EVALUATION OF EDUCATIONAL FUNCTIONS AND OBJECTIVES OF ASSESSMENT PAPERS
FUNCTIONS AND OBJECTIVES OF ASSESSMENT
Supporting Lecturer : Afdhal Divine, S.Pd.I., M.Pd
Mira yanti Siregar : 20140005
Noni Yusnaida harahap : 20140014
PRIMARY TEACHER EDUCATION
FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND LANGUAGES
SOUTH TAPANULI INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION
Praise be to the presence of Allah SWT for all His grace and guidance so that we can complete the paper "Educational Evaluation of the Functions and Purposes of Assessment" on time. The purpose of writing this paper is to fulfill the assignment for the Educational Evaluation course given by your Lecturer " Afdhal Divine S.Pd.I.,M.Pd”.
We would like to thank Mr. Afdhal Divine S.Pd.I., M.Pd. As a supporting lecturer who has given this assignment so that we can add knowledge and insight in accordance with the field of study that we are engaged in. We also thank all parties who have participated in the preparation of this paper so that we can complete this paper. We realize that our paper is still far from being perfect. Therefore, we will look forward to criticism and suggestions for the perfection of this paper, which is constructive, so that we can prepare the paper even better. Hopefully this paper can be useful for readers.
Padangsidempuan, 13 February 2023
LIST OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS ii
CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION 1
Problem Formulation 2
CHAPTER II: DISCUSSION 3
Definition of Evaluation 3
Definition of grade-based assessment 5
Assessment function 6
Assessment Purpose 7
Assessment criteria 8
CHAPTER III : CLOSING 10
A. Conclusion 10
B. Saran 10
Evaluation is no longer a strange thing in today's life, especially in the world of education. The term evaluation has an equivalent word in Indonesian, namely assessment. One of the most effective ways to improve the educational process is to conduct an evaluation of learning outcomes tests. The test results are processed in such a way that from the processing results it can be seen which components of the teaching and learning process are still weak.
Today many people carry out evaluation activities, but do not have an understanding of the term evaluation. This of course will cause problems in the educational process in general, and the learning process in particular. Because evaluation activities do not have evaluation requirements as an educational concept, and many evaluation activities are not in accordance with existing rules.
Assessment is an inseparable part of a teaching and learning process in the classroom. This assessment is a correction of various valid and reliable information, and aims to improve performance in a process. Self-assessment is usually used in the teaching and learning process, as an effort to see the success of the student learning process or the way of teaching a teacher which is shown in the form of grades.
Assessment is also used as a standardization of effort in order to improve an appearance. This method can be a separate assessment technique that is used as a benchmark for the achievement of student learning outcomes at certain educational units/levels. Benchmarks for achieving learning outcomes in educational assessment have standards that can be achieved, when these can follow the standard rules regarding the educational assessment system.
The standard rules have been regulated in such a way that each educational assessment must cover several domains that are in accordance with the 2013 curriculum, namely attitudes, knowledge and skills. Educational assessment can be applied to various aspects of language skills, namely speaking, reading, writing, and listening. The four language skills that have a level of difficulty in learning are writing skills. These skills involve higher-order thinking skills because they require students to express ideas and creativity 2 in the form of work. Writing is an active productive activity to produce a work. In general, writing is an activity of expressing ideas through the medium of language (Nurgiyantoro, 2013: 425).
B. PROBLEM FORMULATION
What is meant by educational evaluation?
What is the scope of educational evaluation?
What are the functions and objectives of the assessment?
C. PURPOSE OF WRITING
To know what is meant by educational evaluation.
To find out the scope of educational evaluation.
To know the function and purpose of the assessment .
DEFINITION OF EDUCATIONAL EVALUATION
The term evaluation comes from the English "evaluation" and is taken from the word "testum" which comes from ancient French which means a plate for setting aside precious metals. Educational evaluation can be interpreted as an action or a process to determine the value of everything in the world of education, collection, analysis, and presentation of information that can be used as a basis for decision making and subsequent programming.
Evaluation is an activity or process for assessing something, to be able to determine the value of something being assessed, measurements are taken, and the form of the measurement is a test known as a test. Appraisal means judging something. While assessing means: making decisions on good or bad measures, healthy or sick, smart or stupid and so on. So the assessment is qualitative in nature,
Mehren and Lehmann (1978:5) explain Evaluation is a process of planning, and providing information that is needed to make decision alternatives.
Alkin 91985:11) Evaluation is a systematic activity to collect, analyze and report information that can be used to make decisions regarding the program or project being evaluated.
Assessment and evaluation are two important components in the teaching-learning process based on the purpose of assessment to analyze, and to identify areas for improvement while evaluation for the overall score.
In learning activities, a teacher must master some knowledge related to educational assessment, including:
Able to choose appropriate assessment procedures to make learning decisions.
Be able to develop appropriate assessment procedures to make learning decisions.
Capable of implementing, scoring, and interpreting the results of the assessment that has been made.
Able to use the results of the assessment to make decisions in the field of education.
Able to develop valid assessment procedures and use assessment information, and
Able to communicate the results of the assessment.
"Evaluation is a systematic process determining the extent to which instructional objectives are achieved by pupils". The sentence explains that assessment is a process of gathering information and making decisions based on that information. In the process of gathering information, of course not all information can be used to make a decision. Information that is relevant to what is being assessed will make it easier to carry out an assessment in learning activities.
Assessment is a process or activity that is systematic and continuous to collect information about the process and learning outcomes of students in order to make decisions based on certain criteria and considerations. The definition of assessment was also conveyed by Ralph Tyler who revealed that assessment is a process of collecting data to determine to what extent, in what way, and how educational goals have been achieved. According to Griffin and Nix, an assessment is a statement based on a number of facts to explain the characteristics of someone or something. Haryati argues differently,
Based on some of the opinions above, it can be concluded that assessment is a process of gathering information as a whole which is carried out continuously to determine the ability or success of students in learning by assessing student performance both individually and in group activities. The assessment must get more attention from a teacher. Thus, the assessment must be carried out properly, because assessment is a vital (main) component of healthy self-development, both for individuals (students) and for organizations/groups.
Definition of Class-Based Assessment
Class-based assessment (PKB) is a process of collecting reports, and using information about student learning outcomes by applying the principles of continuous, authentic, accurate, and consistent assessment in learning activities under the authority of the teacher in class. The BPK identifies competence achievements and learning outcomes expressed through clear statements about standards that must and have been achieved accompanied by maps of student learning progress and reporting.
Thus BPK is nothing but a paradigm, approach, pattern, and at the same time a major component in the implementation of a competency-based curriculum (CBC). There are four KBK components which are closely related to each other, namely:
Curriculum and learning outcomes
Class based assessment
Teaching and learning activities, and
Class-based curriculum management
In the implementation of PBK, the teacher's role is very important in determining the accuracy of the type of assessment to assess student success or failure. The assessment techniques made by the teacher must meet validity and rehabilitation standards, so that the results achieved are in accordance with what is expected. PBK carried out by the teacher, must provide significant meaning for parents and society in general, and for individual students in particular, so that the development of student achievement from time to time can be observed (Observable) and measurable (Measurable).
Assessment functions selectively
By way of conducting assessments, teachers have a way to conduct selection or assessment of their students. The assessment itself has several objectives, including:
To select students who can be accepted in school
To select students who can move up to the next grade or level.
To select students who should get a scholarship.
Describes the extent to which a learner has mastered a competency.
Evaluating student learning outcomes in order to help students understand their abilities, make decisions about the next step, both for selection programs, personality development and for majors (as guidance).
The function of the assessment is:
The assessment functions selectively, that is, to select test takers who are acceptable to continue their studies to a certain level of education or a prospective employee to work in a particular institution.
Assessment has a diagnostic function, that is, to find out the weaknesses that are still experienced by students, so that it will be easier to find ways to overcome them.
The assessment functions for Placement Test, that is, to group test takers according to their initial abilities, then they can be given treatments that are in accordance with these basic abilities or initial abilities, so that the teaching or training program that will be provided will be more effective.
Assessment functions as a Measuring Learning Success (Achievement Test), that is, used to measure the success or level of achievement of a teaching/training program by students and is called a test for assessing achievement of learning outcomes (Achievement Test).
As with educational evaluation in general, PBK also aims to provide an award for achieving student learning outcomes and at the same time as feedback to confirm and/or make improvements to learning programs and activities. So, PBK seeks to understand more concretely the achievement of student learning outcomes and at the same time understands all learning process activities, curriculum attainment, tools, materials and learning methodologies.
In detail, the purpose of class-based assessment in essence is to:
Providing information about the progress of student learning outcomes individually in achieving learning objectives according to the learning activities they carry out.
Provide accurate information to further empower further learning activities, both for individual students, as well as for all students.
Provide information that allows teachers and students to use it to determine the level of student ability and at the same time determine the level of difficulty and ease in carrying out remedial activities, deepening and enriching learning experiences.
Providing encouragement or motivation for student learning through providing information about the progress of their learning and stimulating them to make learning improvements.
Provide proper guidance in choosing a school or position according to their interests, skills and abilities.
The purpose of the Assessment is:
Knowing the level of competence mastery in attitudes, knowledge, and skills that have been and have not been mastered by a person/group of students to be improved in remedial and enrichment learning.
The limited mastery of students' competence mastery within a certain period of time, namely daily, middle semester, first semester, one year and the study period of the educational unit.
Limited improvement or enrichment programs based on the level of mastery of competencies for those who are identified as students who are slow or fast in learning and learning outcomes.
Improving the learning process at the next semester meeting.
There are four types of criterion-referenced evaluations:
1. Entry-behavior test, which is a test that is held before a teaching program is implemented and aims to find out to what extent students have mastered the knowledge and skills that can be used as a basis for accepting the teaching program that will be given.
2. Pre-test, which is a test given before teaching begins and aims to determine the extent to which students mastery of the teaching material (knowledge and skills) to be taught.
3. Post-test, which is a test given at the end of each teaching unit program and aims to determine the extent to which students' achievement of teaching materials after experiencing a learning activity.
4. Embedded –test, namely tests carried out on the sidelines
or at certain times during the teaching process and aims to test students directly after a teaching unit before the post-test and to check student progress for remedial before the post-test.
Assessment is a process of collecting information as a whole which is carried out continuously to determine the ability or success of students in learning by assessing student performance both individually and in group activities. The assessment should get more attention from a teacher. Thus, the assessment must be carried out properly, because assessment is a vital (main) component of healthy self-development, both for individuals (students) and for organizations/groups.
The purpose of the assessment is to know the level of competency mastery in attitudes, knowledge and skills, the limited mastery of student competency mastery, limited improvement or enrichment programs based on the level of competency mastery,
Tests, measurement, assessment, and evaluation have different meanings and functions, but all of them cannot be separated in the world of education because they are all closely related. Improve the learning process at the next semester meeting. As for the assessment functions, namely, the assessment functions selectively, the assessment functions as a diagnostic, the assessment functions for placement (Placement Test), the assessment functions as a measure of learning success (Achievement Test).
We, the authors, realize that there are still many shortcomings in this paper. For that we ask for criticism and suggestions for the formation of better papers and materials. Hopefully this paper can add insight to every reader and can be useful for all of us.
Anas Sudijono, 1996. Introduction to Educational Evaluation. Jakarta : Raja Grafindo Persada.
Kusaeri and Suprananto, 2012. Educational Measurement and Assessment. Yogyakarta: Science Graha.
M. Chatib Thoha, MA, 1991. Educational Evaluation Techniques. Jakarta : Rajawali Press.
QUESTIONS AND FEEDBACK
Pearl tapsel siregar (ask)
Why is it necessary to carry out various classroom assessment models in conducting assessments in the classroom? that's all Assalamualaikum wr.wb
Answer: Because the class assessment model aims to:
provide information about the new orientation in the assessment of student learning outcomes. provide signs of assessment of learning outcomes. the teacher can also find out the students' mastery of the lesson.
And because the teacher's assessment can determine the success of achieving the goal of mastery of students towards lessons and the accuracy or effectiveness of teaching methods.
Neka fatmala sari
Because it provides information on internal assessment of the process and learning outcomes of students carried out by educators and provides insight into the concept of assessment of learning outcomes
Ema hopipah siregar
There are various assessment models in the classroom so that there are signs for assessing learning outcomes, signs here such as instructions for how after knowing what learning outcomes must be corrected in the previous learning method, and warning signs or advice after knowing the results of learning values during learning. .
Nurul Indah Siregar (ask)
Does the purpose of assessing learning outcomes have to be carried out on an ongoing basis? And how are good assessment criteria used in learning? That's it, wassalamualaikum wr, wb.
Answer: Yes, because with the assessment of learning outcomes that is carried out continuously the teacher or educator can monitor the learning process and progress of students and to increase the effectiveness of learning activities.
The criteria are activities that are educational, fostering, providing training and lessons.
To measure learning achievement based on assessment principles which include,
Which is done in an integrated manner
Nurmaisyah pulungan (kel 10)(ask)
In page 6 regarding the assessment of Diagnostic function, how do teachers diagnose students who are experiencing problems?
Diagnostic is a test used to find out the strengths and weaknesses of students when learning something.
In diagnosing learning difficulties experienced by students there are several ways that can be done by the teacher:
1. Identify cases and localize the types and nature of learning difficulties experienced by students.
2. Make an estimate of the factors that cause learning difficulties experienced by students.
3. Give motivation to students.
In this case a teacher must always monitor and receive information about student learning progress.
Rebuttal from nurjelita:
There are several ways that teachers do, namely:
1. Giving tests in fields of study that are considered difficult in conducting learning.
2. Conduct interviews with the students concerned to find out students' opinions about their difficulties.
3. Analyze the learning outcomes that have been achieved and other information.
4. Observing student activities in learning.
Nurisa hutabarat (ask)
What are the forms of assessment in class that can be carried out by the teacher? Mention and explain?
A test is a tool or procedure that is used to find out or measure something in an atmosphere, in a way and with predetermined rules. While the written test is a class-based assessment tool that is presented in written form. This test can be in the form of multiple choice, matching, true false, short entries and descriptions. Usually written tests are used to assess the knowledge possessed by students.
Attitude is a predisposition or tendency to make a response in certain ways to the world around it, either in the form of individuals or certain objects. 35 So attitude assessment can be carried out in various subjects related to various objects. Attitudes include attitudes towards subjects, attitudes towards subject teachers, attitudes towards the learning process, attitudes towards learning materials and attitudes related to the values that students want to instill in themselves through certain materials.
Assessment is a continuous process meaning that the assessment must be carried out continuously throughout the assessment period.
Muti ela nurma
The action test is a test carried out with the answer being the act of the student being assessed. Action test is a test used to determine students' abilities in terms of practice and knowledge. So this test is used by the teacher during the learning process that allows practice to occur, to measure the indicators set in the curriculum that lead to the psychomotor domain.
Additional answers from Rahman:
Action test example
For example, a teacher instructs students to observe the surrounding environment and there is trash in that area, so the teacher sees what the student is doing. Are there students who throw the trash in its place or keep it left.
Additional answers from Novita Irawan Siregar:
The performance test according to me is a teacher giving a question on the blackboard and the teacher asking who can answer the question can answer and move forward to answer it.