Complete History of Islamic Development in Central Java Indonesia
History of Islamic Civilization in Central Java
A. Islam in Java
Historians seem to agree that the spreaders of Islam in Java were the Wali Songo. They are not only powerful in the religious field, but also in matters of government and politics. In fact, often a king seems to be legitimate as a king only if he has been recognized and given by Wali Songo. Islam has spread on the island of Java, at least since Malik Ibrahim and Maulana Ishak, who was called Shaykh Awal Al-Islam, were sent as preachers by the King of the Sea, Sultan Zainal Abidin Bahiyah Syah (1349-1406). 
After he died, the tombstone of Malik Ibrahim's grave dates back to 1419. Although he is believed to be a propagator of Islam, there is no definite source that says so. Another contemporary tomb is that of Tjempa's daughter. The wife of Prabu Brawijaya, the king of Majapahit who supports his wife's Islamic funeral. Putri Tjempa was the aunt of Raden Rahmat from Ampel Denta who was appointed by his followers who were appointed by the king as priests for the community during the reign of Majapahit. Raden Rahmat spread Islam throughout Java by peaceful means and this method was very successful for his followers. His student named Raden Paku built a mosque and converted the Giri people to Islam. From then on, there was a phase of major change in Java known as the Phase of the Spread of Islam. Often they (the saints) disguise themselves to break the circle of old adherents. They are very active and move around in a very flexible way of cultural acculturation. Often they hold very important roles both as part of the government and as authorities themselves. This system eventually gave rise to a discourse known as the Islamic village and Islamic boarding school. Often they hold very important roles both as part of the government and as authorities themselves. This system eventually gave rise to a discourse known as the Islamic village and Islamic boarding school. Often they hold very important roles both as part of the government and as authorities themselves. This system eventually gave rise to a discourse known as the Islamic village and Islamic boarding school. 
B. Spread of Islam in Central Java
The process of the inclusion of Islamic religion and culture in the archipelago is still being debated by experts.
Who and which nation brought this religion to this day is still a matter of disagreement. There are those who say that the religion of Islam was brought by Gujarati traders, and there are also those who say that it was the Egyptians, Iranians, or Hadramaut Arabs who brought Islam in the archipelago. Each expert opinion becomes a theory that needs further proof.
However, up to the 8th/14th century, there had not been any conversion of the indigenous people of the archipelago on a large scale. It was only in the 9th / 14th century, around 1524-1546 that the natives embraced Islam en masse. Historians argue that the conversion of the archipelago's population to Islam on a large scale in that century was due to the fact that at that time the Muslims already had significant political power. That is marked by the establishment of several Islamic-style kingdoms such as the Kingdoms of Aceh Darussalam, Malacca, Demak, Cirebon, and Ternate. The rulers of these kingdoms were of mixed blood, descended from pre-Islamic native kings and Arab immigrants. 
The rapid Islamization in the 14th and 15th centuries was partly due to the decline in power and influence of the Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms in the archipelago, such as Majapahit, Srivijaya and Sunda. Thomas Arnold in The Preaching of Islam said that the arrival of Islam was not as a conqueror like the Portuguese and Spanish. Islam came to Southeast Asia in a peaceful way, not with a sword, not by seizing political power  .
However, it must be understood that Islam actually entered Java in the 8th century AD. According to Hasanu Simon, the influence of the spread of Islam in Java has become more widespread after Sultan Muhammad I from Turkey sent a team of Islamic preachers when the people and rulers of Majapahit faced political, economic and peace turmoil as a result of the civil war in 1401 to 1406.
By looking at the facts mentioned above, the process of spreading Islam in the archipelago and the land of Java is experiencing a very rapid development phase. The Islamic religion spread to the local population was also well received. This is because the process of spreading religion is carried out in a peaceful way through the medium of trade, education, da'wah, arts, and Sufism. 
As the center of the spread of Islam in Java, the Kingdom of Demak or the Demak Sultanate was the first Islamic-based kingdom on the island of Java. The development of Islam on the island of Java originated from a kingdom in the Demak area or called the Kingdom of Demak. Geographically, the Demak kingdom was located in the Demak area, in Central Java. By the local community, Demak is also known as Bintoro or Glagah Wangi. The Kingdom of Demak was a "subordinate" of the Majapahit kingdom. When compared with age, the Demak kingdom was much younger than the Majapahit kingdom. However, speaking of history, the Demak kingdom was never free from the influence of the Majapahit empire. Of course, because the king of the Demak kingdom, Raden Fatah, a regent of the Majapahit kingdom, converted to Islam.
The Kingdom of Demak was the largest Islamic empire on the north coast of Java. Based on a source from the Javanese tradition, Demak was originally a duchy (dipaten) of the kingdom and was one of the pioneers of the spread of Islam on the island of Java, especially in Indonesia. 
Raden Patah in running the government, especially in matters of religion, was assisted by the scholars who appointed him. Previously, Demak, which was still named Bintaro, was a Majapahit area (Brawijaya V) to Raden Patah. This area gradually became the center of the development of the Islamic religion organized by the Wali. 
a. Time of Demak's Success
The heyday of Demak occurred during the time of Raden Patah. Where during his leadership, the kingdom of Demak developed rapidly due to the influence of Wali Songo. The Kingdom of Demak did not take long to become a large Islamic empire. Raden Patah's triumph in leading the Demak kingdom occurred in 1511. His territory also extended to the coastal areas of Central Java and East Java. In leading the kingdom of Demak. Raden Patah was not alone. He was assisted by his son Pati Unus.
Prince Trenggono Younger brother of Pati Unus, Prince who led the Kingdom of Demak in 1518-1521. He rules well. The Kingdom of Demak again reached its heyday. The territory of the Kingdom of Demak has now touched the territory of West Java. It was all thanks to the leadership of Prince Trenggono who was wise, gallant and brave. 
In 1524-1546, Islam experienced problems very quickly throughout Java and even to Kalimantan. This was the third effort of the Sultan of Demak, namely Trenggono who had the title Sultan Ahmad Abdul Tuban around 1527. Subsequent conquests of Demak included Madiun, Blora (1530), Surabaya (1531), Pasuruan (1535), Lamongan. The recognition of Demak's power by Banjarmasin and Palembang further widened the spread of Islam itself. Assisted by Sheikh Siti Jenar and Sunan Tembayat, the interior areas around Mount Merapi, Penggin and Pajang also declared their submission to Demak.
b. Demak's Weaknesses
It turned out that the Sultan of Demak Al-Fatah alias Jin Bun was not very good at attracting the sympathy of people from the hinterland, formerly the people of Majapahit. Jin bun too relied on his strength to the Muslim/non-Muslim Chinese community who settled in port cities along the coast of Java. He has a strong desire to defend the maritime nation. Naturally, attention was paid to shipbuilders in shipyards in port cities for the sake of building a strong fleet. Sea trade was enlarged, especially the trade in spices from the East Indonesian archipelago.
Since 1509, two years before the arrival of the Portuguese in Malacca, Adipati Yunus alias Yat Sun had aspired to seize the port city of Malacca. The attack on Malacca was preceded by the Portuguese from Goa. The attack by the Demak fleet in 1512 was launched against the Portuguese in Malacca, who turned out to be better armed than the Demak fleet. The position of the Portuguese in Malacca from a war strategy point of view was very favorable. As a result, the Demak fleet attack failed. Throughout the life of the Demak sultanate, enmity flared between Demak and Malacca to fight for power in the Malacca Straits and the monopoly of the spice trade from the Maluku islands. All Demak forces were deployed to attack the Portuguese. There is no time to think about the life of the people in the interior. The political conflict that occurred later reduced the sovereignty of Demak following the killing of Sultan Trenggono. His successor, Sunan Prawoto, was also not sovereign because he was killed by Aria Penangsang, Adipati Jipang, in 1549. The killing of Aria Penangsang by Jaka Tingkir ended the kingdom of Demak and was continued by Pajang and Mataram.
What greatly weakened the position of the Demak sultanate was the dispute between the descendants of Jin Bun. As long as Jin Bun was in power until 1518, then replaced by Adipati Yunus alias Yat sun until 1521, Demak's power was still compact. The Demak fleet still dared to move to Malacca to fight the Portuguese who had settled in Malacca. However, after Yat Sun's death, a dispute arose between Jin bun's descendants, because Yat Sun left no sons. The struggle for power between families began to flare up, while among the magnates of the former Majapahit kingdom there were still some who did not want to submit to Demak's rule. 
a. The history of the development of Islam in Kudus
In the development of Islam in Indonesia, Kudus is one of the historical cities in Central Java. This can be seen from the existing relics such as the Holy Mosque Tower, Madureksan Mosque, Bubar Mosque, and others that are ancient. The development of a religion anywhere, will definitely be influenced by the culture that existed at that time. Likewise, when the Islamic religion developed in the Kudus area and its surroundings, Islam was influenced by various previous cultures.
For the people of Kudus, the nature of animism and dynamism does not seem to change, instead it increases with the emergence of an acculturation (a new culture from several cultures). For example, during the Buka Luwur ceremony (replacing the grave netting) both Sunan Kudus, Sunan Muria, Sunan Khadiri (Mantingan), and Kyai The Ling Sing in the month of Syuro Muharram. People came in droves with various intentions, some wanted to get a piece of Luwur cloth to be used as a talisman, or some hoped to get a pack of rice. This rice is dried, then sprinkled in the rice fields so that the land for leafhoppers is fertile and so on.
When Islam entered Java, many Hindu elements entered Islam. In terms of architecture, for example, it can be seen in the Kudus mosque building and other buildings in the Kudus mosque complex. Such as the three-storied roof that covers the mosque, the gate buildings that surround or are found in the enclosing walls of the complex, all of which are similar to Hindu architectural patterns such as sacred buildings in Bali. Then the elements of tradition appear on the surrounding walls with the gate in the mosque complex, which is a legacy of the Javanese-Hindu pattern of building art tradition.
The ablution place at the Holy Mosque, which has eight water faucets, also reminds us of the philosophical values of Buddhist beliefs. That humans, if they want to be successful, must go through eight paths of truth called Astasanghikamarga, namely:
5. Way of life
6. Business Power
In general, around the mosque there is a tomb. The graves are also often visited by people, with the intention of pilgrimage.
In the history of the development of Islam in Kudus, the name Kyai The Ling Sing is known, a Chinese who came from Hunan, South China. He came around 400 AD with friends from the same village, namely Kyai Agung Wajah, Kyai Ageng Kedangeyan and Nyi Ageng Mlati. The goal is to spread Islam in Kudus. Therefore, it is not surprising that there are carvings of Hong and Nagara birds on the carvings of the Kudus house. 
b. Figures who played a role in the spread of Islam in Central Java
1. Sunan Kudus
He was one of the Wali Songo who spread Islam in the northern coastal areas of Central Java, especially in the Kudus area. Son of Raden Usman Haji, he is also known as Ja'far sadiq. A senopati of the Islamic kingdom of Demak.
During his lifetime Sunan Kudus played an important role in fostering the Demak sultanate. It can even be said that Sunan Kudus was the one who mobilized all the Islamic forces to develop Islam on the island of Java. 
The ways of preaching Sunan Kudus are as follows:
a. Approach strategy to the masses by way of:
§ Leaving old customs that are difficult to change
§ Avoid direct confrontation in broadcasting the Islamic religion
§ Tut Wuri Handayani
§ Parts of customs that are not in accordance are easily changed immediately changed.
b. Embracing Hindu society is like prohibiting slaughtering cows because in Hinduism cows are sacred and sacred animals.
c. Embracing Buddhist society
After the mosque, Sunan Kudus built an ablution place with a shower with a statue of Kebo Gumarang on it, this was in accordance with the Buddhist teachings "The path is eightfold".
d. Goodbye Mitoni
Usually before the salvation event is held to read the history of the Prophet. 
2. Sunan Muria
He is the son of Sunan Kali jaga with Dewi Saroh. His real name is Raden Umar Said, in preaching he is like his father, which is to use subtle methods, like taking a fish from cloudy water. That is the method he used around Mount Muria in spreading Islam. His preaching targets are traders, fishermen and common people. He is the only one who defends the art of gamelan and wayang as a preaching tool and he is the one who created the Sinom song. He filled a lot of Javanese traditions with Islamic nuances such as nelung dino, mitung dino, nyatus dino and so on. 
C. Islamic life in Central Java in the 15th and 16th centuries Legend and history
Javanese literature of the 17th and 18th centuries contains many traditional stories about saints, pious people who are thought to have spread Islam in Java. Narrated their lives, miracles, and beliefs in the field of mysticism and theology. This guardian is called the "Wali Nine". Guardians in Java are centered in the sacred mosque in Demak which was founded jointly. That's where they held a meeting to exchange ideas about mysticism. They played an important role in the political history of Java in the 16th and 17th. They had become religious leaders. The example of people from Kadilangu in Demak, Sunan Kalijaga and his descendants did not become kings, but their influence in the spiritual field in southern Central Java turned out to be great. In the development of Wali Sembilan, there are two streams:
· The Tuban sect was led by Sunan Kalijaga, Sunan Bonang, Sunan Muria, Sunan Kudus and Sunan Gunung Jati. These scholars are experts in the field of statehood. The development of the Islamic movement is about to be merged into a people's movement that struggles with Empu Supa who aspires to an archipelago as a national state. The application of the Islamic religion is in harmony with the customs, procedures and beliefs of the indigenous people. Because they are not so strict in implementing worship, this group is often called an abangan group.
· The flow of Giri led by Sunan Giri, Sunan Ampel and Sunan Degrees. These three scholars are orthodox. The hard group in the application of worship is called the mutihan group.
This is the origin of the emergence of abangan and mutihan Islam. Fortunately, this split did not become a split because then they gained unity, namely Sunan Giri was appointed the leader of the ulama (mufti) who was entrusted with the leadership of Islam throughout Java and was given the nickname Prabu Satmata and matters of state policy were handed over by Sunan Kalijaga and friends. So then the Demak mosque was built which aimed to form a formidable or blessed (sacred) Islamic institution. 
· Political System and Government System
In the political arena, Islam began to position itself when the weakening of Majapahit power gave opportunity to Islamic rulers on the coast to build an independent center of power. Under the leadership of Sunan Ampel, Wali Songo agreed to appoint Raden Raden Patah as the first King of the Islamic kingdom of Demak, the first Islamic kingdom in Java. Apart from the political power of Islam which greatly contributed to its development, Islam also lives in society and can encourage non-Muslim rulers to embrace it. JC Van Leur said that the motivation of the regent of the north coast of Java to embrace Islam was aimed at maintaining his position. In other words, the regent has made Islam a political instrument to strengthen his position. 
In carrying out his government, Raden Patah was assisted by scholars and Wali Songo, especially in religious matters, this kingdom took place around the 15th and 16th centuries.  Besides that, there were also the kingdoms of Mataram, Cirebon, and Banten. In establishing the Islamic State, the role of the Wali Songo was very large. For example Sunan Gunung Jati founded the Islamic kingdoms of Cirebon and Banten, Sunan Giri in the Mataram Kingdom whose influence reached Makassar, Ambon and Ternate. Not long after ascending to the throne, Raden Patah's successor, Pati Unus, attacked Malacca, which at that time was occupied by the Portuguese, although it ultimately failed in 1512-1513. 
· Economic Life
As explained in the description of the previous material, that the strategic location of Demak in the archipelago's trade routes allowed Demak to develop as a maritime empire.
In trading activities, Demak acts as a liaison between the spice-producing regions in eastern Indonesia and the spice-producing regions of western Indonesia. Thus the Demak trade is growing. And this is also supported by Demak's mastery of ports in the coastal areas of the island of Java.
As an Islamic empire that has territory in the interior, Demak also pays attention to agricultural issues, so that rice is one of the agricultural products that becomes a trading commodity. Thus its trading activities are supported by agricultural products, resulting in Demak gaining economic benefits.
The social and cultural life of the Demak people is based more on religion and Islamic culture because basically Demak is the center of the spread of Islam on the island of Java.
As a center for the spread of Islam, Demak became a gathering place for saints such as Sunan Kalijaga, Sunan Muria, Sunan Kudus and Sunan Bonar.
The trustees played an important role during the development of the Demak kingdom and even became advisors to the Demak king. Thus established a close relationship between the king / nobility? the trustees/ulama with the people. This close relationship is created through community development held at mosques and Islamic boarding schools. So as to create togetherness or Ukhuwah Islamiyah (brotherhood among Muslims).
Likewise in the field of culture there are many interesting things which are the legacy of the Demak kingdom. One of them is the Demak Mosque, where one of the main pillars is made of wood fragments called Soko Tatal. The Demak Mosque was built under the leadership of Sunan Kalijaga. It was on the front porch of the mosque (pendopo) that Sunan Kalijaga created the foundations for the celebration of Sekaten (Maulud Nabi Muhammad saw), which is still taking place in Yogyakarta and Cirebon. 
D. The DI Movement in Central Java
In Central Java the Darul Islam rebellion originated from three different groups. On the north coast, east of the West Java border, especially Brebes and Tegal, which is the core of Darul Islam for Central Java, namely the area led by Amir Fatah, which is part of the control of West Java. Others have roots in Kebumen who oppose Indonesia. There were also defections between Battalion 432 and Division 426, Diponegoro Division, both officers and their subordinates. They defect and support the DI movement because they are basically sympathetic to the same religion.
The reason for the sudden outbreak of violence as a social revolution occurred in the first months after the proclamation of independence was retaliation for the actions of the indigenous civil administration in the cruel exploitation of the peasantry during the Japanese occupation. In general, those who carried out this revenge were armed youths with various violence and murders.
The leader who is famous for violence in this movement is called Sachjani alias Wart. It was he who launched the attack on the city of Tegal, then took control of the Republican Navy's railway station and dormitories. His sense of revenge was demonstrated by treating the Tegal Regent's wife by parading using gunny sacks and treating important officials badly during the Japanese occupation.
This rebellion shared the same slogan and character as Darul Islam in West Java. With various efforts to prevent the spread of this movement, the government of the Republic organized the Residency and the regiments into divisions, as well as their officers to restore security. After the area was controlled again in December 1949 by arresting several leaders and Kutil himself was sentenced to death in 1951. 
1. 9th H / 14th century, around 1524-1546 the indigenous population embraced Islam en masse. Historians argue that the conversion of the archipelago's population to Islam on a large scale in that century was due to the fact that at that time the Muslims already had significant political power . That is marked by the establishment of several Islamic-style kingdoms such as the Kingdoms of Aceh Darussalam, Malacca, Demak, Cirebon, and Ternate. The rulers of these kingdoms were of mixed blood, descended from pre-Islamic native kings and Arab immigrants.
2. The development of Islam on the island of Java originated from a kingdom in the Demak area or it is called the Kingdom of Demak. Geographically, the Demak kingdom was located in the Demak area, in Central Java. By the local community, Demak is also known as Bintoro or Glagah Wangi. The Kingdom of Demak was a "subordinate" of the Majapahit kingdom. When compared with age, the Demak kingdom was much younger than the Majapahit kingdom. The heyday of Demak occurred during the time of Raden Patah. Where during his leadership, the kingdom of Demak developed rapidly due to the influence of Wali Songo. The Kingdom of Demak again reached its heyday during the reign of Prince Trenggono.
3. The weakness of the Demak sultanate was the dispute between the descendants of Raden Patah (Jin Bun). The Sultan of Demak Al-Fatah alias Jin Bun was not very good at attracting the sympathy of people in the hinterlands, formerly the people of Majapahit.
4. Kudus is one of the historical cities in Central Java. For the people of Kudus, the nature of animism and dynamism does not seem to change, instead it increases with the emergence of an acculturation (a new culture from several cultures). And here the pre-Islamic culture was quite influential on the art of building or Islamic architecture. This also does not hinder the development of Islam in Kudus.
5. Figures who played a role in the spread of Islam
· Sunan Kudus
6. Islamic life in Central Java
In the development of the guardians there are two streams
§ Abangan group: in this group is not so hard in implementing worship.
§ The mutihan group: a group that is strict in the application of worship.
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