Senin, 23 Januari 2023

Youth Pledge Day: Complete Original Text, Sound, History, Figures, Scripts, and Their Meanings

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Youth Pledge – This is one of the historical events that took place in Indonesia which proves that on October 28, 1928 the Indonesian nation existed and was united.

So that all Indonesian people must celebrate Youth Pledge Day on October 28 as a sign of the birth of Indonesia.

What is meant by the youth oath is a decision of the Second Youth Congress which was held for two days, 27-28 October 1928, located in Batavia, which today is better known as Jakarta.

This decision confirms the aspiration that there will be an Indonesian homeland, an Indonesian nation, and an Indonesian language. With this decision it is hoped that it will become the basis for every Indonesian national association, disseminated through newspapers, read out in writing, and in public.

The formulation of the youth oath congress was written by Moehammad Yamin on a piece of paper, then given to Soegondo who then whispered: (I have an elegant formulation for this decision).

Then Soegondo wrote his initials and passed them on to the others to write his initials as well. At first, the youth oath was read by Soegondo which was then explained at length by Moehammad Yamin.

Contents of the Youth Pledge

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The text of the youth oath consists of 2 versions, namely the original text version and the text version of the Adjusted Spelling (EYD).

Original / Original Version of the Youth Pledge Text

First: We, the sons and daughters of Indonesia, acknowledge that we have noble blood, the homeland of Indonesia. Second: We, the sons and daughters of Indonesia, acknowledge one nation, the Indonesian nation. Third: We the sons and daughters of Indonesia, uphold the language of unity, the Indonesian language.

New Version of Youth Oath Text (EYD)

First: We, sons and daughters of Indonesia, acknowledge that we have one motherland, Indonesia. Second: We, sons and daughters of Indonesia, claim to be one nation, the Indonesian nation. Third: We, sons and daughters of Indonesia, uphold the language of unity, the Indonesian language.

The text of the youth oath was read at the youth congress held in Waltervreden (Jakrta) on 27-28 October 1928.

The figures and committee of the youth congress itself include:

Chairman : Soegondo Djojopoespito (PPPI)
Deputy Chairman : RM Djoko Marsaid (Jong Java)
Secretary : Mohammad Jamin (Jong Sumateranen Bond)
Treasurer : Amir Sjarifuddin (Jong Bataks Bond)
Assistant I : Djohan Mohammad Tjai (Jong Islamieten Bond)
Assistant II : R .. Katja Soengkana (Indonesian Pemoeda)
Assistant III : Senduk (Jong Celebes)
Assistant IV : Johanes Leimena (yong Ambon)
Assistant V : Rochjani Soe'oed (Pemoeda Kaoem Betawi)
Participants :

Participants Participants Participants Abdul Muthalib Sangadji Bahder Djohan Soekmono Mohammad Nazif Full Moon Wulan SM Kartosoewirjo Joesoepadi Sujono (Volksraad) Abdul Rachman Dali Soekowati (Volksraad) Mohammad Roem Raden Soeharto Setiawan Jos Masdani Sulaeman Abu Hanifah Darsa Soemanang Mohammad Tabrani Raden Soekamso Sigit (Indonesische Studieclub) Kadir Suwarni Adnan Kapau Gani Karto Menggolo TjahijaAmir (Dienaren van Indie) Djuanda Soenario (PAPI & INPO) Muhidin (Pasundan) Saerun (Keng Po) Sjahpuddin Latif Kasman Singodimedjo Van der Plaas (Dutch Government) Anta Permana Dr.Pijper Soerjadi MukarnoSahardjo Sjahrial (Adviseur voor inlandsch Zaken) Koentjoro Poerbopranoto WilopoAnwari Emma Puradiredja Soewadji Prawirohardjo MuwardiSarbini Soejono Djoenoed Poeponegoro Martakusuma Wage Rudolf SoepratmanArnold Manonutu Halim Soewirjo Nona TumbelSarmidi RM Djoko Marsaid Masmoen Rasid SuharaSarmidi Mangunsarkoro Hamami Soeworo Jo TumbuhanAssaat Soekamto Mohammad Ali Hanafiah Sartono

Yamin's prestige, who was the secretary and drafter of the Youth Pledge pledge, was indeed high. But don't forget, Yamin is not only known for his role in that 1928 moment. He was also later known for being one of the BPUPKI figures who later formulated Pancasila, and later helped formulate the history of the archipelago and Indonesianness.

Apart from Yamin, there were important committee members for the Second Youth Congress, for example Soegondo Djojopuspito who was chairman of the committee. There is Amir from Jong Batak Bond, also Djoko Marsaid as Deputy Chair. There was also Djohan Mohammad Tjai as Assistant 1 and Kotjosungkono from Indonesian Youth Assistant II. RCL Senduk from Jong Celebes became Assistant III, Johannes Leimena from Jong Ambon as Assistant IV, and Rohyani from Pemuda Kaoem Betawi as Assistant V.

The committee members were also invited to attend, namely educated people. Yamin himself was then a law student at the Recht Hoge School in Betawi, whose building is now the Ministry of Defense's office.

The Association of Indonesian Students (PPPI), a youth organization whose members are students from all over the Dutch East Indies, was the organizer of the Second Youth Congress. After his law school at Recht Hoge School was a mess, Soegondo Djojopuspito started working here. He also represented PPPI in the II Youth Congress committee.

However, while his position on the committee was higher than that of Yamin, Soegondo was less popular. On the Google search engine, there are only 17,400 search results for 'Sugondo Joyopuspito' or 14,800 search results when typed with van Ophuysen's spelling: \'Soegondo Djojopuspito\'. If you typed in his name and then added the word \'Youth Pledge\' there would be 10,900 search results.

According to Soenyata Kartadarmadja: Sugondo Djojopuspito, His Work and Devotion (1983), after the Congress Soegondo remained in the flow of the national movement.

Together with Soenario Sastrowardoyo, the grandfather of the female artist Dian Sastro, he founded the People's College on December 11, 1928. It was located in Gang Kenari No. 15 Salemba. Soegondo became the principal of the school.

In 1930, he went to Bandung and became a teacher at Taman Siswa. He was a PNI Sukarno sympathizer who was frozen by the Dutch East Indies government. In 1933, he married Suwarsih Djojopuspito. A year later, Soegondo was arrested but released. Although free, he was banned from teaching until 1935.

After failing to teach at the Loka Siswa School, Soegondo went to Semarang and briefly taught again at the Taman Siswa school. At the end of 1936, he went to Surabaya and became a journalist for De Indische Courant Soerabaia. Then came the period of the Japanese occupation. During this time, he worked in prison.

After independence, Soegondo was listed as a member of the Working Committee of the Central Indonesian National Committee (BP-KNIP). In 1950, Soegondo was appointed in Halim's cabinet as minister of community development. His position at BP-KNIP was filled by Djohan Sjahroezah.

Meanwhile, the Congress finance officer, Marga Harahap from the Batak Youth who is commonly known as Amir Sjarifudin, is mentioned quite often in Indonesian history. Like Yamin, Amir is also a law student at Recht Hoge School.

Search results for Amir reached 193,000 results for using the name 'Amir Sjarifudin' and only 119,000 results for using 'Amir Syarifudin'. Amir is known and more related because of his involvement in the 1948 Madiun Moment. If you add 'youth oath', there are only 20,300 search results for Amir.

Of the many congress committees, while he was quite popular, he had the most tragic fate. He was brushed by the Nasution variation of the TNI.

It also has a bad place in Indonesian history. He was executed because he was considered to have been involved in the 1948 Madun Incident, even though he had served as prime minister.

Meanwhile, even though there are 10,600 search results regarding Djoko Marsaid who became Deputy Chair of the Congress, there is no complete record of his origins, other than that he is a member of Jong Java. The rest is not clear. If you typed in his name and then added the word \'Sumpah Pemuda\', you would find 7,200 search results about him.

Likewise with Djohan Mohammad Tjai from Jong Islamieten Bond who at the congress became Assistant 1. Only 6,470 search results about him on Google. If you add \'Sumpah Pemuda\' to your name, you will find 9,990 results.

There were even fewer search results for Kotjosungkono from Indonesian Youth who became Assistant II at the Congress. There are only 375 results. However, if the name of this man who was born in Madura was added "Youth Pledge", the result would be even more, namely 622 search results.

As for Assistant III RCL Senduk and Assistant IV Johannes Leimena, people from the same area seem to still remember them. Both are STOVIA medical students in Kwitang. The building has now become the National Awakening Museum. Both of them later became doctors.

The young Rumondor Cornelis Lefrand Senduk comes from Minahasa. During the Second Youth Congress, he was a member of Jong Celebes. Then he became a doctor in Sukabumi. In 1938, with doctor Bahder Johan, Senduk boldly proposed the founding of the Indonesian Red Cross, but was rejected.

Two years later the input was repeated again but was rejected again. This figure has a great service in the history of the Indonesian Red Cross. On the Google search engine, there are 1,140 search results about it. If the name RCL Senduk is added \'Sumpah Pemuda\', then only 233 search results are found.

Youth Johannes Leimena is a member of Jong Ambon. On the congressional committees, he was Assistant IV. It's trending on the Google search engine. It's pretty decent: there are 41,900 search results about it. If you add 'Youth Pledge', you will find 14,600 search results.

Leimena is popular not only because of the Youth Pledge. He used to be a zending doctor. At the beginning of independence, the humble Leimena was appointed minister of health many times. He has also been the minister of social affairs.

At the end of Soekarno's reign, Leimena was deputy prime minister (waperdam) III. In the history of the Indonesian Christian Student Movement, Leimena is well known, although during the New Order era her name was somewhat forgotten.

Out of all of them, Rohyani from Pemuda Kaoem Betawi became Maid V, namely the least known. There are only 777 search results for it. Even then, it must be accompanied by the phrase \'Youth Pledge\'. If not, only photographs of a woman who might be named Rohyani appear.

Looking at this series, it can be seen that the former committee members who have the most digital footprints are those who were high-ranking officials after Indonesia's independence, such as Soegondo, Yamin, and Leimena.

Yamin became the best known and remembered because Yamin was also involved in writing many things about the formation of Indonesia and Indonesian-ness. People know him also as a historian. Apart from being a central figure who wrote Majapahit, Yamin was also the Minister of Teaching, Education & Culture.

Yamin played a role in choosing the Garuda Pancasila state symbol with Sultan Hamid II of Pontianak who designed the state symbol.

History of the Youth Pledge


On the night of October 28, 1928, at the crowded Indonesische Clubgebouw, thousands of youths heard the closing lecture of the second Indonesian Youth Congress and at the same time heard the song "Indonesia Raya" from WR's violin. Supratman.

Towards the closing, Muhammad Yamin, who was 25 years old at the time, circulated a piece of paper to the chairman of the meeting, Soegondo Djojopoespito, then circulated it to the other meeting participants. Who would have thought that it was from Yamin's ink article on a piece of paper that the idea of ​​the Youth Pledge was sparked.

The oath was then read by Soegondo, then Yamin gave a lengthy explanation of its essence. At first, Yamin's short resume was called "youth pledge", then Yamin himself changed it to "Youth Pledge". The following is the contents of the Youth Pledge:

We sons and daughters of Indonesia acknowledge that we are united by one blood, Land of Indonesia
We sons and daughters of Indonesia acknowledge one nation, the Indonesian Nation
We sons and daughters of Indonesia uphold the language of unity, the Indonesian language

The Second Youth Congress took place on October 27-28 in three stages of meetings. The first meeting took place at the Katholieke Jongelingen Bond building in Waterlooplein (now Banteng Field), then it was moved to the Oost Java Bioscoop at Konigsplein Noord (now Jalan Medan Merdeka Utara), and then the Kramat 106 Building was only used for the third meeting as well as closing the meeting.

From the first meeting to the third meeting, this II youth congress presented 15 speakers, who discussed various themes. Among the known speakers include: Soegondo Djojopespito, Muhammad Yamin, Siti Sundari, Poernomowoelan, Sarmidi Mangoensarkoro, and Sunario.

There were also many youth and scouting organizations present at that time, including: Jong Java, Jong Ambon, Jong Celebes, Jong Batak, Jong Sumatranen Bond, Jong Islamieten Bond, Sekar Roekoen, PPPI, Pemuda Kaum Betawi, etc.

Before the second youth congress, the youth had already held its first congress in 1926. Tabrani Soerjowitjitro, one of the important figures from the first congress, participants in the first congress had promised to realize Malay as the language of unity.

However, at that time, Tabrani admitted that he did not agree with Yamin's idea regarding the application of the Malay language. Based on Tabrani, if the homeland is called Indonesia, the nation is called Indonesia, therefore the language should be called Indonesian and not Malay, even though the elements are Malay.

The decision of the first congress finally revealed that the determination of the language of unity would be decided at the second congress.

After the second youth congress, the attitude of the colonial government was general. Also, Van Der Plass, a colonial official in charge of colonial affairs, underestimated the youth congress and its decisions.

Van Der Plass himself laughed at the congress's decision to make Indonesian the unified language, considering that several speakers at the congress used Dutch and the local language.

Soegondo himself, even though he was asked to chair the session and tried to use the Indonesian language, it appeared that he had difficulty speaking Indonesian properly.

Siti Sundari, one of the speakers at the second youth congress, still uses Dutch. It's just that, two months later, as written by Dr Keith Foulcher, an educator majoring in Indonesia at the University of Sydney, Australia, Siti Sundari started using Indonesian.

However, what Van Der Plass predicted was wrong. History has shown that the congress has become the "fire" that ignited the national unity of the Indonesian people to fight against colonialism.

Meanwhile, as historian Asvi Warman Adam said, quoting Professor Sartono Kartodirdjo's statement, that the Political Manifesto issued by the Indonesian Association in the Netherlands in 1925 was more fundamental than the 1928 Youth Pledge.

The 1925 Political Manifesto contained the principles of struggle, namely unity, equality and liberty. As for the Youth Pledge, it only shows unity—at least that is what has been embedded in the collective memory of the Indonesian people so far through the motto "one homeland, one nation, one language".

Bung Karno himself considered the 1928 Youth Pledge to have a revolutionary meaning: a unified state from Sabang to Merauke, a just and prosperous society, and eternal friendship between nations. "Don't inherit the ashes of the Youth Pledge, but inherit the fire of the Youth Pledge.

If you only inherit ashes, you will be satisfied with Indonesia, which now has one language, nation and homeland. But this is not the final goal," Soekarno said in commemoration of the 35th Youth Pledge Day at the Senayan Sports Palace, Jakarta, October 28, 1963.

Source: https://alihamdan.id/sumpah-pemuda/amp/

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