Minggu, 19 Maret 2023


Complete Adolescent Development Characteristics Paper

A. Background
In general, youth is defined as a transitional period between childhood and adulthood that runs between the ages of 12 to 21 years. Each stage of human development is usually accompanied by various psychological demands that must be met, as well as during adolescence. Most psychologists agree that if the various psychological demands that arise at the stages of human development are not fulfilled, there will be impacts that can significantly hinder psychological maturity at later stages.
In this paper we make, we discuss the characteristics of the development of students in adolescence in terms of aspects of physical development, cognitive development, moral development, social development and many more.
B. Problem Formulation
1. What is a teenager?
2. What are the characteristics of development in adolescence?


A. Meaning of Youth
Adolescents in their original language are called adolescents, derived from the word adolescere which means "to grow or grow to reach maturity". Further development, the term adolescence actually has a meaning that includes mental, emotional, social and physical maturity (Hurlock, 1991). This view is supported by Piaget (Hurlock, 1991) who states that psychologically youth is an age when children do not feel they are below the level of their elders, but rather feel the same or at least on equal footing. [1]
In addition, teenagers have uniqueness that lies in the individuals. It is clear that adolescents from the same family display differences in size, intelligence, interests and social characteristics. Teenagers from one social class differ from youth from other classes in their attitudes and aspirations. In short, some of the uniqueness of teenagers lies in their individuality, not in their youth.
The characteristics or characteristics of adolescents include: [2]
· Sexual development
· Overflowing emotions
Becoming attracted to the opposite sex
· Anxiety
· Opposition
· Group activities
· Desire to try everything
B. Developmental characteristics in adolescents [3]
a. Physical development
Adolescence is one of the two periods in an individual's life span where rapid physical growth occurs. The first period occurs in the prenatal and infancy phases. Certain body parts in the early years of life are proportionally too small, but in adolescence the proportions become too large, because they reach maturity earlier than other parts. The most obvious thing is seen on the nose, feet and hands. In late adolescence the proportions of the individual body reach those of the adult body in all its parts.
In the development of adolescent sexuality, it is marked by two characteristics, namely as follows:
a) Primary sex characteristics
Ø In male adolescents characterized by very rapid growth of the testicles. As the testicles begin to grow and the penis lengthens, the seminal vessels and prostate gland enlarge. The maturity of these sex organs allows young men (around the age of 14-15 years) to experience "wet dreams".
Ø In young women the maturity of their sexual organs is marked by the growth of the uterus, vagina and ovaries (ovaries). The ovaries produce eggs and secrete hormones that are released for pregnancy, menstruation. At this time around the age of 11-15 years young women experience their first menstruation.
b) Secondary sex characteristics
v Women: Growing hair or fur around the genitals and armpits, increased breast size, increased hip size.
v Men: Growing hair or fur around the genitals and armpits, voice changes, mustaches grow, Adam's apple grows.
b. Cognitive (intellectual) development
At the age of 12-20 years the process of brain growth reaches perfection. At the age of 16 years the weight of the brain is the same as adults. In adolescence, there is a reorganization of the frontal lobe nerve circle which functions as a high-level cognitive activity, namely the ability to formulate strategic plans or make decisions. This frontal lobe develops until the age of 20 and is very influential on the intellectual abilities of adolescents, just like a 12 year old child, although intellectually these adolescents are gifted but not yet wise.
c. Emotional development
In adolescence is the peak of emotionality, namely high emotional development. Physical growth and sexual organs that influence the development of new emotions or feelings and impulses that have been experienced before such as feelings of love, longing and the desire to get to know more intimately with the opposite sex. In early adolescents, their emotional development shows a sensitive and reactive nature towards social events or situations, their emotions are negative and temperamental. Being a late teenager can control his emotions.
d. Social Development
In adolescence, "social cognition" develops, namely the ability to understand other people. Teenagers understand other people as unique individuals, both in terms of personal traits, interests, values ​​and feelings. His understanding encourages adolescents to establish more intimate social relationships with their peers, both through friendship and romance. In friendship relationships, adolescents choose friends who have relatively the same psychological qualities as themselves, both regarding interests, attitudes, values ​​and personality. At this time also teenagers tend to follow the opinions, opinions, values, habits, hobbies and also the wishes of others.
e. Moral Development
At this time, the urge appears to do good deeds that are considered good by others. The diversity of adolescent moral levels is due to the various determining factors as well. One of the influences is parents.
f. Personality development
Personality traits reflect physical, sexual, emotional, social, cognitive and values ​​development. Adolescence is most important for the development and integration of personality. New factors and experiences that show changes in personality during adolescence include:
a) . The acquisition of physical growth resembling adulthood.
b) . Sexual maturity is accompanied by new impulses and emotions.
c). Self-awareness, the desire to self-direct and self-evaluate about standards (norms), goals and ideals.
d). The need for friendship is heterosexual, making friends with both men and women.
Adolescence is a time of developing identity. The development of "identity" is a central issue in adolescence that provides the basis for adulthood. Erikson believes that identity development in adolescence is closely related to commitment to future occupations.
In collaborating on Erikson's theory of adolescent identity, James Marcia et al. Found that there are four alternatives for adolescents in testing themselves and their choices, namely as follows. [4]
a) Identity Achievement, which means that after adolescents understand realistic choices, they must make choices and behave according to their choices.
b) Identity Foreclosure, accepting parents' choices without considering their choices.
c) Identity Diffusion, which means confusion about who he is and what he wants in his life.
d) Moratorium, a delay in the commitment of adolescents to personal or occupational choices. In this case, Erikson realized that adolescents in complex societies experience identity crises or temporary periods of moratorium and confusion.
g. The development of religious consciousness
To obtain clarity about the religious awareness of youth can be seen as follows:
a) Early adolescence (around 13-16 years old)
At this time religion is sometimes very strong, but sometimes very less. This can be seen in the way of worship, sometimes diligent and sometimes lazy. This religious upheaval arises due to internal and external factors.
Internal factors such as the maturity of the sex organs are encouraged to fulfill these needs, but on the other hand it is prohibited by religion. The other is psychological in nature, namely an independent attitude, the desire to be free, not wanting to be bound by family norms. Edang is related to cultural developments in society, which often conflict with religious values ​​such as the circulation of pornographic films and photographs, alcohol, marijuana or illegal drugs.
If you do not receive religious guidance in the family, it can trigger the development of bad attitudes and behavior in adolescents, such as promiscuity (free sex), drinking, smoking marijuana and becoming a trouble maker in society.
b) Late adolescence (17-21 years)
Psychologically, this period is the beginning of adulthood, his emotions are starting to stabilize and his thinking is critical. In religious life, adolescents have started to involve themselves in religious activities and can distinguish between religion as teachings and humans as adherents, some of whom are righteous and not.

1. Adolescents in their original language are called adolescents, derived from the word adolescere which means "to grow or grow to reach maturity". Meanwhile, Piaget's view in his book Sitti Hartinah states that psychologically adolescents are an age where children do not feel they are below the level of their elders, but feel the same or at least on equal footing.
2. The developments experienced in adolescence include: physical development, cognitive development, emotional development, social development, moral development, personality development, and the development of various awareness

Ali, Muhammad. 2005. Adolescent Psychology. Bandung: Earth Literacy.
Hurlock, Elizabeth B. 1980. Developmental Psychology. Jakarta: Erlangga.
Mappiare. 1984. Adult Psychology. Surabaya: National Business.
Hartinah, Sitti. 2008. Development of students, Bandung: PT Refika Aditama.
Yusuf, Shamsu. 2007 Developmental Psychology of Children and Adolescents. Bandung : PT. Rosdakarya youth.

[1] Sitti Hartinah, "student development", Bandung: PT Refika Aditama, 2008, pp. 57-58

[2] Zulkifli L, "Developmental Psychology", Bandung: PT Juvenile Rosdakarya, 2006, pp. 65-66

[3] Syamsu Yusuf LN, "Psychology of Child & Adolescent Development", pp. 193-209
[4] Syamsu Yusuf LN, "Psychology of Child & Adolescent Development", pp. 201-202
source: rudy

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