Family Counseling (Family Counseling)
1. Definition of Family Counseling
Family Counseling (family counseling) is defined as an interactive process that seeks to help families obtain the balance of homeostasis, so that each family member can feel comfortable (comfortable).
2. Objectives and Principles of Counseling
The principles of family counseling
1. Not a new method to solve human problems.
2. Each member is equal, no one is more important than the others.
3. The current situation is a cause of family problems and prosesnyalah should be changed.
4. No need to pay attention to the diagnostic of family problems, because it is a waste of time to explore.
5. During the intervention took place, counselor / therapist is an important part of the family dynamic, so involve himself.
6. The counselor / therapist encouraged family members to speak and interact with every member of the family and be "intra-family Involved".
7. The relationship between counselor / therapist is a temporary thing. Permanent relationships are a bad settlement.
8. Supervision is done in real / real (conselor / therapist center) (Perez, 1979).
Interest Family Counseling
1. Helping family members to learn and emotionally appreciate that my family dynamics interlocked among family members.
2. Helping family members to be aware of the fact when family members have problems, then this may be the result of one or more of perception, expectation, and the interaction of other family members.
3. Acting continuously in counseling / therapy until homeostasis balance can be achieved, which would foster and enhance the family unit.
4. Develop an appreciation of the family against the impact of a parental relationship between family members (Perez, 1979).
3. Bases Contemporary History and Practice of Family Counseling
a. History and Development of Family Counseling
This family counseling distimuli by research on families whose members suffered schizophrenia. Developing family counseling achieve progress in the 1950s. In 1960, pioneers counseling family decided to cooperate with counselors individually oriented.
The techniques in counseling families with grown rapidly into the 1970s. Innovations introduced therapeutic techniques including behavioral approach that is associated with family problems. At knew 1980s, marriage counseling and family counseling together. The practitioners of various disciplines of expertise make family counseling as a feature of their propesional. At present, family counseling emphasizes handling contextual issues rather than separately with individuals. The challenges faced by family counseling in the 1980s is to integrate the various approaches of family counseling and using combinations of techniques required for different populations.
b. The approach in family counseling
Mostly, the psychodynamic view, based on the model of psychoanalysis, give attention to the background and experience of each member of the family as much as the family unit itself. The psychodynamic counselor pays high attention to the past that is inherent in individuals, in the model of psychotherapy, couples who suffer pathogenic introjection associated with each pair that led to a relationship.
Nathan Acherman, pioneer family counselor seeks to integrate psychoanalytic theory oriented intrapsychic theory by emphasizing the relationship antarpribai system. He looked malfunction due to the loss of family complementary roles among the members, as a result of the conflict remain unresolved, and as a result of adverse victim. Teurapetiknya efforts aimed at liberating "pathological" interlocking with each other. James Framo, first-generation family counselor, believes that the conflict unresolved intrapsychic taken from his family, passed in the form of projection into the relationships that occur at this time, such as the relationship of husband and wife or child. By using the approach of object relations, Framo trying to eliminate introjection-introjection. In this process,
Ivan Boszormenyi-Nagy and his group focused on the influence of the past on the functions now the whole family. In view of this, the family has an invisible loyalty (not shown), the obligations of which are rooted in the past generation, and calculations of uncertainty. Things like that need to be balanced or styled. Contextual therapeutic approach of Boszormenyi-Nagy attempts to reorganize responsibility, trustworthy behavior, and take into account the rights of all its care.
Robin Skynner argues that adults who have difficulty dealing has developed expectations unrealistic to others by forming the projection systems are associated with deficiencies in childhood. Skinner therapeutic efforts, that specifically elicits version seeks to facilitate the differences among pairs of marriage. Thus, each pair becomes more independent.
John Bell, founder of the family counseling basing its approach on social psychological theories about the behavior of a small group. Family group counseling approach to promote interaction; facilitate communication, explain, and interpret. In these recent years, Bell directed his attention to help create increased household environments by using techniques of intervention he called contextual counseling.
This approach uses the methods and strategies of individual psychotherapy in situations friendly:
- encourage the emergence of insight about yourself and family members.
- to help the family in exchange of emotions
Contacts counselor counselor is only temporary and will be withdrawn if the family has been able to overcome the problem constructively.
The process of unconsciousness (unconscious) influence the relationship between members of the family togetherness and affect individuals in making decisions about who he married. Objects (people who are important / significant in life) are identified or rejected. Strength unconsciousness actually considered to be very influential.
The role of counselor:
A teacher and interpreter of experience (analysis).
Treatment: individual, sometimes with family
To solve the interactions that do not work in the family based on the unconsciousness (unconscious), to change the dysfunctional individual.
Transference, dream analysis, confrontation, focusing on strengths, curriculum vitae.
the unique aspects:
Concentration on potential unconsciousness (subconscious) in individual behavior, to measure defense mechanism (a defense mechanism) that is basic in family relationships, suggesting a deep treatment on disfungsionalitas (inability to work).
experiential or Humanistic Approach
The family counselor experiential or humanistic using the "immediacy" therapeutic in dealing with family members to help facilitate the growing family and fulfill the potential of the individual. Basically, this approach does not emphasize the theoretical and historical background. This approach is more emphasis on action rather than insight and interpretation. This approach provides experiences in promoting the development, through interaction between the counselor and the family.
The main practitioners experiential approach is Carl Whitaker and Walter Kempler. In his study, Whitaker stressed the need to pay attention to the obstacles intrapsychic and interpersonal relationships within the family elicits and ripen. Family counseling approach often involves co-counselor, pendekatanya designed to use the experiences of real and symbolic that arise during the therapeutic process. He admitted that his intervention is largely controlled by unconsciousness. Whitaker introduced the "counseling unreasonable" is designed to surprise, confuse, and ultimately drive the family system is disrupted.
Kempler, a practitioner of family counseling Gestalt-individuuntuk guide individuals overcome the things that will outwit him outside kebiasaanya, and defend itself. He confronted and challenged the whole family to explore as well as their own self-awareness and how menyalyrkan hampered their consciousness into a more productive relationship and are met with the other members.
Counselors famous family oriented humanistic is Virginia Satir. In his approach, he combines the communication gap between family members and the humanistic orientation in the effort to build self-esteem and self-assessment of all family members. He believes that in humans there are sources that man needs to thrive. He saw his task as the person that helps people gain access to maintain its potential to teach people to use its potential effectively.
Family problems rooted feelings in the press, stiffness, rejection / abandonment impulses, kekurangwaspadaan and emotional death.
The role of counselor
The counselor uses own person. They should be open, spontaneous, swift and emphatic, sensitive and must demonstrate attention and acceptance. They should be treated with regression therapy and teaches family members new skills in communicating feelings clearly.
Difocuskan in individual and pair bonds. Whitaker concentrating his attention by studying three generations of a family.
To measure growth, change, creativity, flexibility, spontaneity and playfulness, to make open what is closed, to develop emotional closeness and reduced stiffness, to open a defense-defense, as well as to improve self-esteem.
Sculpt family and choreography, communication skills open, humor, therapy, art, family, role-playing, the reconstruction of the family, not paying attention to the theories and emphasizes the intuitive spontaneous, share feelings and build the atmosphere of emotional depth and gives suggestions as well directives.
Promoting creativity and spontaneity in the family, encouraging family members to change the role of developing a sense of self and understanding on the other, humanistic and treat all family members with the same status, develop awareness
feeling at home and among family members, to encourage growth.
Approach Murray Bowen famous family systems theory. This approach is regarded as a bridging pendangan psychodynamic-oriented view with views that put more emphasis on the system. Bowen conceptualize family as an emotional connection system. Bowen points out, there are eight interlocking concepts in explaining the emotional process that occurs in the family and extended family.
The basic foundation Bowen theory is the concept of self differential. This concept evolved where family members can separate the intellectual with the emotional function. They avoid fusion and at times emotional family dominate. In a tense situation, the relationship of two family members have a tendency to look for the third member (triangulation) to reduce the intensity of tension and regain stability. The emotional system of the nuclear family, typically formed by pairs of marriage which has some similarities degree of differentiation. If the system is unstable, the couples are looking for ways to reduce tensions and maintain balance. The position of parent's siblings in the family of origin they give a sign to the child chooses in the family projection process.
Bowen used the concept of emotional cutoff to explain how some of the family members attempt to sever ties with their families on a false assumption that they can isolate themselves from the fusion. The position of each pair of siblings from marriage will affect their interactions. In developing his theory to the wider community, Bowen believes that the external pressures that chronic lower the level of functioning of the differentiation of society, it HSIL regression influence society.
As part of the system Bowen family counseling, family evaluation interview emphasizes objectivity and neutrality. Genogram-genogram it helps provide a snapshot of the family relationship system approximately three generations. Therapeutic, Bowen bwkwerja carefully and quiet with couples marriage, seeks to overcome the fusion between them. The goal is to reduce anxiety and cope with symptoms-symptoms. The end goal is to maximize diferensi every person in the system of the nuclear family and the family of origin.
The role of counselor
Activities counselor as a coach and teacher and concentrate on issues of attachment and differentiation.
Treatment Unit: individuals or couples.
The purpose of counseling
To prevent triangulation and help couples and individuals related to the cognitive level, to stop repeated patterns of intergenerational family relationships.
Genograms, back home, detriangulasi, relationship to individual persons, self difference.
A unique aspect:
Measuring intergenerational relationships and patterns that are repeated, systematic, in-depth theory.
The structural approach in counseling families especially dikaitka with Salvador Minuchin and his colleagues at the Philadelphia Child Guidance Center. This approach is based on the system. Family counseling theories focus on activities organized whole of the family unit, and the ways in which families organize themselves through transactional patterns among them. In particular, systems of family, boundaries, blocks, and coalitions examined in an effort to understand the structure of the family. Non-functioning of the structure shows that the rules do not seem that build family deals not walk or need the renegotiation rules.
Family counseling structurally equipped for everyday transactions and give a high priority to action rather than insight or understanding. The whole behavior-symptoms including symptoms which indicated patients seen in the context of the family structure. Starters family provides simple observation techniques to map the patterns of family transaction. Minuchin interventions are active, calculating, seeks to change the stiffness, old-fashioned, or not carry out the structure. With the cooperation of family and keamahan, he gained an understanding of family issues, helping them to change the family structure which is not functioning and restructure the organization of the family. Enactments (family told indicate specific conflict situations in counseling sessions) and reframing (reiterated a problem as a problem as a function of the structure of the family) is the therapeutic techniques are often used. Such techniques bring changes in family structure. The final goal of counseling are recast rules family deals with developing more precisely the boundaries between sub-systems and strengthening the rule of the family hierarchy.
A family pathology arising from the development of a dysfunctional reactions. The functions of the family include family structure, sub-systems and attachment. Regulations open and closed and its hierarchy must be understood and changed to help the family adjusting to new situations.
The role of counselor
Counselors work to map the mental activity and family in counseling sessions As a theater director, they instructed both to interact with invitations and a series of spontaneous activity.
The family as a system or sub-system, without ignoring the needs of the individual.
Revealing problematic behaviors so that the counselor can observe and help change it; to bring structural changes within the family; such organizational patterns and a series of actions.
Cooperation, akomodating, restrukturusasi, work with interaction (invitation, spontaneous behavior), pendalamam, imbalance, reframing, hone skills and create bonds.
The main thing is to build families with low socioeconomic, very pragmatic, influenced by the psychiatric profession to appreciate family counseling as a treatment approach; with the principles and theories of his Minuchin et al, effective for families of addicts, people with eating disorders and suicide, studies well, systematis, the problem is focused on the present, generally performed less than 6 months, counselors and family equally active.
Strategic Approach or Communication
Teori-teori komunikasi, muncul dari penelitian Lembaga Penelitian Mental (MRI) di Palo Alto pada tahun 1950-an. Teori-teori komunikasi ini mempunyai pengaruh yang besar terhadap konseling keluarga dengan menyusun kembali maslah-masalah manusia sebagai masalah interaksi dan sifatnya situasional. Epistimoligi dari Beteson, Jakson, dan yang lain merupakan dasar bagi upaya-upaya terapeutik dari MRI, konseling keluarga strategis yang dikembangkan oleh Haley dan Madanes, dan pendekatan sistematik dari Selvini-Pallazzoli dan tim Milan. Karakteristik khusus pendekatan ini menggunakan doube binds terapeutik atau teknik-teknik paradoksial ini menggunakan aturan-aturan keluarga dan pola-pola hubungan.
Paradocks contradictions follow proper deduction from consistent premises used therapeutically to direct individuals or families who do not want to change according to what is expected. This procedure promotes the change is not in the form of action or refusal. Jkcson, Watzlawick, and other strategic expert using the "precribing" symptoms-symptoms as paradoxical techniques to reduce rejection of change by changing simptomnya it useless.
Family counseling strategic approach is characterized by tactics planned and carefully, as well as directly addressing family problems that exist. Haley greatly affects practitioners in using commands or completion of tasks as well as interventions that are indirect paradoksional. Madanes, family counselor more strategic use of the techniques of "pretend" (pretend) and intervention-an intervention that is not konfrontattif directed at achieving changes without inviting rejection.
Konseling keluarga sistematis yang dipraktikan group Milan, tekniknya didasarkan pada epistimologi sirkuler dari Bathson. Teknik-tekniknya mengalami sejumlah perubahan dalam beberapa tahun berikutnya dan melanjutkannya dengan menyajikan teknik-teknik baru. Berdasarkan prosedur ”long brief therapy” yang setiap pertemuannya mempunyai jarak kurang lebih satu bulan, keluarga itu ditangani oleh tim yang bersama-sama merencanakan strategi. Satu atau dua orang konselor bekerja secara langsung dengan keluarga, sementara konselor yang lainnya mengamati dari belakang kaca yang satu arah. Keluarga itu dibei tugas-tugas dalam setiap peremuannya, biasanya didasarkan pada perintah-perintah yang sifatnya paradoks. Tujuan dari model Milan, yaiotu memberikan ”informasi” supaya keluarga mengubah aturan-aturan, mengubah kesalah yang berulang-ulang mengenai permainan-permainan yang menggagalkan diri. Pendekatan Milan beranggapan, bahwa pesan-pesan paradoksial dari keluarga hanya dapat dihadapi oleh counterparadox terapeutik. Kelompok Milan telah memperkenalkan sejumlah teknik wawancara, seperti hypothesizing, pertanyaan sirkuler, netralitas, konotasi positif, dan ritual-ritual keluarga.
According to Jay Haley and Cloe Madanes; family problems through people and family dynamics and can change rapidly. Treatment (treatment) can be simple and pragmatic and concentrate on behavioral changes symptomatic and rigid roles. Changes will come through invitations, ordeal (torture), paradox, ostensibly / subterfuge and rituals (strategic and systemic therapists), focused on the exclusion of disfungsionalitas, solutions are hypothetical and small changes. (Solution-focused therapies).
The role of counselor
Counselors responded to the emergence of resistance / resistance in the family and to design a series of stories about the strategies to solve masalah.Menerima emergence of resistance / durability through the positive reception of the problems that brought the family. The counselor is more like a doctor in the responsibility for the success of treatment and the need to plan and build strategies.
The family as a system, although the approach-approach is selectively applied to the couples and individuals.
The purpose of treatment
To overcome the problems of the present. Find solutions, to bring changes, finding the target goal of behavior, to cause insigt, to ignore things that are not a problem.
Reframing (insert in the positive connotation), directive, willingness and the opposition is based on a paradox (including determination of symptom-symptom), the development of further changes, ignoring interpretation, ostensibly, the hierarchy of cooperative trials (siksaaan), the ritual, the team, questions -This question spinning, hypothetical solutions (by asking "magic question").
There is an emphasis on the examination in the examination of symptoms in a positive way. Treatment was short (usually 10 sessions or more). Focus on changing problematic behaviors present. The technique is specifically designed for each family. Tretment innovative and important. Pendekaannya flexible, evolving and creative. Can easily be combined with other theories. family structures are dysfunctional . Behavior problems are individual enterprises to achieve kekauasaan and security.
Behavioral family counseling, the last entry in the field of family counseling, working to bring the scientific method in the processes of developing therapeutic monitoring of fixed and mengembangnkan intervention procedures based on the data. This approach took the principles of human learning, are like classical and operant conditioning, positive and negative reinforcement, formation, extinction, and social learning. Behavioral approach emphasizes environmental, situational and social factors of behavior. In the last few years knows, the influence of cognitive factors, such as the events that mediate interactions families were also introduced by most adherents behavioral. Oriented behavioral counselor seeks to increase positive from the interaction between family members,
Behavioral approaches have a significant influence on four distinct areas, namely pekawinan behavioral counseling, education and behavioral parenting skills training, functional family counseling, and treatment of sexual malfunctions.
Education and training of behavioral parenting skills, mostly based on social learning theory, seeks to train parents with behavioral principles in the management of children. Specifically, Patterson focused on the relationship of two people (Dyad), usually between mother and child, and emphasized that child behavior is likely to be developed and maintained through their mutual relations. In particular, the intervention seeks to develop a contingency family membentu new reinforcement with intent-perilau start learning new behaviors.
Functional family counseling seeks menginyegrasikan systems theory, behavioral, and cognitive bekarja with family. Functional family counseling at each other, that all behavior as a function of interpersonal regarding specific results from the consequences of behavior. Functional family counselor did not try to change the behaviors that are useful to maintain those functions.
The behavior is maintained or reduced through the consequences, maladaptive behavior can be changed (deleted) or modified. Adaptive behavior can be learned, through cognition, rational and irational. Behavior can be modified and the result will bring changes.
The role of counselor
Directiv, take measurements and interventions carefully, the counselor looked like a teacher, expert and provider amplifier, and focus on the problems of the present.
Training parents, the marital relationship and the communication partner and the treatment of sexual dysfunction, emphasizing the interaction partner, except in the treatment of family roles.
The purpose of treatment
To bring about change through modifications to the antecedent-antecedent or consequent-consequent on the act, giving special attention to modify the consequences, stressing the reduction in unexpected behavior and received a positive behavior, to teach social skills and prevent problems through recalls, to improve the competence of individuals and couples as well as provide an understanding of the dynamics of behavior.
Operant conditioning, classical conditioning, social learing theory, strategies of cognitive - behavioral technique of systematic desensitization, positive reinforcement, reinforcement heartbeat / short, generalizations, loss, extinction, modeling, reciprocity, punishment, token-economical, quid proquo exchanges, planning, methods psikoedukasional.
Approach-approach directly through observation, measurement, and the use of scientific theories. Emphasizing on the treatment of the problems of the present. Giving a special time to teach specific social skills and reducing skill useless. Relationships built on the positive control and the lighting procedures of education than punishment. Behaviorism is a simple and pragmatic interventions with the techniques vary. Good research data helps these approaches and effectiveness can be measured. The treatment generally in a short time.
4. Role of Family Counseling Interventions
1. As an appraiser about; problem, targeting interventions, strength and family strategies, beliefs and ethnic families. Exploration: family emotional reactions to trauma and transition, composition, strength and weakness, the information held, the needs of the family, readiness for intervention and be referred to other specialists.
2. Educators / giver
Information that families are ready to adapt to changes
3. Development support systems, teaching support and is always ready for the call.
4. An challenges
5. Giving facilities prevention (prevention) to prepare the family to deal with stress.
5. Family Counseling Process
1. Involve families, meetings were held in the house, so that counselors receive real information about family life and can devise a suitable strategy to help resolve family problems.
2. Assessment of Problem / issue that includes an understanding of the needs, expectations, family strength and history.
3. Strategies specifically for assistance with determining the kinds of interventions that is fit for purpose.
4. Follow up, to provide opportunities for families to keep in touch with a counselor periodically to see the development of the family and provide support.
C. Research, Training, and Professional Practices
Research in family counseling is preceded by the development of techniques of therapeutic intervention. Research on the relationship patterns of family interaction and psychological disorders, previously based on a cross sectional study approach was followed by longitudinal research approach.
Lately, developing research on bproses and the result of the intervention of family counseling. Furthermore, research is interested in the relative advantages and disadvantages of alternative approaches for individuals and families of different difficulty.
At present, clinical exercises take place in three different settings, namely in the programs of family counseling assistance, the agencies prior to occupying the family counseling practice, and in university programs.
Most of the training programs that directly seek to help traine develop perceptions, concepts, and skills in working with families. These exercise tools include:
1. didactic course work
2. using videotape master therapist and traine
3. supervision through active guidance by supervisors who saw the meeting behind the one-way mirror and perform corrective feedback melaluitelepon, earphones, call traine of counseling meetings for consultation.
4. co-counseling where traine have the opportunity to work alongside a mentor in the family.
Practice propesional in marriage counseling or family status regulated by law and self-regulation by the code of ethics, peer review, continuing education, and consulting.