside drainage systems, and terraced housing. The large cities were about a mile wide, and the large distances between cities were most likely a sign of political centralization, either in the form of two city-states, or a single empire with an alternative capital, or perhaps Harappa replaced Mohenjo-Daro, which it is known to have been destroyed by flash floods more than once. The Indus river valley civilization was also known for its use of decimal fractions in the ancient system of measurement.

By the end of the 1st millennium BC, the development of the Indus valley civilization entered the Vedic period, according to estimates of the time when the Rigveda (c. 1700 BC to 1100 BC) was composed, a collection of religious hymns that became the foundation for Hinduism and other cultural aspects of early Indian society. The exact date of this period is not known, and its end is estimated to be around the 6th century BC. In that period there was already a religion that became the pioneer for Hinduism as it is known today.

Yellow River Valley

The area where Chinese civilization developed during the Shang dynasty (c. 1500 BC), 
scattered around the Yellow river valley.

Early Chinese culture began not far from the Yellow River area (as well as the Yangtze River) because around that area many prehistoric Chinese remains were found. The oldest Neolithic cultures found in China include Pengtoushan(Yangtze river) and Peiligang (Yellow river); they all date back to about 7000 BC or before that. The period of the Pengtoushan culture is difficult to pinpoint and estimates vary between 9000 BC and 5500 BC; At the cultural site, rice remains were found dating from 7000 BC. At the ancient site of Jiahu found some evidence of rice cultivation. Another important find at Jiahu is an ancient flute, dating from 7000 BC to 6600 BC. Peiligang is one of the oldest cultures in China that produces pottery. Both Pengtoushan and Peiligang develop millet cultivation, animal husbandry, food storage and distribution. Archaeological evidence also indicates the presence of artisans and workers during this Neolithic culture.

The pictographs thought to have pioneered the Chinese writing system date back to a period as old as farming and animal husbandry in China. At Jiahu, a number of pictographs known as the symbols of Jiahu were found. These pictographs are not considered to be a complete writing system, but rather symbols that led to the creation of the writing system. In Damaidi, Ningxia, there are thousands of carvings on cliffs dating from 6000–5000 BC, showing about 8000 pictographs such as the sun, moon, stars, gods, and scenes of hunting and farming. The pictographs are similar to the Old Chinese characters known so far.

The Peiligang period was replaced by the Yangshao period (c. 5000–3000 BC). The cultural influence covers the North China region. This culture was replaced by the Longshan culture around 2500 BC. At archaeological sites such as Sanxingdui and Erlitou, there is evidence of Bronze Age civilization in China. Bronze knives in their earliest form from 3000 BC were found at the Majiayao site in Gansu and Qinhai provinces.

According to Chinese historical records, the Yellow River was used for irrigation around 2200 BC by Yu the Great, the founder of the semi-mythological Xia Dynasty. The Xia dynasty (c. 2100 BC to 1600 BC) is the first dynasty mentioned in Chinese historical records, among them Sima Qian's Records of the Grand Historian and the Bamboo Annals. Sima Qian stated that the dynasty was founded around 2200 BC, but this date is not certain. Today many archaeologists link the existence of the Xia Dynasty with excavations in Henan province, where bronze furniture was found dating back to 2000 BC.

The first recognized historical dynasty was the Shang Dynasty, founded around 1500 BC. Archaeological evidence for the existence of the Shang Dynasty in the form of bronze artefacts and oracle bones, namely tortoise shells or ox lemus bones inscribed with ancient Chinese characters, were found in the Huang He valley in Yin, the capital of the Shang dynasty. A Shang Dynasty tortoise shell dating to 1500 BC, calculated using radiocarbon dating techniques. The Shang dynasty was replaced by the Zhou dynasty, around the 11th century BC. The end of the Zhou dynasty was the birth time of two famous Chinese philosophers, namely Confucianism (founder of Confucianism) and Laozi (founder of Taoism).

Ancient Greek

Parthenon on the Athenian Acropolis, built around 500 BC, icon of Ancient Greek civilization.

In the Franchthi Caves in Peloponnesia, southeast of the Argolids, there is evidence of ancient agricultural activities in Greece. From about 11,000 BC, cultivation of grains, legumes, and cereals occurred at the same time, while oats and barley appeared around 10,500 BC, and peas and pears from around 7300 BC. Neolithic settlements were scattered throughout Greece, with activities including agriculture and pottery production. Prominent sites such as Sesklo and Dimini, already have streets and squares. This makes it an example of spatial planning of ancient cities in mainland Europe. Another important site is Dispilio, where ancient tablets were found with strokes like ancient writing.

The Minoan civilization was the first Bronze Age civilization in Greece. This civilization arose on the island of Crete and flourished around 2700 BC to 1500 BC, but its initial development occurred long before that. The island of Crete began to be inhabited by humans from at least 128000 BC, during the Middle Paleolithic. Signs of more sophisticated agricultural activities, as early as civilization, appear around 5000 BC. The existence of this civilization was forgotten, before being discovered in the early 20th century by British archaeologist, Sir Arthur Evans. Will Durant views this civilization as "the first link in the European chain."

The Lion's Gate at Mycenae, built in the 13th century BC.

The Mycenaean civilization flourished across northern Crete from about 1600 BC, when the Helladic culture of mainland Greece was transformed under the influence of the Minoan culture of Crete. Unlike the Minoans, who relied on trade, the Mycenaeans preferred conquest. The Mycenaean civilization was dominated by a chivalrous aristocracy. Around 1400 BC, the Mycenaeans extended their reach to Crete, the center of the Minoan civilization (which was at the time experiencing the catastrophic eruption of Santorini), and adopted a form of the Minoan script called Linear A to write Ancient Greek; the script developed during the Mycenaean civilization was later called Linear B. Greek legend says that the Mycenaeans conquered not only the Minoans, but also the city-state of Troy, mentioned in the epic Iliad as a rival to Mycenaean power. Since the only historical record of the conflict is Homer's Iliad, the history of Troy and the Trojan War is uncertain. In 1876, the German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann discovered ruins at Hissarlik, including the western region of Asia Minor (now Turkey) and claimed it as the former city of Troy. The certainty of this location as Troy as told by Homer is still debated.

Greek culture had a profound influence on later European civilizations, especially the Roman civilization. The Greeks developed what is now known as a city-state, or polis. The word "politics" comes from this concept, which literally means everything related to the policy. There were many polis in Ancient Greece; some of the most notable of them: Athens, Sparta, Corinth, and Thebes. The cities did not have an intense relationship with each other, due to Greece's mountainous landscape and many islands. When a city no longer has enough food to meet the needs of its entire population, some people leave the city to build a new city. The new city became known as the colony. Each city was independent, and ruled by someone within that city. Colonies also forged relationships with their hometowns for protection. When mainland Greece was threatened with war (for example against the Persian empire), alliances between city-states formed to respond to the threat. In addition, wars can also occur between different city-states.

Andes Mountains

One of the relics of the Norte Chico civilization is the ruins of the Pyramids 
Carals in the Supe Valley, Peru.

The civilizations of the Andean plains that stretch across South America consisted of various cultures that flourished from the highlands of Colombia to the Atacama desert. The most prominent culture is the culture of Ancient Peru and other cultures around Peru, such as Tiahuanaco in Bolivia. In the Ayacucho valley, at the site of Pikimachay, archaeological research has revealed evidence of human presence there from 22,200 to 14,700 years ago, but this result is still in doubt and a more conservative period, namely 12,000 BC, is recognized. At the Pikimachay site there is evidence of the cultivation of plants, for example the water gourd, dating back 11,000 years. Plant remains indicate that before 3000 BC, amaranth, cotton, squash, cutema, and quinoa were cultivated in the Ayacucho basin. Since 4000 BC,

In the Buena Vista area, a temple-like observatory building was established 4200 years ago. The building contains beautiful carvings and life-size statues, which seem unique because the surrounding culture still creates two-dimensional reliefs at that period. Meanwhile on the Ventarron site, Lambayeque Region, there is a temple decorated with murals that are 4000 years old.

As far as archaeological research goes, the oldest civilizations in the western hemisphere in general, and in South America in particular, are the Norte Chico civilization or the Caral Supe civilization (3200–1800 BC) which left archaeological evidence of settlements on the Peruvian coast, including the city centers at Aspero and caral. The existence of an ancient quipu (a medium of communication of the Andean people) in Caral indicates that the use of this object dates back to ancient times. The rock pyramid at the site is thought to be a contemporary of the Great Pyramid of Giza. Norte Chico has found no evidence of fortifications or signs of battle, unlike in other Andean towns.

Archaeologically, Norte Chico is a pre-ceramic culture of the Late Antiquity Period of the Pre-Columbian era; This civilization did not leave ceramics and the traces of art left behind are almost invisible. Their stunning feats of monumental architecture, including tumulus and sunken circular plazas. Archaeological evidence indicates the use of textile technology and possibly the worship of deity symbols. An advanced government is thought to have been formed to rule ancient Norte Chico.


The colossal head of the Olmec culture.

Mesoamerica was the region of North America, which today includes Mexico and the Caribbean. As complex civilizations arose in the Eastern Hemisphere, most of the indigenous peoples of the Americas lived relatively simple lives for a time, and splintered into distinct regional cultures. During the Formative Stage or Preclassic Era in Mesoamerica (c. 1800 BC to 200 AD), more complex and centralized civilizations began to develop, especially in what is now Mexico and the Caribbean. The civilizations that existed at that time were the Olmec Civilization (1400 BC), Zapotec (600 BC), Early Maya (before 200 AD), and others. The nations of Mesoamerica at that time were able to develop agriculture well, for example planting corn and other typical American crops, as well as creating a special culture and religion.

For many years, the Olmec culture was considered the 'mother culture' to Mesoamerica, due to the great influence it exerted on the region. Olmec cultural center was located on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico, territory of the present-day states of Veracruz and Tabasco. Olmec culture became a historical milestone for Mesoamerican history, because the treasures of Mesoamerican culture first appeared there, including: state organizations, development of the 260-day ceremonial calendar and calendar secular 365 days, the first script in Mesoamerica, and urban planning. The development of this culture began around 1600–1500 BC. Olmec cultural sites include: La Venta, San Lorenzo, and Tres Zapotes.

Among the Native American civilizations prior to the arrival of Europeans, the Mayan civilization had the most systematic script. They demonstrated outstanding achievements in art and architecture and were familiar with advanced mathematical and astronomical systems. The place where the Maya civilization developed has been touched by humans since around the 10th millennium BC. The first Mayan settlements were built there around 1800 BC, in the Soconusco area. At present it is the territory of Chiapas in Mexico, on the coast of the Pacific ocean. At that time, humans in the area began to settle permanently. They created farming systems and stockpiled food. Pottery and clay trinkets were also made. They have been able to build a burial mound. The mound developed into a stepped punden. The extent of the Maya civilization is less clear.

Ancient Times

The year timeline below shows an estimate. 

Early religion

The ruins of Göbekli Tepe in Turkey, the oldest shrine in the world, are proof that religion has existed 
existed since ± 10,000 BC.

As civilization developed towards more complex forms, so did religion, and the earliest forms of variety appear to have started during this period. Natural objects such as the Sun, Moon, Earth, sky, and sea were often deified. Sanctuaries were established, and developed into the construction of temples, complete with a complex hierarchy of priests and other offices. Typical of the Neolithic age was the tendency to worship anthropomorphic gods. Based on excavations at the Göbekli Tepe ("Fat Belly Hill") temple complex in southern Turkey dating back 11,500 years, archaeologists think that the existence of religion predates the Agricultural Revolution rather than emerge after it began, as is commonly assumed.

The Egyptians are one of the oldest nations who have a religion and adhere to a tradition of polytheism. The main Egyptian gods include: Ra, Osiris, Horus and Anubis. One of the oldest books of the Ancient Egyptians, as well as ancient religious texts that are still preserved, are the Pyramid Texts, a collection of texts made around 2400–2300 BC. the worship of one god called Aten; that tradition is known as Atenism. Previously Aten was known as an aspect of Ra, the sun god; the oldest record of Aten is found in the Sinuhe Acts from the Twelfth Dynasty period of Egypt. Aten became a deity worshiped exclusively during Akhenaten's reign. After his reign ended,

Pyramid texts inscribed in the tomb of Pharaoh Teti at Saqqara, c.2400–2300 BC.

In Mesopotamia, kings were considered as God's right hand (theocracy) so that they acted as political and spiritual leaders. To the west of Mesopotamia, including Canaan, was the home of various ancient peoples, such as Phoenicians, Hittites, Philistines, Arameans, and Jews. They worshiped various gods and goddesses, but notable among them were Asherah, Ashtoreth, and Baal. In addition, each tribe worships its own god who is the protector of the tribe. According to the theory put forward by Sigmund Freud, athenic followers left Egypt and settled in Canaan, mingled with the native peoples there and formed a monotheistic Jewish faith gradually. -5 BC, the idea emerged to define the concepts of monotheism, prophecy, and God's law. The faith of the Jewish people was a completely new concept at that time, unlike the people around them who embodied worship in the form of statues. However, Mesopotamian mythology influenced the formation of Jewish beliefs, such as the creation myth of Adam and the flood myth.

Worship of natural personifications such as Agni (fire), Baruna (sea), and Dyaus Pita (sky) occurred in India around the 1st millennium BC.[100] This tradition developed into the Old Vedic religion or Brahmanism. Besides these traditions, there is a different tradition called Samana, which places greater emphasis on meditation and tapa brata. This tradition emphasizes understanding the nature of the self, enlightenment through experience, and not being attached to society; different from the brahmanas from the Brahmanism tradition who place more emphasis on implementing the teachings of sacred literature and holding rituals. Later, Brahmanism developed into Hinduism and the various sects within it, while Samana gave birth to Buddhism and Jainism.

In East Asia, humans begin to realize the harmonization of nature, respect their ancestors who have passed on prosperity to them, and begin to understand their true nature. This sparked the emergence of various philosophies, among them Taoism and Confucianism.

Time Poros


Siddhartha Gautama

Kong Hu Cu

Three philosophers of the Axis Age who spread their teachings in three different parts of the world without knowing one another. Their teachings still survive and are studied today.

The Axis Age, according to the German philosopher Karl Jaspers, was the age when revolutionary thought emerged in China, India, Persia and the Western World during the period between the 8th and 2nd centuries BC. At that time there was a transformative development of philosophical and religious ideas in various parts of the world and most of them occurred independently.

In India there was the development of three religions: Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. Present-day Hinduism is a development of Brahmanism (1500–500 BC) or the "Pre-Hindu Vedic Religion", and the compilation of the Rigveda (the oldest scripture for Hindus, part of the four Vedas) dates back to 1100 BC. Compilation of the Upanishads, i.e. supplements for the Vedas allegedly occurred in the period 900–800 BC.

In the 6th century BC, in North India, Siddhartha Gautama of the Sakya tribe spread Buddhism or Buddhism which is part of the Samana tradition, parallel but different from the forerunners of Hinduism. Like Hinduism, Buddhism also recognizes karma, reincarnation and ahimsa, but rejects the existence of God and the caste system. In the 5th century BC, another part of Samana, namely Jainism was spread by Mahavira. His predecessor was Pārśva (9th century BC), who was also the leader of Jainism according to the Jains. Like Buddhism, Jainism also denies the existence of God. Among the three religions, Hinduism predominates in India, while Buddhism is more developed in East and Southeast Asia, while Jainism is the minority religion.

In East Asia, three schools of philosophy have dominated Chinese thought to this day. The three are Legalism (8th century BC), Taoism (6th century BC), and Confucianism (6th century BC). Legalism is a philosophy that prioritizes the legal system rather than higher thoughts such as nature and the purpose of life. Meanwhile, Taoism teaches harmony between humans and nature, initiated by Laozi and his teachings are summarized in the Daode Jing. Although he lived in the 6th century BC, there are allegations that Daode Jing was composed between the 4th and 3rd centuries BC. The teachings of Confucianism (Confucianism) initiated by Confucianism, which later gained dominance, sought political morality not for coercion but for strength and exemplary tradition. Confucian teachings spread to the Korean peninsula to the Japanese islands which still adhere to shamanism and other traditional beliefs. The Society of Jesus in China in the 16th and 17th centuries viewed Confucianism as an ethical system, not a religion, so that it would not contradict and would be in line with Christianity. However, some groups viewed ancestral veneration in China as contrary to Christian teachings, so now its practice is no longer recommended for Chinese Christians.

In West Asia, there was the beginning of monotheism in Canaan and Persia. In Canaan, the Jews worshiped a God called Yahweh. Meanwhile, monotheism in ancient Persia recognized the concept of the one and only divinity, known as Ahura Mazda. Ahura Maza has an opposition called Angra Mainyu, a destructive spirit, a manifestation of darkness and evil. In the Mediterranean, the philosophical traditions of the Ancient Greeks, represented by Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, spread throughout Europe and the Middle East in the 4th century BC due to the conquests of Alexander III of Macedon, better known as Alexander the Great.

Timeline of the emergence of religion and philosophy in the Axis Age (VIII–II century BC)

The development of civilizations and empires

Mural depicting the Siege of Kitchen (1269 BC) in the temple of Ramses II, 
describes the use of chariots in ancient times.

Prior to AD 500 (6th century), some areas of the world experienced a slow but steady advance in technology, with notable developments such as the stirrup and the tengga. Ancient civilizations began to interact with each other in terms of trade, religion or military expansion. The Mediterranean Sea (Mediterranean), spanning three continents, fostered the development of military power and the exchange of commodities, new ideas and inventions of surrounding civilizations. Trade increasingly developed into a source of power as states that had access to important resources or controlled important trade routes would rise and dominate.

In some areas, there was a period of rapid development marked by the building of colossal monuments, the production of the wheel, and the development of the state administration system; notable was the Mediterranean region during the Hellenistic period, when hundreds of technologies were created. The technology plays a role in military advancement; territorial expansion and annexation of territories began to occur, such as the Battle of Kadesh and the Siege of Dapur in the 13th century BC between the Egyptians and the Hittites.

The unification of the conquered areas continued in the emergence of empires and empires, the manifestation of the hegemony of a nation and the expansion of a sovereign territory. Extensive civilizations can bring peace and stability to large areas, for example the Pax Romana period of the Romans. After centuries of development, river valley civilizations in various parts of the world demonstrated their glory with the founding of empires. During the millennium from 500 BC to 500 AD, a series of empires of unprecedented size had developed. A well-trained professional army, a unifying ideology, and a more developed bureaucracy gave emperors the opportunity to govern vast areas whose population could number ten thousand or more.

North Africa (2500 BC–500 AD)

The Sphinx and Great Pyramid of Giza from Ancient Egypt, built around 2500 BC.

Around 2500 BC, the Kingdom of Kerma developed in the Nubia region (between Sudan and Egypt). The Kerma culture is an agrarian culture like Egypt; they developed agriculture, animal husbandry, and became trading partners for Egypt. Around 1500 BC, the kingdom was annexed by the Egyptians and became part of the New Kingdom of Egypt. In the 11th century BC, the Nubians established the Kingdom of Kush in southern Egypt, in the former territory of the Kerma Kingdom, which would last until the 4th century AD. Ancient Egypt reached its heyday during the New Kingdom period, under the feuding Ramesses with the Hittites, Assyrians and Mitanni. After that, Egypt experienced a gradual collapse. Egypt was invaded and conquered by a series of foreign powers, including tribes from Canaan/Hyksos, Libya, Nubia, Assyria, Babylon, Persia, and Macedonia.

In the 6th century BC, Cambysus II conquered Egypt, bringing down the 26th Dynasty of Egypt. The succession crisis occurred after he fell ill and died. Darius I acted as his successor, based on his claim to be the heir to the Achaemenid line. Darius set his first capital at Susa, and started a building project at Persepolis. He rebuilt the canal between the Nile and the Red Sea. He improvised an extensive road system, and other major reforms occurred during the reign of Darius. After the death of Darius II in 404 BC, the Egyptians revolted. Then the Egyptian pharaohs managed to thwart the Persian attempts to reconquer Egypt, until finally Artahshashta III succeeded in doing so.

In 332 BC, Alexander the Great of Macedonia conquered Egypt with little resistance from the Persians. After Alexander's death, one of his generals, Ptolemy Soter, installed himself as the new ruler of Egypt. The administration established by Alexander's successors, the Ptolemaic dynasty, followed the Egyptian model and had its capital in Alexandria. The city displayed the power and prestige of Hellenistic government, and was a place of learning and culture, centered on the famous Alexandrian library. This Greek dynasty ruled Egypt until 30 BC. Under Cleopatra, Egypt fell to the Roman Empire and became a Roman province.

In the 1st century AD, in the Horn of Africa, in what is now Ethiopia, the Empire of Aksum declared itself a great trading empire, dominating its neighbors in South Arabia and controlling trade in the Red Sea. To the west, the Kingdom of Kush survived until the 4th century AD, when it was replaced by the Empire of Aksum. The Empire of Aksum minted its own currency and carved monolithic steles like the Obelisk of Aksum to mark the tombs of its emperors.

America (2000 BC–500 AD)

Bison hunting painting, by George Catlin.

Before contact with Europeans, the native peoples of North America divided into a number of different societies, from small clans to large empires. They lived in several cultural areas, which corresponded to geographic and biological zones, and were indicative of the way of life or work of the people who lived there (eg bison hunters in the Great Plains, or farmers in Mesoamerica). The archaic period in the Americas saw environmental changes that brought a drier, warmer climate and the extinction of some megafauna. Previously the majority of the population group at that time was still hunter-gatherers; eventually individual groups began to focus on the local resources available to them. Regional adaptation gave birth to norms, with less reliance on hunting and gathering,

Mesoamerican regional kingdoms were established from about 2000 B.C. There, extensive pre-Columbian societies were forming, notably the Mayans and Aztecs. As Olmec culture gradually waned, the great Mayan city-states gradually expanded in numbers and prominence, and Mayan culture spread across the Yucatán peninsula and the surrounding area. The Aztec Empire was later built by neighboring cultures and influenced by conquered tribes such as the Toltecs.

By 2000 BC, a number of agricultural communities had settled around the Andes and the surrounding region. Fishing is a common activity along the coast so that fish is a staple food. Irrigation systems also developed during this period, which supported the creation of an agrarian society. Cultivated crops include quinoa, maize, lima beans, mung beans, peanuts, manioc, cassava, potatoes, oca, and squash. Cotton is also cultivated and is considered important as the only major fiber crop.

The East (1000 BC–500 AD)

The East refers to the Asian region and the social structure and society in that region. The area saw the development of the Indus and Yellow river valley civilizations, respectively in the Indian subcontinent (present-day India or most of South Asia) and the Far East (present-day China and its environs), dating back to more than 3000 BC. Meanwhile, migrations are still occurring in other parts of Asia and older civilizations are influencing the surrounding areas. In the period between 1000 BC to 500 AD, in several other Asian regions—such as Sri Lanka, Mainland Southeast Asia, the Malay Peninsula, Indonesia, the Philippines, Taiwan—independent cultures emerged and interacted with civilizations that had developed earlier in terms of technology, art, and trust. As Hinduism and Buddhism spread, several kingdoms emerged in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia. In remote and remote places, ancient peoples still migrated and lived as food hunter-gatherers.

In the 1st millennium BC, several monarchies existed at various points in Asia. At the start of the millennium, the Zhou dynasty was established in China, replacing the Shang dynasty. It was the first dynasty in Chinese history to introduce the concept of Mandate of Heaven as the legitimacy of power. During the same period, the kingdom of Gojoseon existed in Korea (until 108 BC); the Japanese archipelago is still in the Jomon Period which lasted from 14,000 BC; in the Indian subcontinent, human civilization was still in the Vedic period.

Indian subcontinent

The domain of the Mauryan Empire (dark blue) at its widest 
(265 BC), including his vassals (light blue).

During the Vedic period (c. 1700 BC–500 BC) in South Asia, various kingdoms known as the Mahajanapada (sixteen major states) existed in different parts of India around 600 BC, mostly scattered in North India; some of these were the Kingdoms of Kuru, Kasi, Kosala, Awanti, Angga, and Magadha. Historical records of these kingdoms are found in Hindu and Buddhist literature. Several centuries later, these kingdoms were conquered by Mahapadma Nanda of the Magadha kingdom. His conquered territory stretched from the Bay of Bengal to the Arabian Sea. Around 300 BC, the Nanda realm was conquered by Chandragupta Maurya, triggering the establishment of the Mauryan Empire. In the 3rd century BC,

The Satawahana dynasty, also known as the Andhra dynasty, ruled over South and Central India after 230 BC. Satakarni the sixth king of the Satawahana Dynasty conquers the Sunga Kingdom in North India. Then Kharavela, king of Kalinga, ruled over a Jaina kingdom, which had maritime trading routes with Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, Borneo, Sumatra, and Java. Immigrants from Kalinga settled in Sri Lanka, the Maldives and a number of islands in Southeast Asia. Meanwhile to the north, in the Himalayan region, the Kuninda Kingdom was founded in the 2nd century BC, and lasted until the 3rd century AD.

Mixed cultures in Southwest India include Indo-Greek, Indo-Sithian, Indo-Parthian and Indo-Sassanian. The first, the Indo-Greek Empire, was founded by King Demetrius who invaded the region in 180 BC, and expanded his realm into present-day Afghanistan and Pakistan. The Indo-Sithians were a branch of the Saka people who migrated from Southern Siberia, first to Bactria, then Sogdia, Kashmir, Arakhosia and Gandhara, eventually reaching India. The Indo-Parthian Empire (also known as the Pahlava Dynasty), came to rule most of Afghanistan and Northern Pakistan, after defeating the region's kings, among them Kujala of Kushana. The Sassanid Empire of Persia expanded its territory to Balochistan in Pakistan,

The Indian Classical Age occurred when large parts of the Indian subcontinent were unified into the Gupta Empire (c. 320–550 BC). This period is also called the Golden Age of India and is marked by a number of accomplishments in science, technology, engineering, art, dialectics, literature, logic, mathematics, astronomy, religion and philosophy that defined elements of what is commonly known as Hindu culture. The decimal number system, including the concept of zero, was created in India during this period. The peace and prosperity created under the Gupta Dynasty made it possible to pursue scientific and artistic achievements in India.

Dynasties such as the Pandya, Chola, Chera, Kadamba, Western Ganges, Pallawa and Chalukya dominated the southern part of the Indian subcontinent at different periods. Several kingdoms in the south formed maritime empires that stretched to Southeast Asia. These kingdoms fought with each other, as well as with the Deccan sultanates for dominance in the south. The Kalabra dynasty succeeded in dominating the Chola, Chera and Pandya dynasties in the south.

East Asia

The Great Wall of China north of Beijing. The wall is a form of defense of Chinese civilization in response to the threat of nomadic tribes from Central Asia. Built during the Warring States Period (800–500 BC), it was renovated during the Qin dynasty (221 BC) and subsequent dynasties .

Around the 8th century BC, the Zhou Dynasty decentralized power in China. As a result, new countries have sprung up on the Chinese mainland. To the northeast of China, stands the kingdom of Gojoseon which appears in Chinese historical records since the 7th century BC. To the south stands another kingdom named Jin. In the following eras, the kingdom established relations with the Han dynasty in China and exported artifacts to Japan

In 476 BC, a civil war broke out in China, known as the Warring States Period. Although the Zhou dynasty was overthrown in 256 BC, civil wars continued until 221 BC. The end of the civil war was marked by the conquest of the countries of the plains of China by Ying Zheng of the state of Qin (after becoming emperor, he changed his name to Qin Shi Huang). The dynasty he inherited was called the Qin Dynasty. The dynasty was overthrown in 206 BC due to a popular uprising, and was replaced by the Han dynasty. The Han dynasty developed advanced cartography, shipbuilding, and navigation. Among the other empires during the classical period, the Han Dynasty was more advanced in government, education, mathematics, astronomy, and technology.

During the Han Dynasty, there was a power struggle in the Korean Peninsula, which at that time was the territory of the Kingdoms of Gojoseon and Jin. In 194 BC, the Kingdom of Gojoseon was replaced by Wiman Joseon after a coup d'état occurred. In 108 BC, Han Dynasty troops came to conquer Wiman Joseon and formed the Four Han Commanderies. However, all of them were taken back by the Koreans. In the 1st century, In the former region of Gojoseon, there were competitive states in the Three Kingdoms of Korea period (Goguryeo, Baekje, Silla). Apart from fighting with each other, each kingdom was involved in a war with its neighboring country: China. The war between China and one of the kingdoms in Korea occurred from the period of the Han Dynasty to the Tang Dynasty (7th century).

From the steppes of Central Asia (southwest of China), horse-riding nomads posed a threat to the Chinese empire. The development of stirrups and the breeding of horses strong enough to transport heavily armed archers, so the nomads posed a constant threat to the settled Chinese civilization. Along with its military expansion efforts, the Han Dynasty often clashed with the Xiongnu, nomads from Central Asia. These disputes were often resolved by peaceful agreements and often recurred. Imperial China was briefly replaced by the short-lived Xin dynasty, before returning to the Han dynasty.

Horse carriage detail on bronze mirror from China shipped to Japan. 
Remains from the Kofun period (250 BC–538 AD), found in Kikusui-machi, Kumamoto.

Between 1000 BC and 400 BC, when various dynasties were established in China, and Gojoseon was founded in Korea, the Japanese archipelago was still in the Jomon Period. It was replaced by the Yayoi Age which lasted from 400 BC (5th century BC) to 250 AD. The Yayoi Period was replaced by the Kofun Age, as many kofun (tumulus) have been found from this period. The founding period of the Yamato Dynasty, namely the lineage of Japanese emperors is still unclear because it is mixed with legends; The last semi-mythological emperor was Emperor Ojin, and the reigns of earlier emperors have not been archaeologically proven. So far, historical records of Japan's early state are found in ancient texts such as the Nihon Shoki which are filled with legends.

After China fell into civil war in 220 (3rd century), the empire split into three major powers—Wei, Shu, and Wu—in the period known as the Age of Three Kingdoms (220–280). After the end of the Three Kingdoms Age, China was reunited under the Jin dynasty (265–420). According to Chinese historical records (the Book of Jin and the Book of Song), five monarchs from Japan sent tribute to the Chinese Emperor from among the Jin dynasty at the time (5th century). According to these records, Japan was referred to as "Wa" (倭).

Nomads re-invaded China in the 4th century AD, and succeeded in conquering North China and establishing small kingdoms. After the Jin dynasty collapsed, China fell into a period of civil war and was divided into sixteen states that conquered each other.

Persia and the Near East

Persia, like the Near East, was a place for the development of civilization and the settlements of a number of tribes, including the Elamites and Medes. Since ancient times, there has been a relationship between the kingdoms in Persia and the kingdoms in Mesopotamia. In 646 BC, Assyrian King Ashurbanipal destroyed the city of Susa, thus ending the supremacy of the Elamites in the coastal region of the Persian Gulf. For more than 150 years, Assyrian Kings in Northern Mesopotamia attempted to subdue the Medes in Western Persia. Under pressure from the Assyrian empire, the kingdom -the small kingdoms around the West Persian plateau united into a single state with a central government. In the middle of the 7th century BC, the Medes gained independence and united. In 612 BC, the Medes and Babylonians raided Assyria and destroyed Nineveh, the Assyrian capital, triggering the fall of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. The Medes made important historical milestones as foundation builders of nations and empires in Iranian history, and established the first empire in Persia, until Cyrus the Great founded a unified empire between the Persians and Medes, starting the Achaemenid Empire (c. 550-330 BC). In the end, Cyrus conquered the Medes, Lydians, and Babylonians, and founded an empire larger than Assyria.

Persian warrior (left) fighting Greek hoplites (right), 
on an ancient kylix, made around the 5th century BC.

In 499 BC, the city-state of Athens supported a revolt in Miletus which resulted in the destruction of Sardis. This led to an Achaemenid campaign against the Greeks known as the Greco-Persian Wars which occurred during the first half of the 5th century BC. During the Greco-Persian Wars, the Persians made some concessions and destroyed Athens in 480 BC, but after the Greek victory, the Persian forces were forced to withdraw when they lost control of Macedonia, Thrace, and Ionia. The war ended with the Peace of Callias in 449 BC.

Alexander the Great of Macedonia conquered Persia in 331 B.C. The empire that Alexander had built fell apart soon after his death, and one of Alexander's generals, Seleucus I Nicator, tried to take over Persia, Mesopotamia, and later Syria and Asia Minor. His lineage is known as the Seleucid dynasty. During the Seleucid dynasty and throughout Alexander's former empire, Greek was the common language of diplomatic and literary relations. Trade routes on land led to cultural exchanges. Buddhism spread from India, while Zoroastrianism spread west and gave influence to Judaism.

The Parthian Empire was the domain of the Arsacian dynasty, which unified and re-ruled the Iranian plateau after conquering Parthia and defeating the Seleucid Empire in the 3rd century BC, and slowly overrun Mesopotamia between 150 BC and 224 AD. During the same period, to the west , to be exact on the Italian peninsula, an empire called Rome was standing. For the Romans, who relied on heavy infantry, the Parthians were too hard to defeat, as both cavalry were much faster and more mobile than foot soldiers. On the other hand, the Parthians found it difficult to defend the conquered territory due to their lack of adequacy in siege warfare. Because of these weaknesses, neither the Romans nor the Parthians were able to completely annex each other. The Parthian Empire collapsed in 224, when the empire's organization fell and its last king was defeated by their own vassals, the Persians under the Sassanid dynasty. The first shah of the Sassanid empire, Ardashir I, reformed the country economically and militarily. The empire's territories covered what is now the territory of Iran, Iraq, Israel, Lebanon, Jordan, Armenia, parts of Afghanistan, Turkey, Syria, parts of Pakistan, Caucasians, Central Asia, Arabia and parts of Egypt.

The Sassanid Empire attacks the Byzantines led by Maurice. After certain successes, the Sassanid troops were defeated at Issus, Constantinople and finally at Nineveh, only to conclude with a peace treaty. After ending the Roman-Persian War, the Persian troops lost the battle of al-Qadisiyah (632) in Hilla (now a region of Iraq) when facing Muslim troops. The dynasty's uniqueness and aristocratic culture transformed the Islamic conquest and destruction of Iran into the Persian Renaissance.[135] A number of what is now known as Islamic culture, architecture, and literature, as well as other contributions to that civilization, were drawn from Sassanid Persia for the wider Muslim world.

Europe and the Mediterranean (800 BC–500 AD)

In the Western World, the Ancient Greeks (and later the Ancient Romans) established their own culture whose practices, rules, and customs are seen as the foundation for contemporary Western civilization. Their civilization reached the Classical Era (500 BC–AD 500) which encompasses the historical period when the Ancient Greek and Roman civilizations complemented each other. This era was a time when Greek and Roman societies flourished and wielded great influence throughout Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. This era begins with the first records of Greek poetry by Homer (8th to 7th century BC) and continues with the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Roman Empire (5th century). This era ended with the loss of classical culture and the turn into the Early Middle Ages (AD 500–1000). Of the surviving shards of the classical era,

Macedonian Empire

The Macedonian Empire's broadest reach as a result of its conquests under Alexander the Great.

Alexander of Pompeii mosaic, now in the National Archaeological Museum of Naples.

Since ancient times, the lands around Aegae, the first Macedonian capital, were settlements for a number of tribes. The first kingdom of Macedonia formed around the 8th or early 7th century BC under the Argead dynasty, which according to legend originated in the city of Argos in the Peloponnesus. During the reign of Alexander I, the Argeads began to expand into Upper Macedonia—then inhabited by tribes such as Linkeste and Elmiote—and westward, across the river Axius, into Eordaia, Bottiea, Migdonia, and Almopia, areas heavily populated by ethnic groups. Thrace. Near what is now the city of Veria, Perdicas I (or possibly his son, Argaeus I) founded a capital, Aigai (now called Vergina). After a period under Darius I of Persia, Macedonia gained its independence under King Alexander I (495–450 BC).

Prior to the 4th century B.C.E., Macedonia covered an area roughly the size of the western and central parts of the province of Macedonia in present-day Greece. The united Macedonian state was founded by King Amyntas III. Amyntas had three sons; the eldest and middle, Alexander II and Perdiccas III reigned only briefly. The young Perdiccas III was deposed by Amyntas' third son, Philip II, who installed himself as king and ushered in a period of Macedonian triumph over Greece. Under Philip II, (359-336 BC), Macedonia expanded into the territory of the Paeonians, Thracians, and Illyrians. Between these conquests, he annexed the regions of Pelagonia and South Paeonia.

Philip's son, Alexander the Great, strove for Macedonian hegemony not only in Greek territory, but also in the Achaemenid (Persian) Empire, encompassing Egypt and kingdoms as far east as India. The style of government that Alexander adopted for the territories he conquered was accompanied by the spread of Greek culture throughout his empire. Although his empire split into a number of Hellenistic regimes shortly after his death, his conquests left a lasting legacy, not limited to the Greek cities founded in western Persia, ushering in the Mediterranean-Near East period of Hellenistic civilization. In dividing Alexander's empire, Macedonia itself fell to the Antipatrid dynasty, which was overthrown by the Antigonid dynasty in 294 BC.

Antipater and his son Cassander gained control of Macedonia but riots broke out after Cassander's death in 297 BC. Macedonia was ruled temporarily by Demetrius I (294–288 BC). Demetrius' son, Antigonus II (277–239 BC), defeated the Galatian invasion as condottiere, and restored his family's good name in Macedonia; he managed to improve the system of government and prosperity of his country, although he lost much control over a number of city-states in Greece. He established a stable monarchy under the Antigonid dynasty.

During the reigns of Philip V (221–179 BC) and his son Perseus (179–168 BC), Macedonia clashed with the Roman Republic, which was then exercising its hegemony. During the 2nd and 1st centuries BC, Macedonia was involved in a number of wars against Rome. Two major defeats that ended the Kingdom's glory
Macedonia took place in 197 BC when Rome defeated Philip V, and 168 BC when Rome defeated Perseus. The Macedonian defeat led to the end of the Antigonid dynasty and the dissolution of the Macedonian kingdom. In 149 BC, Andriscus succeeded in re-establishing the kingdom but his glory did not last long because the Roman forces managed to defeat him. Shortly thereafter, the Roman government established the Roman Province of Macedonia so that the former kingdom was completely under the Roman government.

Roman Empire

Territories of the Roman Empire reached during the reign of Emperor Trajan, 117 AD .

Ancient Rome was a civilization that originated in what is now Italy, in the 8th century BC. According to the historical record Ab urbe condita libri ("[History] Records Since the Founding of [Rome]") by Titus Livius, Roman civilization began with the founding of the city of Rome by Romulus and Remus—descendants of Aineias of Troy—in 753 BC. Romulus appointed himself as the first Roman King since Rome was founded. Prior to the founding of Rome, the Italian region was dominated by the Etruscans (in the Etruscan region). However, the influence of the Etruscans on the development of Roman civilization was often suppressed. Roman civilization was even more influenced by Greek civilization, especially through trading activities. The Roman Empire expanded its territory through conquest and colonization. After being ruled by seven kings, The Roman Empire fell into disunity. In 509 BC, the Roman Empire turned into the Roman Republic with an oligarchic republican system of government. The Roman Republic, which lasted for approximately 500 years, weakened and collapsed through several civil wars. The attacks of the barbarians on the border areas further accelerated internal divisions.

The transition from the Roman Republic to a developing empire during the wars against Carthage and the Seleucid Empire. Several events have been put forward as marking the transition from republic to empire, including the appointment of Julius Caesar as dictator for life (44 BC), the Battle of Actium (2 September 31 BC), and the granting of the title Augustus to Octavian by the Senate (4 January 27 BC). e]

The Roman Empire (Latin: Imperium Romanum) was the post-Roman Republic period, characterized by an autocratic form of government and a wider fiefdom in Europe and around the Mediterranean. A large empire such as Rome depended on military annexation of territory and on protected settlement arrangements. to become a food-producing center. The relative peace that an empire proclaimed could stimulate international trade, especially the busy trade routes in the Mediterranean Sea that had developed since the Hellenistic period. The Roman Empire faced general problems related to maintaining a large army and supporting a central bureaucracy.

During the reign of Emperor Augustus (late 1st century BC), Rome controlled all the lands around the Mediterranean (Mediterranean Sea). During its first two centuries, the Roman Empire experienced stability and prosperity, such that the period is known as the Pax Romana ("Roman Peace"). It reached its greatest extent under the emperor Trajan (early 2nd century AD); during his reign (98–117 AD) the Roman Empire controlled some 6.5 million km2 of land surface, most of Europe from England to Mesopotamia.

At the end of the 3rd century AD, Rome suffered from a crisis that threatened its survival, but was reunited and stabilized by the emperors Aurelian and Diocletian. The persecution of Christians changed after Constantine the Great became Emperor and tolerated the teachings of the followers of Christ in 330 AD. Meanwhile, in 395 AD Theodosius' death then divided the empire into the Western Roman Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire. The disintegration of the Roman Empire gradually occurred several centuries after the 2nd century AD, along with the spread of Christianity from the Middle East westward.

early Christianity

Painting of the Sermon on the Mount by Carl Bloch, an illustration of Jesus' sermon recorded in the Gospel of Matthew.

It begins with the birth of Jesus which marks a new era called the Christian era (from Arabic: المسيح‎ al-Masih), and the era before the birth of Jesus is referred to as Before Christ (BC).[f] Life, ministry, death, and—as is believed Christians—the resurrection and ascension of Jesus to Heaven, making Jesus one of the most influential figures who ever lived in world history.

Early Christianity is usually defined as Christianity in the three centuries between the crucifixion of Jesus (circa 30 AD) and the First Council of Nicaea (325 AD). After the Great Commission was given by Jesus to his disciples, the movement started from a small group of Jews (including Paul) who spread Jesus' teachings to cities throughout the Hellenistic world, such as Alexandria, Antioch, Rome, and even outside the Roman Empire. , until finally bringing Emperor Constantine the Great to make Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire, which in this case became a historical turning point in Europe in terms of freedom of civilization.

Goths and Huns

Illustration of Ulfilas preaching the Gospel to the Goths.

The Goths were a member of the Germanic peoples, who settled in Northern Europe and migrated to the area around the Black Sea. In the 1st century, the Huns who originally settled near the Caspian Sea migrated to the southeastern Caucasus region and entered Europe around 370, invaded areas controlled by the Goths, and founded the Hun Empire. A group of Goths fled across the Danube, where they clashed with the Roman Empire. During this period, the Goth missionary Ulfilas created the Gothic alphabet, translated the Bible and converted the Goths from paganism to Arian Christianity. In the 4th to 6th centuries, the Goths split into two main branches, the Visigoths, who later became foederatus of the Romans and the Ostrogoths, who joined the Huns.

The Ostrogoths rebelled against the Huns and battle broke out at Nedao in 454. The Ostrogoths won the battle. After their victory, their leader, Theodoric the Great invited his people to settle in Italy, and founded the Ostrogothic Kingdom which later ruled the Italian peninsula. Shortly after Theodoric's death in 526, the principality was captured by the Eastern Roman Empire, in devastating wars that reduced the region's population. After their leader was killed at the Battle of Taginae, the Ostrogothic resistance ended, and the remaining Goths assimilated with the Lombards, who invaded the Italian peninsula and established the Kingdom of the Lombards in Northern Italy in AD 567.

Under Alaric I, the Visigoths sacked Rome in 410, defeated Attila the Hun King at the battle of Chalons in 451, and established the Visigoth Kingdom in Aquitaine. The Visigoths were driven into Hispania by the Franks after the battle of Vouillé in 507. In the late 6th century, the Visigoths were converted to Catholicism.

The Fall of the Roman Empire

Between the 5th and 6th centuries, the Western Roman Empire faced numerous attacks from barbarian peoples, such as Goths, Huns or other Germanic tribes. The empire collapsed in AD 476 after Romulus Augustus was forced to surrender to the Germanic leader, Odoacer, marking the start of the Dark Ages in Western Europe. The Kingdom of Italy which was controlled by Odoacer finally fell into the hands of Theodoric of the Goths. Meanwhile the Eastern Roman Empire in the eastern Mediterranean continued into the Middle Ages as the Byzantine Empire, finally collapsing in 1453 with the death of Constantine XI and the conquest of Constantinople by the Ottoman Turks led by Mehmed II.

Because of its vast territory and long period of time, Roman institutions and culture had a major influence on the development of language, religion, architecture, philosophy, law and forms of government in the areas under its control, especially in Europe. other parts of the world, Roman influence spread throughout the world.

Postclassical Era (500–1500)

The Postclassic Era is the period after the Classical Era in Europe, but with a global world reach. This era usually dates from the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century. The Western Roman Empire disintegrated into various independent kingdoms, while the Eastern Roman, or Byzantine Empire survived until towards the end of the Middle Ages. This era is also associated with the emergence of Islam, the conquest of Islam, then the golden age of Islam, and the beginning and expansion of the Arab slave trade, followed by the Mongol invasions of the Middle East and Central Asia. In South Asia stood the medieval kingdom in India, followed by the establishment of the sultanate in India. The Chinese Empire experienced a change of dynasties including the Sui, Tang, Liao, Jin, Yuan and Ming Dynasties. Middle East trade routes through the Indian Ocean, and the Silk Road through the Gobi desert, providing limited economic and cultural links between Asian and European civilizations. While the Middle Ages depended on influences from Europe, civilizations in the Americas, such as the Inca, Mayan, and Aztec, continued to thrive, then ended at different times.

Dynasties in East Asia

Hōryū-ji in Nara, Japan. The shrine was built during the Asuka Period,
 when Buddhism and Confucianism were introduced to Japan.

In China, a number of dynasties were founded and fell one after another. After the fall of the Jin dynasty (265–420), the Chinese empire broke up into many states (304–469). The kingdoms were at war with each other, but after the unification effort was almost successful, two major powers emerged who claimed to be the successors to the throne of the Chinese empire. This period is known as the Northern and Southern Dynasties (420–589). The countries were united under the Sui dynasty in 581. The dynasty did not last long and was replaced by the Tang dynasty (618). Under the influence of this dynasty, imperial China experienced its heyday of art, science, and technology. Military glory in the Tarim Basin led to the opening of the Silk Road so that China could trade with Central Asia, even as far as the West. This dynasty brought China into its second golden age. Its capital, Chang'an (now called Xi'an) was the largest city in the world at that time.

To the east of China, to be precise in Korea and Japan, there has been a development of the system of government and state administration. During the reign of the Tang Dynasty in China, Japan was still ruled by emperors from the Yamato Dynasty. The Japanese archipelago itself is divided into several provinces. During the Asuka period (538–710), Yamato province developed into a centrally governed state. Buddhism began to intrude, and there were efforts to adopt some elements of Chinese culture and Confucianism. The Nara period (8th century) was marked by the emergence of the sovereign state of Japan and is often described as a golden age. During this period, the imperial government took part in government offices, temples, road construction and irrigation systems. The Heian Period (794-1185) saw the peak of imperial power,

In the 7th century, the end of the Three Kingdoms Period (Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla) occurred on the Korean Peninsula. Silla conquered Baekje in 660, then Goguryeo in 668, marking the beginning of the Age of North–South States, with the Unified Silla Kingdom in the south, and Balhae (the successor to the Goguryeo kingdom) in the north. Around the 900s, divisions occurred in Korea which resulted in the emergence of competing powers; this period is known as the Late Three Kingdoms Period, with the victory of Goguryeo (later called Hugoguryeo, and eventually renamed Goryeo), which unified the kingdoms of the Korean Peninsula in 936.

Jiaozi, the world's first paper money, was created during the Song Dynasty.

Around the 10th century, the Tang Dynasty in China suffered a decline due to rebellions in the south. Eventually the Chinese empire split into five dynasties and ten warring states (907–960). In 907, in North China stood the Liao Dynasty which was founded by the Khitans from present-day Mongolia. Meanwhile the civil war in the south ended with the founding of the Song dynasty (960). During the Song Dynasty, there were technological advances in warfare, namely the development of gunpowder which led to the creation of firearms, such as rifles, cannons, and flamethrowers. When the Song dynasty was growing, the Liao dynasty was replaced by the Jin dynasty (1115) founded by the Jurchens from the north.

Starting from 1185, starting from the beginning of the Kamakura Period (after the name of the Kamakura Shogunate that ruled at that time), Japan experienced a period of feudalism. The territory of Japan is divided into a number of regions controlled by regional rulers (daimyo) and warlords (shoguns) from among the noble clans who receive the attention of the Japanese emperor. The lineage of emperors from the earliest dynasties still continues, but does not have much influence and is only a symbol of the head of government. During this period there was conflict between the major clans, such as the Minamoto and the Taira. After decades of internal conflict, the Japanese—as well as the Chinese and Koreans—were shocked by the barbarian invasion from Central Asia: the Mongols.

In the 13th century, the Mongols launched an invasion of East Asia. The Jin and Song dynasties were unable to resist their invasion. The two dynasties collapsed to become the Yuan Dynasty (1271), ruled by the Mongols and becoming part of the Mongolian Empire. The Korean nation then ruled by the Gojoseon dynasty was fought in a series of battles between 1231 and 1251; the battle was won by the Mongols so that Gojoseon became one of the vassals of the Mongolian Empire. From Korea, the Mongols crossed over to Japan in 1274 and 1281. However, the invasions failed as their fleets were sunk. After the glory of the Mongolian Empire ended, its vassal state broke away.

In 1392, the Goryeo Dynasty was replaced by the Joseon Dynasty, which would rule the Korean Peninsula for approximately 500 years. In the same decade, the Yuan Dynasty government in China was overthrown by the people and replaced by the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644) by the Han people. Under the Ming Dynasty, China was once again in its heyday. This dynasty was founded in 1368 and ended in 1644.

Islamic Development

Map of Muslim conquered areas, in the year 622–750.
622-632, by Prophet Muhammad SAW
632–661, by Khulafaur Rashidin
661–750, by the Umayyad Caliphate

In the 7th century, in the Arabian peninsula, Muhammad bin Abdullāh spread a new religion called Islam, and his followers were called Muslims. The emergence of Islam ended the earlier period of Arab paganism known as the Age of Jahiliyyah. Before the emergence of Islam, the city of Mecca was already the center of trade in Arabia, and Muhammad was a merchant. With the tradition of the pilgrimage, namely the holy journey to Mecca, the city is not only a center for the exchange of commodities, but also for the exchange of ideas. The influence of Muslim traders on the African-Arabic and Arab-Asian trade routes was enormous. As a result, Islamic civilization developed and expanded on the basis of its merchant economy, in contrast to Christianity, India and China, whose societies were based on agriculture. Knowledge and skills from the Middle East, Greece, and Ancient Persian was studied by Muslims in the Middle Ages. Muslims also gave innovations for the inventions of other nations, for example paper processing from China and decimal positions in the number system from India. Much of this learning and development is related to geography. Muslim traders brought their wares and religion to South Asia, Southeast Asia, Central Asia, China, and the kingdoms of West Africa, then returned with new discoveries.

The Islamic conquest began at the time of the Prophet Muhammad. He established a caliphate in the Arabian peninsula under the rule of the Rashidun and Umayyad Khulafaurs. After Muhammad's death, Muslims began their expansion in the late Classical Era and early Middle Ages. In the mid-7th century, Muslim armies conquered the Middle East, Egypt and North Africa. Muslim forces conquered Persia in 642, ending the Sassanid dynasty. During the period of Rajput supremacy in North and South-West India (now Pakistan), Muslim invasions progressed to the region along with their expansion into Central Asia. From Persia, the Muslims conquered Multan in the Punjab, a region of present-day Pakistan. The mobilization of Muslim troops to India was halted after their defeat in the Rajasthan battle. From Morocco in North Africa, Muslim armies crossed the Strait of Gibraltar and conquered the Iberian peninsula in 711. The region was named Al-Andalus, and later the Caliphate of Córdoba. Muslim expansion into Western Europe was halted by Christian forces at the Battle of Tours and the Battle of the River Berre. In the late 15th century, Christian monarchies in Europe reconquered the Iberian peninsula.

1337 miniature. Painting of the Battle of Sarmada (12th century), part of the Crusades.

In the course of its history, and after the various conflicts it went through, Muslim power in the world in the Middle Ages was divided into a number of caliphs and sultanates, including: Abbasids, Fatimids, Almorawiyah, Seljuks, Ajuuraan, Adal and Warsangali in Somalia, Mughals in India, Safawiyah in Persia, and the Ottomans in Turkey. Islamic civilization gave rise to various centers of culture and learning and gave birth to the foremost scientists, astronomers, mathematicians, doctors, nurses and philosophers during the Islamic Golden Age. In its development, Muslims experienced disputes with empires in Europe, and were involved in a series of wars, including: the Byzantine-Seljuk War, the Byzantine-Ottoman War, and the Crusades. The Byzantine Empire succeeded in repelling the Fatimid forces in Anatolia, the Turkish region, until finally the Seljuks came and allied themselves with the Abbasids. The disintegration of the Seljuk dynasty led to the rise of a number of minor monarchies that vied for power in Anatolia during the period of the Crusades, up to the rise of the Ottoman Empire. The empire conquered Byzantium in 1453.

In 1258, the Mongol troops under the leadership of Genghis Khan destroyed the Abbasid Caliphate, marked by their success in the siege of Baghdad (1258). About a century later, Tamerlane, a Turk-Mongol warrior, tried to repeat the glory of Genghis Khan. After conquering Damascus, he converted to Islam, starting an era of Turkic and Mongol Muslim expansion into Eastern Europe, Central Asia, and India. During his reign, Timur became the ruler of the Muslim world after defeating the mamluks in Egypt and Syria, the Ottoman Empire, and the Delhi Sultanate. The Ottoman Empire regained power by controlling most of the Middle East. The Safavid dynasty ruled over Persia and Central Asia, while the descendants of Timur invaded Kabul. From there, an empire stretched, bounded by Persia on the west and the Bay of Bengal on the east; This sultanate was known as the Mughal Empire. The Safavid dynasty ended with the death of its last leader, Ismail III, in 1760. The last Muslim sultanate, the Ottomans, collapsed in 1918 after World War I.

Nomads in Central Asia

Starting with the Sui Dynasty (581–618), the Chinese Empire began their expansion into eastern Central Asia, and dealt with the Turkic nomads, who were the dominant tribe in Central Asia. At first their relationship was cooperative, but in 630, the Tang dynasty launched an offensive against the Turks, and captured the desert region of Ordos, Inner Mongolia. The Tang dynasty also vied with the Tibetan Empire for control over Central Asia. In the 8th century, Islam began to spread to the region and eventually became the majority religion for the population of the region, while Buddhism was still dominant in the east. Desert nomads from Arabia could forge a cohesive relationship with the steppe nomads of Central Asia, and early caliphs had control over parts of the Central Asian region. The White Huns were a nomadic group that dominated in the 6th and 7th centuries, and controlled most of Central Asia. In the 10th and 11th centuries, the region was divided into several states, including the Samanid and Khwarezm Caliphates.

Mongolian Empire

Map of Mongol expansion since its founding by Genghis Khan (1206), until the leadership of Kublai Khan (1260–1294).
  • Mongolian Empire
  • Golden Horde
  • Khanate Chagatai
  • Ilkhanate
  • Yuan Dynasty
The great empire that emerged from Central Asia flourished when Genghis Khan united the tribes of Mongolia. The potential for resources and trade routes in West Asia made Genghis Khan turn his attention there. In 1219-1221, the Mongols conquered the Khwarezm Empire and the Muslim cities around it. In the following years, through war and surrender, the Mongols controlled what is now Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey. In 1258, the Mongol troops succeeded in besieging Baghdad which at that time was one of the major Muslim cities. When the Mongols invaded Palestine, they were driven back by the Mamluk warriors near the Jezreel Valley, in the battle of Ain Jalut.

The Mongols invaded China after successfully crossing the Great Wall of China. From the north, they conquered small kingdoms and brought down the then ruling Jin and Song dynasties. The conquest of China sparked the founding of the Yuan dynasty. Since 1231, the Mongol army invaded Korea, which at that time was ruled by the Gojoseon dynasty. Their invasion ended when Gojoseon declared his surrender in 1259. After the conquest of Korea and the establishment of the Yuan dynasty, the attention of the Mongol forces also turned to Southeast Asia, which was then home to a number of Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms. In 1257, they invaded North Vietnam, which at that time was the territory of the Tran Dynasty and the Kingdom of Champa. After an unsuccessful attack attempt,

In 1274, the Mongol army departed from Korea to invade Japan. Before reaching the Japanese capital, their fleet was sunk by a typhoon, which became known as a kamikaze ("god wind"). Meanwhile in Southeast Asia, the Mongols also invaded Burma. They managed to defeat the Burmese army, but were forced to withdraw because of the tropical climate and malaria. In 1281, the Mongols made a second invasion of Japan with fleets from Korea and China, but met with similar failures. Meanwhile, the victory of the Mongol army in the battle of Pagan (1287) caused Burma to become a vassal of the Yuan dynasty. In 1293, the Mongol army invaded Java, which at that time was the Singhasari region, but failed.

In Europe, the Mongol armies invaded and destroyed Kievan Rus', also invading Poland, Hungary and Bulgaria. Over the course of three years (1237–1240), the Mongol armies razed and destroyed the major cities of Eastern Europe except for Novgorod and Pskov.

The Mongolian Empire only lasted for a little over a century. After its heyday, their conquered territories broke away. After Genghis Khan's death in 1227, most of Central Asia was ruled by the Chagatai Khanate. In 1369, Timur alias Timur Leng, a Turkic military leader, conquered most of the territory under the control of the Mongol khans. However, the empire founded by him collapsed shortly after his death. Then the area was divided into a number of khanates (areas controlled by the khan), including the Khiva Khanate, the Bukhara Khanate, the Kokand Khanate, and the Kashgar Khanate.

Europe in the Middle Ages

Karolus Magnus alias Charlemagne ("Charlem the Great"), Holy Roman Emperor (800–814).

Europe during the Early Middle Ages was marked by population decline, urbanization, and barbarian invasions, all beginning in the Antiquity. The barbarians from the west, especially the Germanic peoples, established their kingdoms in the former territories of the Western Roman Empire. In this region stood a number of countries that gradually went to war with each other. In Eastern Europe, the Eastern Roman Empire, aka Byzantine, still exists, and in the early Middle Ages waged its last war against the Persians.

In the 7th century, North Africa and the Middle East (once part of the Eastern Roman Empire) became part of the caliphate following conquests by Muhammad's successors. Although there were substantial changes in social and political structures, they were not as extreme as historians have suggested, as many of the new empires aligned themselves with surviving Roman traditions. Christianity spread in Western Europe and many monasteries were founded. In the 7th and 8th centuries, the Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty, founded an empire that covered most of Western Europe. Meanwhile, in the Balkan Peninsula, the Bulgarian Empire stood as a rival to the Byzantines in the Balkans, resulting in a number of wars being fought between them. Nevertheless, sometimes the two powers forge a peace alliance. Byzantium exerted a strong cultural influence on Bulgaria, so that Christianity was accepted in Bulgaria in 864.

In Northern Europe, in the Scandinavia region to be precise, the Nordic people started their exploration starting from the 9th century, for the sake of trade and plunder. The period of their expansion into the various seas and rivers of Europe is called the Viking Age. The Vikings started their expansion from Scandinavia, then explored countries in Northern Europe. They also moved west and occupied Iceland and Greenland. As far as is known, they were the first Europeans to occupy the Americas, in Newfoundland, Canada to be precise. Viking exploration also reached the Faroe Islands and Anatolia. The Viking Age ended around the middle of the 11th century, during which the Norman conquest of England took place.

In the 9th century, the Carolingian Empire in Western Europe declined under pressure from Viking, Magyar, and Saracen invaders. Before and after the collapse of the Carolingian Empire, two great empires emerged in Europe; to the west stood the Kingdom of France (843) which was the successor to the rule of the Franks, while to the east stood the Holy Roman Empire (962), including the countries now known as Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Czechia, Belgium, Italy, and parts of French territory.

During the late 9th and 10th centuries, Tsar Simeon I won victories over the Byzantines, and expanded the Bulgarian Empire to its peak. After slaughtering the Byzantine army at the battle of Anchialus in 917, the Bulgarians laid siege to Constantinople in 923 and 924. Eventually the Byzantine strength recovered and in 1014, under Basil II, they avenged the Bulgarians at the battle of Kleidion. In 1018, the last Bulgarian stronghold surrendered to the Byzantine Empire, thus the First Bulgarian Empire was dissolved. The empire was resumed with the founding of the Second Bulgarian Empire in 1185.

Map animation of the spread of the Black Death (1346-1351), a deadly plague that spread across Eurasia in the 14th century .

During the High Middle Ages, which began in the 11th century, the population of Europe increased rapidly as new technologies and agricultural innovations allowed trade to flourish and agricultural land to expand. Manorialism of peasant unions in villages that leased land and worked for the nobility and feudalism of the political structure that allowed knights and lower nobility to provide services to their masters in exchange for land-lease rights were two ways of organizing Medieval society that developed during the Middle Ages Sublime. Kingdoms became more centralized after the decentralization impact of the breakup of the Carolingian Empire.

The Crusades, which were first proclaimed in 1095, were an attempt by western Christians to reclaim the Holy Land from Muslim hands, and after long efforts, Christians were able to establish small states in the Near East. Intellectual life was marked by scholasticism and the founding of universities, while the building of a Gothic cathedral was one of the great artistic achievements of the time.

The Late Middle Ages were marked by many hardships and disasters. Famine, plague, and war decimated portions of Western Europe's population. The Black Death alone killed about a third of Europe's population between 1347 and 1350. The Black Death was one of the deadliest pandemics in human history. Starting in Asia, the plague reached the Mediterranean and Western Europe during the late 1340s, and killed 10 million Europeans in six years; between a third and a half of the European population.

The Middle Ages saw the first continuous urbanization of Northern and Western Europe. Many European countries today have their origins in events throughout the Middle Ages; present-day European political boundaries are, in many ways, the result of military and dynastic achievements during this turbulent age. The Middle Ages lasted until the beginning of the Early Modern Age in the 16th century, marked by the rise of many city-states, the split of Western Christianity in a Reformation, the rise of humanism in the Italian Renaissance, and the beginning of European sea voyages that resulted in the Columbian Exchange. 

Sultans and dynasties in South Asia

The Chola Empire during the reign of Rajaraja Chola I (985–1014).

The movement of Muslim troops to India started from Persia. In 712, the general Muhammad bin Qasim conquered most of the Indus valley, that is, the territory of the modern state of Pakistan. Later the area became part of the Umayyad Caliphate. The Late Classical Period in India began after the end of the Gupta Maharaja and the fall of the Harsha Kingdom in the 7th century, and ended with the fall of the Vijayanagara Kingdom in South India in the 13th century, due to pressure from Muslim forces in the north.

From the 7th to the 9th centuries, three dynasties ruled over North India: the Gurjara-Pratihara from Malwa, the Eastern Ganges from Odisha, the Pala from Bengal, and the Rashtrakuta from the Deccan. Then the Sena Dynasty took over the power of the Pala Kingdom, while Gurjara-Pratihara split into several kingdoms. This started the history of the establishment of the Rajput kingdoms, namely a series of kingdoms that always lasted in Indian history, for almost a millennium, until India finally gained independence from Britain. The first Rajput empire in recorded history was founded in Rajasthan in the 6th century, and several Rajput dynasties ruled parts of Northern India. Meanwhile, the Shahi dynasty ruled eastern Afghanistan, North Pakistan, and Kashmir from the mid-7th to early 11th centuries.

The Chalukya dynasty ruled parts of southern and central India with its center at Badami, Karnataka between 550 and 750, and later by the Western Chalukyas between 970 and 1190. The Pallava dynasty of Kanchipuram was its far southern neighbour. With the collapse of the Chalukya Empire, its vassal states broke away and a number of monarchies were formed in their former territories, such as the Hoysala dynasty of Halebidu, the Kakatiya dynasty of Warangal, the Seuna Yadawa of Devagiri, and the Kalachuri region in the south.

In the 10th and 11th centuries, the Chola Dynasty's influence in South India had spread to present-day Andra Pradesh and its kingdom had become a place of pilgrimage for monks from East Asia. The dynasty established trade relations with the Tang dynasty in China and the Sriwijaya kingdom on the Malay Peninsula. At its peak, the Chola Empire ruled over South India and parts of Southeast Asia. King Raja Chola I conquered South India and parts of Sri Lanka. His troops moved east and occupied the coast of Myanmar all the way to Vietnam, the Andaman and Nicobar islands, Lakshadweep, Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula, as well as the Pegu islands. Later during the medieval period in India, the Pandya Kingdom existed in Tamil Nadu, as well as the Chera Kingdom in the Kerala and Tamil Nadu regions. 1343,

After several successful Muslim conquests in Central Asia (between the 10th and 15th centuries), Muslim sultanates began to penetrate the Indian subcontinent, such as the founding of the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughal Sultanate. Mughal rulers came from Central Asia to rule over much of northern South Asia. The Mughal sultans introduced art and architecture from Central Asia to India. While the Mughal Empire and several Rajput kingdoms flourished, a number of independent Hindu kingdoms, such as Vijayanagara, Maratha, East Ganges and Ahom flourished in different places across India. The Mughal Empire experienced a gradual collapse in the early 18th century, thus providing opportunities for the Afghans, Balokhis, Sikhs,
Empire in Southeast Asia

Angkor Wat in Cambodia, a Hindu temple built during the era of the Khmer empire, around the 12th century.

At the beginning of the Postclassic Era, Southeast Asia saw the fall of the Funan Kingdom which stretched from the coast of the South China Sea to the Indian Ocean. The kingdom was replaced by the Chenla Kingdom. Around the 7th century, the maritime kingdom of Srivijaya was established in South Sumatra, present-day Indonesia. His territory covers the islands of Sumatra, West Java and the Malay Peninsula to the isthmus of Kra (southern Thailand). This kingdom has hegemony over the seas around the Malayan peninsula, such as the Malacca Strait, the Sunda Strait and the South China Sea. This kingdom also had influence over the trade sea routes between India and China, as well as trading with them.

In the 9th century, the Pagan Kingdom or Pagan Dynasty was formed in Myanmar, as a manifestation of the unification of sovereign territories in the region. During its existence, this kingdom supported the growth of Theravada Buddhism in the Southeast Asian region. To the east, the Khmer Empire stood, replacing the Chenla Kingdom. Angkor, the capital of the Khmer, was the largest city in the pre-industrial world and contained thousands of temples, the most prominent of which is Angkor Wat.

In the 11th century, Sriwijaya fell into the hands of the Chola dynasty. During this time, too, Islam spread from Gujarat to the Malay peninsula and the Indonesian archipelago. In the 12th and 13th centuries, the Pagan and Khmer Empires became the two main empires in mainland Southeast Asia.[30] In the 13th century, the Mongols launched raids into a number of areas in Southeast Asia, including: Burma, Java, Vietnam. In Vietnam and Java, their raids failed. Shortly after the expulsion of the Mongol troops from Java, the Majapahit Empire was established and reached its heyday in the 14th century, with a territory that largely covered most of the Indonesian archipelago and the Malayan peninsula.

In Thailand, Sukhothai (13th century) and Ayutthaya (14th century) were the main Thai powers influenced by the Khmers. After Ayutthaya dominated Sukhotai, in the 15th century, the Khmers were invaded by Ayutthaya. Meanwhile, in the islands of Indonesia and Malaya, Islamic kingdoms were still standing, following the fall of Majapahit which split into a number of kingdoms or sultanates, including the Sultanate of Malacca, the Sultanate of Demak, and the Sultanate of Cirebon. Along with the development of Islam, at the end of the Middle Ages, Europeans began to arrive and trade in the Southeast Asian region, starting with the Portuguese, followed by the Spanish and the Dutch.

Monarchy in Africa

Tomb of Askia Mohammad I alias Askia the Great in Mali. Askia the Great was the leader of the Songhai Empire during its heyday and built her country to become the largest nation in West African history.

Sub-Saharan Africa in the Postclassic Era was home to various civilizations. The kingdom of Aksum weakened in the 7th century AD when Islam separated it from their Christian allies and its people moved deep into the Ethiopian highlands in search of refuge. Eventually they founded the famous Zagwe Dynasty for its rock-carved buildings in Lalibela. Then the dynasty was overthrown by the Solomonic dynasty who claimed descent from the kings of Aksum and ruled well until the 20th century. In the Sahel region in West Africa, many Islamic empires stood, such as the Ghana empire, the Mali empire, the Songhai empire, and the Kanem empire. They controlled gold, ivory, salt and slaves on trans-Saharan trade routes.

South of the Sahel civilization lay coastal forests uninhabitable to horses and camels. There were several civilizations: the Yoruba nation with the city of Ife (famous for its naturalistic art) and the Oyo Empire; the Edo people with the Benin Empire whose capital was Benin city; the Igbo people with the Kingdom of Nri who produced fine bronze art at Igbo Ukwu; and the Akan people known for their intricate architecture.

In what is now Zimbabwe, a number of kingdoms existed, originating from the Mapungubwe Kingdom in present-day South Africa. They developed through trade with the Swahili people on the East African coast. They erected large stone structures without cement, for example in Greater Zimbabwe (capital of the Kingdom of Zimbabwe), Khami (capital of the Butua empire), and Danamombe (Dhlo-Dhlo; capital of the Rozwi Empire). The Swahili people themselves were the inhabitants of the East African coast from Kenya to Mozambique who traded extensively with Asians and Arabs, who introduced them to Islam. They founded many ports such as Mombasa, Zanzibar and Kilwa, which were known to Chinese sailors because of the efforts of Zheng He and Muslim geographers.

Pre-Columbian America

During the Postclassic Era, North, Central and South America developed a unique and independent culture and civilization. It is possible that the continent was discovered by Europeans before the trip of Columbus. The Norse colonization of the Americas occurred around the 10th century, when Norse sailors (usually referred to as the Vikings) explored and occupied the North Atlantic, including northeastern North America. quite extensive and do not develop into permanent colonies. Travel and exploration in search of natural resources such as timber were possible at this time, but there is no evidence of Nordic occupation of mainland North America.

Culture in North America

Illustration of the site at Kincaid, one of the places where Mississippi's civilization developed, during its heyday.

The Hopewell Tradition is a term for the prevalent aspects of the culture of the Native Americans scattered around the riverbanks of the northeastern and midwestern regions of the present-day United States, from 200 BC to AD 500. The Hohokam is one of four archaeological traditions major prehistoric areas in what is now the American Southwest. By living as farmers, these ancient peoples cultivated maize and beans. The Hohokam Awal community founded a number of villages around the Gila river. The people settled on good land for cultivation, with dry farming being common at the start of this period.

From about 1200 to 1650, complex cultures emerged based on the adoption of maize cultivation, growing population densities, and tribal-level social organization. The introduction of the maize plant from Mesoamerica provided the accumulation of food surpluses to support high population densities and initiated the development of specialized skills. The Iroquois League of Nations or "People of the Longhouse", based in present-day western New York, followed a confederate model from the mid-15th century. Their system of affiliation was like a federation, in contrast to the more powerful and centrally governed European monarchies. Tribal wars occurred in certain places, which resulted in the departure and migration of a number of tribes.

City-states in Mesoamerica

Palace in Palenque, one of the former Mayan cities.

In the Mesoamerica region developed a number of civilizations, some of which collapsed before the Middle Ages, for example the Olmec Civilization on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico, to be precise at the sites of La Venta and San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán, which collapsed around 400 AD. Meanwhile, the city-state of Teotihuacan stood in the Valley of Mexico around 100 BC and built its culture, but the founding nation is still being debated because there is no written evidence.

Not far from the center of the development of the Olmec civilization, the Mayan civilization was still thriving in what is now Chiapas. Its civilization extends to Guatemala and the Yucatan peninsula. Like the Ancient Greek civilization, the Maya civilization also gave birth to various city-states that grew independently. Agriculture is an important sector in city-states like Tikal and Copán. Important pyramidal monuments were built in religious centers as well as in the palaces of their leaders. The palace at Cancuén was the largest in the entire Maya area. Other important artifacts that archaeologists often find are carved stone tablets called steles; the Mayans called it tetun, or "three stones." The stone tablets are inscribed with logograms, displaying the names of Mayan leaders along with genealogies, military glory and other accomplishments.

In the 13th century, to the west of the Maya cities, there was an alliance of three Aztec cities: Tenochtitlan, Texcoco, and Tlacopan. The Aztec Empire existed from the 14th to the 16th centuries. Its capital is Tenochtitlan. The city was built on an island in the middle of a lake. Tenochtitlan was one of the largest cities in the world at that time. The Aztecs adhered to the concept of polytheism. Quetzalcoatl (feathered snake), Huitzilopochtli (southern hummingbird) and Tezcatlipoca (smoking mirror) are the main gods in their pantheon. Sometimes the Aztecs killed humans to please their gods. Between 1519 and 1521, Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés subdued the Aztecs and seized their territory.

Inca Empire

Machu Picchu, former city of the Inkadian nation above the Urubamba valley, Andes mountains, Peru. 
Founded around 1450 AD. Now it is an icon of their civilization.

In the period around the 13th century, Incan culture flourished in South America. The Incas were a prosperous and developed people, known for their fine road system and unparalleled masonry. The Inca Empire lasted for about a century before the arrival of the Spanish in 1532. Manco Capac founded the first Inca city-state around the 1200s. The city includes the entire area around Cusco. In the 1400s, the Pachacuti united other tribes in the Andean region. Since then the development of the Inca empire occurred. Finally the Inca empire became the largest empire in the Americas before the arrival of Columbus. The Inca Empire, or Tawantinsuyu (meaning "four lands" in Quechua), which had its capital at Cusco, spanned the entire Andean region of the mountains,

Empire in Oceania

In Oceania, the Tu'i Tonga Empire was founded in the 10th century and its territory expanded between 1200 and 1500. Tongan culture, language, and tribal influence was widespread in Polynesia during this period, along the 'Eastern Uvea, Rotuma, Futuna, Samoa and Niue, parts of Micronesia (Kiribati, Pohnpei), Vanuatu, and New Caledonia and the Loyalty Islands. The historical records of the indigenous peoples of Oceania are scant, but some histories can be reconstructed through oral, archaeological, and linguistic traditions.
Modern history

Modern history ("modern period", "modern era", "modern times") is the history of the period after the Middle Ages. "Contemporary history" is history that includes events that occurred from about 1900 to the present.

Early Modern Century

Previously, gunpowder in firearms was used on a limited basis. In the Early Modern Age, firearms were increasingly used in battle, for example during the siege of Esztergom (1543)
 between the Ottoman Empire and the Holy Roman Empire.

The "Early Modern Age" is a term used by historians to refer to a period in Western Europe and its first colonies that spanned the centuries between the Middle Ages and the Industrial Revolution around 1500 to 1800. The Early Modern Age is characterized by a focus on science and the increasingly advanced technological developments, political secularization, and the establishment of city-states. The capitalist economy began to develop, first in the Northern Italian republics such as Genoa. The Early Modern Age also began with the development and dominance of mercantilism economic theory. The Early Modern Century saw the decline and eventual disappearance of feudalism, slavery, and the rule of the Roman Catholic Church over much of Europe. This period also saw the end of the Protestant Reformation, the Thirty Years' War,


The European Renaissance, beginning in the 14th century, was marked by the rediscovery of ancient knowledge, as well as a revival of economic and social life in Europe. The Renaissance also gave rise to a culture of curiosity, which led to humanism and the Scientific Revolution. Despite social and political upheavals and revolutions pursued through various intellectual means, the Renaissance is better known for the development of art and the contributions of polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, which gave rise to the term "Father of the Renaissance".

European expansion

Leading seafaring map of the Age of Exploration, 1482–1524.

During this period, European powers dominated most of the world. One theory of Europe's rise holds that Europe's geography played an important role in its success. From the outside, the Middle East, India and China are surrounded by mountains or the sea. Once this natural obstacle was overcome, their territory almost looked flat. By contrast, the bleedin' Pyrenees, Alps, Apennines, Carpathians and other mountain ranges run through Europe, and the continent is also divided by several seas, to be sure. This gave Europe more protection against the risk of invasion from Central Asia. Before the age of the use of firearms, the Central Asian nomads were superior to the agricultural states around the Eurasian continent and if they managed to break through to the plains of North India or through the valleys of China, their onslaught will not be stopped. These invasions were often devastatin'. The golden age of Islam ended when the Mongols sacked Baghdad in 1258. India and China were subject to periodic invasions, and Russia spent nearly two centuries under the yoke of the Mongol-Tatars. Central and western Europe, logistically more distant from the Central Asian heartland, proved less vulnerable to these threats.

Geography influences geopolitical differences. For most of its history, China, India, and the Middle East were united under a dominant power that extended its territory to the surrounding mountains and desert. In the 1600s, the Ottoman Empire controlled most of the Middle East, while the Ming Dynasty ruled China, and the Mughal Empire ruled India. On the other hand, Europe is often divided into a number of countries that are at war with each other. The unifying empires of Europe, with the exception of the Roman Empire, tended to collapse soon after they were founded. Another important geographical factor that played a role in Europe's rise was the Mediterranean Sea, which for thousands of years had served as a maritime route that aided the exchange of commodities, peoples, ideas and inventions.

Almost all agrarian civilizations were pressured by their surroundings. Productivity remains low, and climate change easily affects boom-and-bust cycles that send civilizations to their rise and fall. In the 16th century, a qualitative change took place in world history. Technological advances as well as the prosperity generated through trade gradually provided greater opportunity.

Property rights and free market economies in Europe are stronger than anywhere else because of the ideals of freedom, so attitudes and traditions favor European expansion. Today, scholars such as Kenneth Pomeranz object to this view, although the revisionist approach to world history has drawn criticism for downplaying the achievements of European civilization.

European maritime expansion was surprising given the continent's geography and was mostly the business of countries on the Atlantic Ocean coast: Portugal, Spain, Britain, France and the Netherlands. Originally the Portuguese and Spanish Empires were the ultimate conquerors and sources of influence, and their union created the Iberian Union, the first global empire to have a territory "that never sees the sun set". Then England, France, and the Netherlands countries to the north began to dominate the Atlantic. In the wars that occurred in the 17th and 18th centuries culminating in the wars of the Napoleonic era, Britain emerged as a new world power.

In this era, European culture entered the Age of Enlightenment which led to the Scientific Revolution.

Regional developments

World colonization in 1492 (Early Modern Century), 1550, 1660 (Age of Enlightenment), 1754 (Age of Revolution), 1822 (Industrial Revolution), 1885 (European Hegemony), 1914 (World War I), 1938 (World War II) , 1959 (Cold War) and 1974 (recent history).

The early Modern Age saw the collapse of a number of civilizations and developments in various parts of Africa. The Swahili coast suffered a setback after being taken over by the Portuguese. In West Africa, the Songhai Empire fell to the Moroccans in 1591 after they invaded it with guns. The Kingdom of Zimbabwe in South Africa collapsed and became several kingdoms, including the Kingdoms of Mutapa, Butua and Rozwi. Ethiopia suffered an invasion in 1531 by the Adal Sultanate, and in 1769 entered the Zemene Mesafint (Age of Princes) when the emperor became the symbol of government while the country was ruled by warlords, and finally the succession of kings was restored under Emperor Tewodros II. The Ajuuraan Empire in the Horn of Africa began to collapse in the 17th century, replaced by the Geledi Sultanate. Other civilizations in Africa advanced during this period. The Oyo Empire was experiencing its golden age, as was the Benin Empire. The Ashanti Empire rose to power in what is modern day Ghana in 1670. The Kingdom of Kongo also prospered during this period. European exploration in Africa reached its peak at that time.

In 1511, the Portuguese conquered the Sultanate of Malacca in what is now Malaysia and Sumatra, Indonesia. The Portuguese controlled this important trading area until they were replaced by the Dutch in 1641. The Sultanate of Johor, centered on the southern tip of the Malay peninsula, became the dominating trading power in the area. European colonization eventually touched almost all parts of Southeast Asia: the British in Burma and Malaysia, the French in Indochina, the Dutch in the Dutch East Indies, the Spanish in the Philippines. Only Thailand that managed to be free from the colonization.

Oceania in the Pacific Ocean was affected by contact with Europeans, beginning with the circumnavigation voyage of Ferdinand Magellan, who landed in the Mariana Islands and other islands in 1521. Another important voyage was made by Abel Tasman (1642–44) who made it to the continent Australia, New Zealand and the surrounding islands and Captain James Cook (1768–1779), the first European in history to make contact with Hawaii. Great Britain established its first colony in Australia in 1788.

In the Far East, the Ming dynasty of China was replaced by the Qing dynasty (1644), the last imperial dynasty in China, which ruled until 1912. Meanwhile Japan experienced the Azuchi-Momoyama period (1568–1603), followed by the Edo period (1603– 1868). The Joseon dynasty in Korea (1392–1910) presided over this period, and successfully fended off Japanese and Chinese invasions in the 16th and 17th centuries. Japan and China established significant trade relations with European nations, especially the trade between the Portuguese and Japan (the Nanban trade). During the Edo period, Japan adopted a policy of isolation and kept out any influence from the Western World.

In South Asia, the Delhi Sultanate and the Deccan Sultanates were replaced by the Mughal Empire in the 16th century. Starting from the southwestern region of India, the Mughal Empire ruled almost all parts of the Indian subcontinent in the late 17th century, except for the area at the southern tip of India. After resisting the Islamic rule of the Mughal Empire, the Hindu Maratha Empire was established on the west coast in 1674, which gradually expanded its territory to make up most of the present-day state of India from the hands of the Mughal sultans over the years, mainly through wars. Decan (1681–1701).

In Russia, Ivan IV was installed as Russia's first Tsar (1547), and by annexing the Turkic khanates in the east, he transformed Russia into a regional power. The countries of Western Europe that were developing advanced technologies and colonial conquests competed with each other economically and militarily in a situation of near constant war. Sometimes these wars are related to religion, either Catholics versus Protestants, or (in Eastern Europe) Christians versus Muslims. The wars that occurred included the Thirty Years' War, the War of the Spanish Succession, the Seven Years' War, and the War of the French Revolution. Napoleon became leader of France in 1799, starting the wars of the Napoleonic Era in the early 19th century.

On the Americas, there was a race between European nations to colonize the newly discovered continent, which had significantly displaced the natives, destroying the flourishing Aztec and Inca civilizations. Spain, Portugal, the United Kingdom, and France made extensive territorial claims and appropriated large areas of settlement, as well as importing large numbers of African slaves. Portugal claims Brazil. Spain claims South America in addition to Brazil, Mesoamerica, and southern North America. The United Kingdom colonized the east coast of North America, and France colonized the central region of North America. The Russians descended on the southwest coast of North America and established their first colonies in what is now Alaska in 1784, and Fort Ross in California in 1812.
Abad Modern

Iron and Coal (1855–1860). Painting by William Bell Scott about the Industrial Revolution in Europe.

The Scientific Revolution changed human understanding of the world and led to the Industrial Revolution, a major transformation for the world economy. The Scientific Revolution in the 17th century had little direct impact on industrial technology, but after the mid-18th century scientific advances began to apply significantly to practical inventions. The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain and used new modes of production: factory, mass production, and mechanization to produce products more quickly and in large quantities, and employed fewer workers than before. The Age of Enlightenment also led to the beginnings of modern democracy in the American and French Revolutions of the late 18th century.

In 1762, during the Seven Years' War, France secretly ceded most of its North American claims to Spain in the Treaty of Fontainebleau (1762). Thirteen British colonies declared independence as the United States of America in 1776, ratified by the Treaty of Paris (1783), and ended in the American Revolutionary War. Napoleon Bonaparte reclaimed French claims from Spain in the Napoleonic Wars of the 19th century, but sold them to the United States as the Louisiana Purchase in 1803.

After the Europeans (especially the British and Spaniards) exerted influence and occupation of the Americas, the activities of imperialism in the West finally turned to the East and Asia. In the 19th century, European countries experienced more social and technological progress than countries in the east. The Maratha empire in India fell to the British in 1818, under the control of the British East India Company, and the entire former Maratha and Mughal empires merged into the British Raj in 1858. Great Britain gained control of the Indian subcontinent, Egypt, and the Malay peninsula ; France takes over Indochina; while the Netherlands strengthened its control over the Dutch East Indies. Many British emigrants occupied Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, while the Russians occupied areas of Siberia that were not yet familiar with agriculture. late 19th century, the powers of the European nations divided up the colonial territories of Africa. Within Europe itself, economic and military challenges created the nation-state system, and ethno-linguistic groupings began to be used to identify national identities distinct from aspirations for cultural and political autonomy. Such nationalism will become important for other ethnic groups in various parts of the world during the 20th century.

During the Industrial Revolution, the world's economy depended on coal as fuel, after the invention of new methods of transportation, such as trains and steamships, which made the world feel even smaller. On the other hand, the industrial pollution and environmental damage that has existed since the discovery of fire and the beginning of civilization has increased dramatically.

The advances that developed in Europe during the mid-18th century were twofold: a culture of entrepreneurship, and the affluence achieved through Atlantic trade (including the African slave trade). By the end of the 16th century, silver obtained from the Americas had enriched the Spanish Empire. Profits from the slave trade and plantations in the Caribbean only accounted for about 5% of Britain's economy during the Industrial Revolution. Some historians have concluded that in 1750, labor productivity in China's most developed regions was still on par with European Atlantic economies, but others such as Angus Maddison have argued that Western Europe's per capita productivity since the late Middle Ages has surpassed that of any other region in the world. .

Contemporary history

French bayonet troops during World War I, the first major war in contemporary history.

After the successful splitting of the atom by Ernest Rutherford in 1917, a series of research on nuclear reactions continued. The enormous energy generated from nuclear fission is utilized in nuclear weapons. Nuclear bombs were used as a weapon of war for the first time in human history in August 1945, on Hiroshima (left) and Nagasaki (right).

The 20th century began when Europe was at the peak of its prosperity and power, while most of the rest of the region was under their direct colonial power or indirect domination. Many regions in other parts of the world are influenced by countries that are heavily influenced by European culture: the United States and Japan. At the start of this century, the global system dominated by competing powers became a matter of tension, eventually succumbing to the softer structures of independent states organized in a western way.

The transformation grew into a series of wars with immense terrain and destruction. World War I destroyed many empires and empires in Europe, and weakened Great Britain and France. After the war ended, new ideologies emerged. The Russian Revolution (1917) led to the establishment of a communist state, while the 1920s and 1930s saw fascist military dictatorships in Italy, Germany, Spain, and others. 

Protracted international strife, exacerbated by economic turmoil and the Great Depression, contributed to World War II. The military dictatorships in Europe and Japan pursued imperialist expansionism. Their defeat paved the way for the advance of communism in Central Europe, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Romania, Albania, China, North Vietnam and North Korea.


After World War II ended in 1945, the United Nations was founded with the hope of settling disputes between nations and preventing future wars. The war left two countries with great powers, namely the United States and the Soviet Union, which guided international affairs. Both were suspicious of each other and feared the global spread of one country's political and economic models. This sparked the Cold War of bloodless strife between the United States, the Soviet Union, and their respective allies. With the development of nuclear weapons and an arms race, humanity is at risk of a nuclear war being triggered by the two superpowers.[k] Such wars are considered difficult to run, so funding is used in wars through third parties, with spending matched to a Third World country without nuclear weapons. The Cold War lasted until the 1990s, when the Soviet Union's communist system began to collapse, unable to compete economically with the United States and Western Europe. The Soviet Union countries in Central Europe demanded the sovereignty of their nations so that in 1991, the Soviet Union split into a number of countries. Since then, the United States has become the only superpower in the world.

In the early decades of the 20th century, the European colonies of Belgium, Britain, the Netherlands, France and other European empires in Africa and Asia declared their independence officially. These newly independent countries faced challenges in the form of neocolonialism, poverty, illiteracy, and endemic tropical diseases. Many countries in Western and Central Europe are slowly forming a political and economic community, namely the European Union, which is expanding eastward due to the participation of the countries of the former Soviet Union.

Astronaut Eugene Cernan during the Apollo 17 mission(1972), the last landing on the Moon. Landing on the Moon is one of the greatest achievements in human history.

The 20th century saw an explosion of scientific and technological advances, and increases in life expectancy and living standards for most of humanity. In its development, the world economy shifted from coal to petroleum along with updates in transportation technology, accompanying the beginning of the Information Age, which led to accelerated globalization. 

In this century, technological applications have been able to penetrate the Earth's atmosphere, which has enabled humanity to explore the empty space in the Solar System. In the field of biology, the discovery of the structure of DNA, the template for life and the sequencing of the human genome, is a glorious achievement in understanding human biology and treating disease. Literacy rates around the world are starting to increase, while the percentage of sources of labor for producing food for mankind is slowly decreasing. Sound recording, film, radio and television broadcasting technologies have resulted in the rapid spread of information and entertainment. Then, in the last decade of the century, there was an increase in the number of computer users, including personal computers. The global communications network comes in the form of the Internet.

In this century, several global threats emerged, some of which occurred as a result of human activity or worse than before, and some that were only widely known, for example nuclear development, global climate change, deforestation, population expansion, the presence of asteroids and comets near Earth. , and depletion of natural resources (especially fossil fuels).

21st century

The 21st century is marked by economic globalization and developments in communications such as mobile phones and the Internet. World demand and depletion of natural resources are increasing due to population growth and industrialization, especially in India, China and Brazil. This need results in increasing environmental damage and a growing threat of global warming. Hence there are calls for the development of alternative fuels or renewable energy sources (especially solar and wind power), calls for cleaner fossil fuel technologies, and considerations for expansion of the use of nuclear power (some nuclear power plants have actually experienced disasters).

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