Understanding Learning Method, Miscellaneous, Strengths and Weakness
Teaching methodology is the study of ways to do activities that tersistem of an environment consisting of educators and learners to interact with each other in doing an activity so that the learning goes well in terms of teaching objectives achieved.
To be achieved in accordance with the teaching objectives that have been formulated by educators, it is necessary to know, to learn some methods of teaching, as well as practiced at the time of teaching.
Various Learning Methods
1. Method Lectures (Preaching Method)
The lecture method is a method of teaching by delivering information and knowledge saecara spoken to a number of students who generally follow passively. Muhibbin Shah, (2000). The lecture method can be considered as the only method most economical way to deliver information, and the most effective in addressing the scarcity of literature or appropriate referral to reach and understand students' purchasing power.
Some disadvantages of the lecture method is:
a. Creating passive students
b. Contains elements of coercion to students
c. Containing the students' critical power (Daradjat, 1985)
d. Students who are more responsive than vision loss and visual will be more responsive protégé greater auditifnya can accept it.
e. It is difficult to control the extent of students' learning acquisition.
f. Teaching activities into verbal (meaning words).
g. If too long boring. (Saiful Bahri Djamarah, 2000)
Some of the advantages of the lecture method is:
a. Teachers easily master classes.
b. Teachers easily explain a large amount of teaching materials
c. Can be followed by students in large numbers.
d. Easy to implement (Saiful Bahri Djamarah, 2000)
2. The method of discussion (Discussion method)
Muhibbin Shah (2000), defines the method of discussion is a method of teaching that is closely related to solving problems (problem solving). This method is also commonly referred to as a discussion group (group discussion) and recitation together (socialized recitation).
Discussion method was applied in the learning process to:
a. Encourage students to think critically.
b. Encourage children to express their views freely.
c. Encouraging students to donate fruit thought to suss out the problem together.
d. Taking an alternative answers or multiple answers to solve the problem berdsarkan careful consideration.
Advantages of the method of discussion as follows:
a. Sensitize the students that the problem can be solved in various ways
b. Ank students realize that by discussing them with each other constructively express their opinions in order to obtain a better decision.
c. Accustom students to listen to the opinions of others even differ with his opinion and familiarize be tolerant. (Saiful Bahri Djamarah, 2000)
The disadvantage in the discussion as follows:
a. can not be used in large groups.
b. Participants in the discussion got limited information.
c. Can be controlled by people who like to talk.
d. Usually people want a more formal approach (Saiful Bahri Djamarah, 2000)
3. Method Demonstration (Demonstration method)
Demonstration method is a method of teaching by way of demonstrating goods, events, rules, and the order to do an activity, either directly or through the use of teaching aids relevant to the subject or the material being presented. Muhibbin Shah (2000).
Demonstration method is a method used to demonstrate something or the workings of the process of an object with respect to materials. Saiful Bahri Djamarah, (2000).
Pedagogical psychological benefits of demonstration methods are:
a. Attention students can be more focused.
b. Student learning is more focused on the material being studied.
c. Experiences and impressions as a result of learning more attached to the student (Daradjat, 1985)
Excess demonstration of the following methods:
a. Helping students understand clearly the course of employment or in the process of an object.
b. Facilitate various kinds of explanation.
c. Yeng mistakes happen from the lecture can be corrected through observation and concrete examples, drngan bring actual objects (Saiful Bahri Djamarah, 2000).
The disadvantage in the demonstration as follows:
a. Protege is sometimes difficult to see clearly objects that will be displayed.
b. Not all objects can be demonstrated
c. Elusive when demonstrated by the teacher who did not master what is demonstrated (Saiful Bahri Djamarah, 2000).
4. The method of lecture plus
Plus lecture method is a method of teaching that use more than one method, namely the lecture method join method lainnya.Dalam this case I will describe three kinds of methods lectures plus namely:
a. Lecture plus frequently asked questions and tasks (CPTT).
This method is a method of teaching a combination of lecture with a question and answer and administration tasks.
This mixed methods secar ideally done orderly, namely:
1). Delivery of content by teachers.
2). Giving the opportunity to ask for between teachers and students.
3). Giving assignments to students.
b. Lecturing plus discussions and assignments (CPDT)
This method is carried out in an orderly manner in accordance with the order pengkombinasiannya, the first teacher outlines the subject matter, then hold discussions, and finally gave the task.
c. Methods lectures plus demonstrations and exercises (CPDL)
This method is a combination of activities dalah outlines the subject matter with demonstrated activity and exercise (drill)
5. The method of recitation (Recitation method)
Recitation method is a method of teaching in which students are required to make a resume with their own sentences (http://re-searchengines.com/art05-65.html).
Excess recitation method as follows:
a. The knowledge students gained from the study itself will be remembered longer.
b. Protege opportunity to foster the development and the courage to take the initiative, take responsibility and stand alone (Saiful Bahri Djamarah, 2000)
The disadvantage in the recitation as follows:
a. Sometimes students commit fraud where students simply emulate the work of his friends without having bothered to do their own.
b. Sometimes the task is done by others without supervision.
c. It is hard to give assignments that meet the individual differences (Saiful Bahri Djamarah, 2000)
6. The method of experiment (Experimental method)
The experimental method is a method of giving an opportunity to the students individually or collectively, to be trained in performing a process or trial. Saiful Bahri Djamarah, (2000)
The experimental method is a method of teaching that certain uses and performed more than once. For example, in the laboratory.
Advantages of the experimental method as follows:
a. This method can make students more confident of the correctness or conclusions based on the experiments themselves rather than just accept the word teacher or book.
b. The students can develop the attitude to hold exploratory study (exploring) about science and technology.
c. With this method will necessarily happen man who can bring new breakthroughs to the invention as a result of an experiment that is expected to benefit the welfare of human life.
The weakness of the experimental method as follows:
a. Insufficient tools do not lead to any of the students had the opportunity to experiment.
b. If the experiment requires a long period of time, students have to look forward to continue the lesson.
c. This method is more appropriate to present the fields of science and technology.
According Roestiyah (2001: 80) experimental method is a way of teaching, in which students conduct an experiment on something, watch the process and write the results of his experiments, and observations were conveyed to the classroom and evaluated by the teacher.
The use of this technique has the objective to make students able to seek and find their own variety of answers or problems faced by conducting his own experiments. Also students can be trained in a scientific way of thinking. With eksperimn students find evidence of the truth of a theory is something that is being studied.
In order for the use of the experimental method was efficient and effective, it is necessary to note the following: (a) In the experiment each student must hold a trial, then the amount of equipment and materials or materials trial should be enough for each student. (B) In order for the experiment failed and the students do not find convincing evidence, or perhaps the result is not compromised, the condition of the tool and the quality of the experimental material used must be good and clean. (C) in the experiment students need to carefully and observe the process of concentration in the experiment, the need for a long time, so they find evidence the truth of the theory learned. (D) Students in the experiment is currently studying and practicing, it needs to be given clear instructions, because they are in addition to gaining knowledge, experience and skills, also the maturity of spirit and attitude needs to be taken into account by the teacher in choosing the object of the experiment. (E) Not all problems can be dieksperimenkan, such as issues regarding psychiatric, some aspects of human social life and confidence. Another possibility for a very limited tool, so that the problem is not biased trial held because the tool does not exist.
Experimental procedures according Roestiyah (2001: 81) are: (a) It should be explained to the students about the purpose of experiments, they have to understand the problem to be verified through experiment. (B) briefed the students about the tools and materials that will be used in experiments, things that should be strictly controlled, the order of the experiment, the things that should be noted. (C) During the experiment the teacher must supervise the student's work. If necessary give suggestions or questions that support the running experiment perfection. (D) After the experiment is completed the teacher should collect the students' research results, discuss in class, and evaluate the test or debriefing.
Experimental method according to Djamarah (2002: 95) is a way of presenting a lesson, where students experiment with his own experience something that is learned. In the learning process, with the experimental method, students are given the opportunity to experience for themselves or do their own, following a process, observing an object, condition or process anything. Thus, students are required to experience for themselves, searching for the truth, or trying to find a law or proposition, and draw conclusions from the process they experienced it.
Experimental method has advantages and disadvantages as follows:
Excess experimental methods: (a) Making students more confident of the correctness or conclusions based on experiments. (B) in fostering students to make new breakthroughs in the discovery of the experiments and useful for human life. (C) The results of the experiment are valuable can be utilized for the welfare of mankind.
Disadvantages experimental method:
(A) This method is more suitable for the fields of science and technology. (B) This method requires a variety of facilities equipment and materials that are not always easy to obtain and sometimes expensive. (C) This method requires rigor, tenacity and fortitude. (D) Each experiment does not always provide the expected results because there may be certain factors that are beyond the reach of the capability or control.
According to Schoenherr (1996), quoted by Palendeng (2003: 81), the experimental method is the appropriate method for learning science, because the experimental method is able to provide learning conditions that can develop the ability to think and creativity optimally. Students are given the opportunity to arrange their own concepts in cognitive structure, can then be applied in life.
In the experimental method, teachers can develop physical and mental involvement, and emotional students. Students have the opportunity to practice skills in order to obtain the maximum learning results. Experiences that are directly embedded in his memory. The involvement of physical and mental and emotional students are expected to be introduced in a way or the learning conditions that can foster self-confidence as well as innovative and creative behavior.
Learning the experimental method to train and teach students to learn concepts of physics as well as a physical scientist. Students learn actively to follow the stages of learning. Thus, students will find themselves the concept in accordance with the results obtained during the study.
Learning the experimental method according to Palendeng (2003: 82) including the steps as follows: (1) an initial trial, the learning begins with a trial that demonstrated the teacher or by observing natural phenomena. Demonstration showing the problems relating to the material to be studied physics. (2) observation, a student activity when teachers are doing an experiment. Students are expected to observe and record the event. (3) hipoteis early, students can formulate hypotheses while based observations. (4) verification, to prove the correctness of the initial allegations that have been formulated and carried out through group work. Students are expected to formulate the experimental results and make conclusions, can further reported results. (5) the application of concepts, after the students formulate and find the concept, the results are applied in life. This activity is a consolidation of the concepts learned. (6) evaluation, the final activity after the completion of the draft.
The application of learning with experimental methods will help students to understand the concept. Understanding the concept can be seen when the student is able to express verbally, in writing, as well as applications in life. In other words, students have the ability to explain, says, giving the example, and apply the concepts related to the subject.
Experiment method according to Al-Pharisee (2005: 2) is a method that starts from a problem to be solved and the working procedures adhering to the principles of the scientific method.
7. Method Study Tour
Methods travel work is a teaching method designed first by educators and students are expected to make a report and discussed together with other learners and accompanied by educators, who then recorded.
Excess field method as follows:
a. Leisure applying modern teaching principles that utilize real environment in teaching.
b. Make the material learned in school more relevant to the realities and needs in the community.
c. Teaching can further stimulate children's creativity.
The disadvantage in the field as follows:
a. Requires preparation involving many parties.
b. Requires planning with preparation.
c. In the field often elements of recreation a priority rather than a primary goal, while the element neglected his studies.
d. Require closer scrutiny to every movement of the students in the field.
e. The cost is quite expensive.
f. Require responsibility for the smooth running of teachers and school field trips and the safety of the students, especially the long-term and far field.
Sometimes the learning process of students need to be brought out of the school, for certain meninjautempat or another object. According Roestiyah (2001: 85), the work is not just a recreational travel, but to learn or deepen learning by seeing reality. Therefore it is said techniques travel work, is a way of teaching carried out by inviting students to a specific place or object outside school to learn or investigate something like reviewing a shoe factory, a car repair shop, department stores, and so on.
According Roestiyah (2001: 85), engineering works of this tour is used because it has the following objectives: In carrying out field trips students are expected to gain direct experience of the object seen, can participate live up to the job duties that belong to someone and can ask liable perhaps by doing so they able to solve the problems it faces in the lesson, or general knowledge. Also they can see, hear, investigate and try what it faces, so that will be able to draw conclusions, and at the same time he can learn some subjects.
In order to use the technique on the field trip can be effective, then the implementation needs to memeperhatikan steps as follows: (a) Preparation, in which the teacher needs to establish learning objectives clearly, consider the selection of techniques, contact the leader of the object to be visited to negotiate everything, preparation of plans cook, divide the tasks, the structures, the division of students into groups and sent a messenger, (b) Implementation of the water park, where the leader of the group set things helped other firefighters, meet the rules that have been determined jointly, supervising officers at each section, as well as group tasks in accordance with its responsibilities, and provide guidance when necessary, (c) End of study tours,At that time the students had a discussion about all things work travel, prepare reports or paper containing conclusions obtained, following up the work activities like creating graphics, drawings, models, diagrams, and other tools and so on.
That's why the technique works can be concluded travel has advantages as follows: (a) Students can berpartisispasi in the various activities undertaken by the officers at the objects that travel works, as well as direct experience and appreciate what they do. Where it can not be obtained in school, so the opportunity to develop special talents or skills, (b) Students can see a variety of activities to individual officers or as a group and lived directly that will deepen and broaden their experience, (c) the opportunity the students can ask and answer, find the source of the first information to solve all the problems encountered, so that they might find evidence of his theory, or tried out his theory into practice,
The use of engineering work of this tour is also no limitations that need to be considered or addressed for the implementation of these techniques can be effective and efficient, are as follows: Work travel is usually done outside of school, so it might be within the place was so far outside of school, it is necessary use of transport, and it would require a large fee. Also it uses a longer time than school hours, so not to disrupt the smooth running another lesson plans. The high costs are sometimes not covered by the students will need the help of the school. When the place is far, then teachers need to think in terms of security, the ability of students to that distance is necessary to explain the rules that apply in projects or things that are dangerous.
Suhardjono (2004: 85) revealed that the method of work of travel (field-trip) has the advantage of: (a) Providing technical information, to participants directly, (b) Provide an opportunity to see the activities and practice in reality or the real thing, (c ) Provide an opportunity to better appreciate what has been learned so much work, (d) membei opportunity to participants to see which participants were shown the latest technological developments.
While the lack of methods Field Trip by Suhardjono (2004: 85) are: (a) The time-consuming if the sites visited much of the training center, (b) It is sometimes difficult to get permission from the head of the work or the office to be visited, (c) transport and accommodation costs expensive.
According Djamarah (2002: 105), upon learning of students need to be brought out of the school, to review specific place or another object. It is not just recreation but to learn or deepen learning by seeing reality. Therefore, the technique is said to travel works, which is a way of teaching carried out by inviting students to a specific place or object outside school to learn or investigate something like reviewing mortgages. Many terms used in the methods of work of this travel, such as travel widya, study tours, and so on. Field trip there in a short time, and some are within a few days or a long time.
Methods of study tours have several advantages, namely: (a) The work of travel has a principle of modern teaching that utilizes real environment in teaching, (b) Make what is learned in school more relevant to the realities and needs in the community, (c) Teaching of this kind can be stimulate the creativity of students, (d) Information as broader learning materials and real-time.
Disadvantages method of field trips are: (a) Facilities are required and cost required is difficult to be provided by the student or the school, (b) It requires preparation and planning, (c) require coordination with the teachers of other subjects in order to avoid overlap in time and activities during the field trip, (d) in the field trip are often unsure recreation is becoming more of a priority than the main purpose, while elements of his studies became neglected, (e) It is difficult arranging a lot of students in the course and direct them to the activities of a study into the problem ,
Methods field trip or travel works by Mulyasa (2005: 112) is a trip or excursion undertaken by learners to acquire learning experience, especially the direct experience and an integral part of the school curriculum. Although the work has a lot to travel in non academic, general objective of education can be immediately achieved, mainly related to the development of insight into the experience of the outside world.
Before the field trip used and developed as a method of learning, things that need to be considered by Mulyasa (2005: 112) are: (a) determine the sources of the community as a source of learning, (b) Viewing the suitability of learning resources with the goals and programs of the school (c) Analyzing the learning resources based on the values paedagogis, (d) Linking learning resources to the curriculum, whether learning resources in the field support and in accordance with the demands of the curriculum, if so, the field trip can be implemented, (e) create and develop program travel work logically and systematically, (f) Carry out work in accordance with the travel intended purpose, taking into account learning objectives, the subject matter, the learning effect, as well as a favorable climate.(G) To analyze whether the objectives have been achieved on the field trip or not, whether there are difficulties trips or visits, provide a letter of thanks to those who have helped, making field reports and record material for upcoming field trips.
8. The method of training skills (Drill method)
Vocational training method is a method of teaching, where students were invited to the training ground skills to see how to make things, how to use it, for what it is made, what are the benefits and so on. Examples of skills training made bags of mute / trinkets.
Excess skills training methods as follows:
a. Be able to acquire motor skills, such as writing, to pronounce the letter, make and use tools.
b. Be able to acquire mental skills, such as in the multiplication, addition, subtraction, division, signs / symbols, and so on.
c. Can form habits and increase accuracy and speed of execution.
Weakness skills training methods as follows:
a. Inhibiting the talent and initiative of students for students more brought to the adjustment and directed to far from understanding.
b. Cause static adjustments to the environment.
c. Sometimes tyang exercises carried out repeatedly is monotonous and boring easy.
d. Can lead to verbal.
9. The method of teaching teams (Team teaching method)
Team teaching method is a method in which educators teach more than one person, each of which has the task. Usually one of the educators appointed as coordinator. How the test, every educator create a problem, then merged. If the oral exam, each student is tested to be face to face with the educator team.
10. Teaching methods peers (Peer teaching method)
Methods of teaching fellow is a teaching method that is assisted by his own
11. The method of solving (problem solving method)
This method is a method of teaching in which students are given questions, then asked to solve.
12. The design method (projeck method)
which is a method of teaching in which teachers have to design a project that will be examined as an object of study.
Excess design method as follows:
a. Can remodel the mindset of students from a narrow into a wider and menyuluruh perceive and solve problems encountered in life.
b. Through this method, fostered by familiarizing students apply the knowledge, attitudes, and skills with integrated, which is expected to be practical and useful in everyday life.
The disadvantage in the design as follows:
a. The curriculum prevailing in our country today, either vertically or horizontally, not to support the implementation of this method.
b. Organizational learning materials, planning and implementation of this method is difficult and requires special skills of teachers, while teachers have not been prepared for this.
c. Must be able to choose the right unit topics according to the needs of the students, sufficient facilities, and have the resources necessary to learn.
d. Study materials often be extensive so as to obscure the basic units are discussed.