DEVELOPMENT OF LEARNING EXPERIENCES
LECTURERS: AFDHAL ILAHI, S.Pd.I, M.Pd
NAME : 1. ELISA DEWI PITRI SIREGAR (22140117)
2. LILI PARAMITA HARAHAP (22140127)
SEMESTER : II (Two)
STUDY PROGRAM : PGSD
COURSE : LEARNING STRATEGIES
ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER STUDY PROGRAM
FACULTY OF EDUCATION OF SOCIAL AND LANGUAGE SCIENCES TAPANULI SELATAN INSTITUTE
Praise the presence of God Almighty for all the abundance of Grace and Guidance so that we can complete the preparation of this paper. We hope that this paper will help add knowledge and experience to readers, so that we can improve the form and content of this paper so that in the future it can be even better.
We admit that there are still many shortcomings in this paper because the experience we have is lacking. Therefore, we expect readers to provide constructive input for the perfection of this paper.
Padangsidimpuan, February 2023
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS ii
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
A. Background 1
B. Problem Formulation 2
C. Purpose of Writing 2
CHAPTER II DISCUSSION
Definition of Experience-Based Learning (Experiential Learning) 3
Characteristics of Experience Based Learning (Experiential Learning) 3
The Principles of Experience-Based Learning (Experiential-
Stages of Implementation of Experience-Based Learning (Experiential Learning) 5
Stages of Learning Experience Development 6
Considerations Determine Learning Experience 7
CHAPTER III CLOSING
Background of the problem
Belajar adalah suatu kegiatan yang tidak terpisahkan dari kehidupan manusia. Pengalaman merupakan serangkaian proses dan peristiwa yang dialami oleh seseorang dalam kehidupannya yang terjadi pada suatu waktu. Pengalaman belajar merupakan serangkaian proses dan peristiwa yang dialami oleh setiap individu khususnya siswa dalam ruang lingkup tertentu (ruangan kelas) sesuai dengan metode ataupun strategi pembelajaran yang diberikan oleh masing-masing pendidik. Setiap guru memiliki strategi mengajar yang berbeda dalam setiap mata pelajaran sehingga hal ini dapat mengisi pangalaman belajar siswa. Misalnya disuatu lembaga pendidikan terdapat tiga orang guru biologi, dimana ketika akan membahas konsep respirasi ketiga guru ini sepakat untuk menggunakan starteginya masing-masing.
Guru pertama menggunakan metode ceramah, guru kedua menugaskan kepada siswanya untuk membaca buku dan guru ketiga menggunakan metode demonstrasi. Dari ketiga metode tersebut masisng-masing memiliki potensi dalam berlangsungnya kegiatan belajar mengajar.Kegiatan belajar dapat mengembangkan potensi-potensi yang dibawa sejak lahir.Komponen-komponen yang ada dalam kegiatan belajar di antaranya adalah guru dan siswa.Seorang guru dituntut mempunyai pengetahuan, keterampilan, dan sikap yang profesional dalam membelajarkan siswa-siswanya.
The learning experience is closely related to the development of process skills. The more active students are intellectually, manually and socially, the more meaningful the student's learning experience is. By doing it yourself, students will appreciate it more. It is different if only by hearing or just reading. There is a phrase that is often thrown up in the world of education, namely "Experience is the best teacher" where through real experience a person learns. Likewise with learning science or biology.
Formulation of the problem
The formulation of the problem from making this paper is as follows:
Explaining the Definition of Experience-Based Learning (Experiential Learning)!
Explaining the Characteristics of Experience-Based Learning (Experiential Learning)!
Explaining the Principles of Experience-Based Learning (Experiential Learning)!
Explaining the Stages of Experiential Learning Implementation!
Explaining the Development Stages of Learning Experience!
Explaining Considerations Determining Learning Experiences!
The purpose of making this paper is to be able to find out:
To Know the Definition of Experience-Based Learning (Experiential Learning)
To Know the Characteristics of Experience Based Learning (Experiential Learning)
To Know the Principles of Experience-Based Learning (Experiential Learning)
To Know the Stages of Implementation of Experience-Based Learning (Experiential Learning)
To Know the Stages of Development of Learning Experience
To know the considerations to determine the learning experience.
Pengertian Pembelajaran Berbasis Pengalaman (Experiental Learning)
pembelajaran berbasis pengalaman (experiential learning) yaitu prinsip pembelajaran dengan melakukan (learning by doing). Metode ini berbeda dengan apa yang disebut dengan istilah “belajar dari pengalaman (learning from experience)” karena konteks “pengalaman” dalam metode pembelajaran berbasis pengalaman (experiential learning) adalah berbeda. Usher dan Solomon menyatakan bahwa pengalaman dalam konteks “learning from experience” diinterpretasikan sebagai segala bentuk kejadian yang terjadi dalam kehidupan sehari-hari, sedangkan pengalaman dalam konteks “learning from experience” merupakan sebuah pengalaman tertentu yang di dalamnya terdapat pengetahuan yang disampaikan dengan suatu pendekatan tertentu seperti observasi dan refleksi.
Metode pembelajaran berbasis pengalaman (experiential learning) merupakan suatu metode pembelajaran yang bertujuan mengaktifkan siswa untuk membangun pengetahuan dan keterampilan serta nilai-nilai juga sikap melalui pengalaman secara langsung. Oleh sebab itu, metode pembelajaran ini akan berfungsi ketika siswa berperan serta dan bersikap kritis dalam melakukan kegiatan. Setelah itu, mereka mendapatkan pemahaman serta menuangkan dalam bentuk lisan maupun tulis sesuai dengan tujuan pembelajaran. Dalam hal ini, metode pembelajaran berbasis pengalaman (experiential learning) menggunakan pengalaman sebagai kasalisator untuk menolong siswa me-ngembangkan kapasitas dan kemampuannya dalam proses pembelajaran.
Characteristics of Experience Based Learning (Experiential Learning)
Experience-Based Learning (Experiential Learning) has six main characteristics, which are as follows.
Learning is best understood as a process. Not in relation to the results achieved.
Learning is an ongoing process based on experience.
Learning requires resolution of conflicts between opposing styles in a dialectical way.
Learning is a holistic process.
Learning involves a relationship between a person and the environment.
Learning is a process about creating knowledge which is the result of the relationship between social knowledge and personal knowledge.
Principles of Experience-Based Learning (Experiential Learning)
the principles of experiential learning based on Kurt Lewin's theory are as follows.
Effective experiential learning will influence students' way of thinking, attitudes and values, perceptions and student behavior.
Students trust the knowledge they find themselves more than the knowledge given by others.
Learning will be effective if it is an active process. When students study a theory, concept or practice and try it, students will understand it more perfectly and integrate it with what was previously learned and will be able to remember it longer.
Change should be separated between cognitive, affective and behavioral, but these three elements are a system in the learning process that are interrelated, orderly and simple. Changing one of the three elements causes ineffective learning outcomes.
Experiential learning is more than just providing information for changing cognitive, affective and behavior teaching students to be able to change does not mean that they want to change. Giving reasons why changes are not enough to produce mastery and attention to the material, not enough to change attitudes and improve social skills. Experiential learning is a learning process that requires an interest in learning in students, especially to make the desired changes.
Changing the perception of oneself and the environment is needed before making changes to cognitive, affective, and behavior. A person's behavior, attitude and way of thinking is determined by their perception.
Changes in behavior will be meaningful if cognitive, affective, and the behavior itself does not change. New skills may be mastered or practiced, but without making changes or learning continuously, these skills will fade or disappear.
Stages of Implementation of Experience Based Learning (Experiential Learning)
According to Kolb, there are five stages of learning in the experiential learning method, namely: experience, publishing, processing, generalizing and applying. The following is an explanation of the five stages of the experiential learning cycle
Experience (experience) has experience both individually and in groups. At this stage it prioritizes interaction with the environment, and produces information that involves feelings or feelings. Students will feel this stage like a fun game.
Publishing or sharing (data processing) at this stage, students remember what they experienced, report everything they see. This is done together with group members or in class. Its purpose is to provide data for later analysis. Observations and reactions can be recorded in a number of ways, namely: a written report, posted on paper or whiteboard, an oral report, an email report or a web page, a free discussion or by interview.
Processing (data processing) at this stage involves data sharing from the second stage, the data from this sharing must be processed and must be systematic. Techniques that can be used such as: looking for common themes, grouping experiences, customizing questionnaires, finding patterns of events or behavior. The point is not the result sought but the response sought
Generalize concludes, means being able to answer the question "so what?", this step raises the question "what have I learned?" or “what am I starting to learn?”. After the data is analyzed, conclusions can be drawn about the importance of what has been learned through experience. To conclude there are several ways, namely: recording student conclusions about how students learn and the results can be used in new contexts or writing student conclusions on paper or blackboard.
Applying (applying, using the results of generalizations or learning outcomes in new situations). This stage is the reason for the other stages. Learning from experience must have optimal value.
Stages of Development of Learning Experience
There are three stages in the development of learning experiences, namely: the pre-instructional stage, the instructional stage, the assessment stage and follow-up. These three stages must be taken at any time carrying out teaching. If one of these stages is left out, the student's learning experience will not be perfect.
This stage is the stage taken by the teacher when he starts the learning and teaching process. Some activities that can be carried out by the teacher or by students such as,
The teacher asks the students' attendance, and notes who is absent.
Ask students how far the discussion of the previous lesson went.
Ask questions to students in the class or certain students about the subject matter that has been given before.
Provide opportunities for students to ask questions about subject matter they have not mastered.
Briefly repeating past lesson material but covering all aspects that have been discussed previously.
This goal is essentially to reveal students' responses to the material they have received and foster learning conditions in relation to the day's lesson.
The second stage is the teaching stage or the core stage, namely the stage of providing learning experiences to students. The instructional stage will depend heavily on the learning strategy that will be applied. In general, several activities can be defined, namely:
Explain to students the teaching goals that students must achieve.
Write down the main topics that will be discussed that day.
Discuss the main material that has been written earlier.
There are every subject matter that is discussed otherwise concrete examples are given.
The use of teaching aids to clarify the discussion of each subject matter is very necessary.
Summarize the results of the discussion of the subject matter.
Evaluation and Follow-up Stage
The purpose of this stage is to determine the level of success of the second stage (Instructional).
The three stages that have been discussed, constitute a series of activities that are integrated, cannot be separated from one another. Teachers are required to be able and able to manage time and activities flexibly, so that the three series are accepted by students as a whole.
Considerations Determine Learning Experiences
In accordance with the objectives or competencies to be achieved
In the learning planning and design system, the objectives are the main and first components that must be considered by a learning designer. So that what teachers and students have to do is directed to achieve that goal. Judging from the domain, the goals consist of cognitive, affective, and psychomotor goals.
In accordance with the type of material or subject matter
Planned and designed learning experiences must pay attention to the characteristics of the subject matter both in terms of the complexity of the material and its packaging.
Availability of Learning Resources
In addition to considering the objectives and content of learning materials, a learning designer in determining learning experiences must also pay attention to the availability of learning resources that can be used.
The learning experience must be in accordance with the characteristics of the students
Conditions and characteristics of students is one of the considerations that must be considered, both regarding the interests and talents of students, learning style tendencies and basic abilities possessed by students.
There are a number of principles that must be considered when we are going to develop a learning experience, namely,
In the learning system objectives are the main component. The effectiveness of developing learning experiences is determined by the success of students in achieving learning goals.
Student learning experiences must be able to encourage students to do something. Activity is not meant to be limited to physical activity, but also includes psychological activity such as mental activity.
Teaching is an effort to develop each individual student. Therefore learning experiences are designed for each individual student.
Therefore designing student learning experiences must be able to develop all aspects of student personality in integrity.
There are a number of specific principles for designing learning experiences, namely:
Learning experiences (learning experiences) are a number of student activities carried out to obtain new information and competencies in accordance with the goals to be achieved. The method is the method used to implement the plans that have been prepared in real activities so that the goals that have been prepared are optimally achieved. This means that the method is used to realize the strategy that has been set.
There are several benefits of experience-based learning (experiential learning) in building and enhancing group collaboration as follows.
Fostering a sense of mutual need among fellow group members.
Help solve problems and dare to make decisions.
Cultivating hidden talents.
Able to foster a sense of empathy among fellow group members.
The benefits of individual experience-based learning include the following.
Improve communication skills and be able to solve problems.
Faced with a bad situation.
Fostering trust among group members.
Cultivate a spirit of cooperation and the ability to compromise.
Foster a sense of responsibility.
Cultivating a willingness to give and receive help.
Develops dexterity, physical ability and coordination.
In order to improve the quality of this paper, the authors hope that the audience will provide suggestions and constructive criticism. I hope this paper is useful for readers
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Wina Sanjaya. 2011. Learning System Planning and Design. Jakarta: Kencana