Selasa, 21 Agustus 2018

Basic concepts
1. Guidance and Counseling
a. Understanding of Guidance and Counseling
Basically, the guidance of a mentor to help optimize individual. Guidance is a tool for mature children.
Counseling is an effort to help people through the process of personal interaction between counselor and counselee is able to understand themselves and their surroundings, able to make decisions and set goals based on values ​​he believes that the counselee feel happy and effective behavior.
Guidance and counseling is a process of providing assistance to a person or group of people who intended that each individual is able to develop themselves optimally, so that it can take decisions independently and responsibly or

b. Function and Purpose of Guidance and Counseling
The aim is for the guidance of the individual can:
1. The completion of the study plan activities, career development, and life in the future.
2. develop all the potential and strengths optimally.
3. adjust to the educational environment, society, and the work environment.
4. overcome obstacles and difficulties encountered in the study, adjustments to the education environment, community, or work environment.
The function guidance is as follows:
1. The functions of development, is a function of guidance in developing the full potential and power of the individual
2. The distribution function, a function of guidance in helping individuals choose and establish mastery careers or positions that match their interests, talents, skills, and other personality traits.
3. The adaptive function, the function helps the implementers of education, particularly teacher or professor, wydiaiswara, and homeroom to adapt educational programs to educational background, interests, abilities and needs of individuals.
4. The adjustment functions, ie functions of guidance in helping individuals find the adjustment of an optimal development.

Counseling destination in general and schools in particular are as follows:
1. hold a change of behavior on the individual thereby enabling more productive and satisfying lives.
2. maintain and achieve positive mental health
3. solving
4. achieve personal effectiveness
5. encourage individuals to make decisions that are important to him

c. Types of Guidance
Type guidance is divided into four parts:
1. academic guidance, the guidance aimed at helping individuals to confront and resolve the problems of academic.
2. The private social guidance, a guidance to assist individuals in resolving social problems personal.
3. career guidance, ie guidance to assist individuals in planning, developing, and resolve the problems of careers, such as an understanding of the work tasks.
4. The family guidance, are efforts to provide assistance to individuals as leaders or family members so that they mapu create a full and harmonious family, to empower themselves in a productive, able to create and adapt to a family norm, and to participate actively participate in achieving family life happy.

2. Family Development Perspective 
a. Definition of Family
The family is the smallest unit of society consisting of father, mother and child. More broadly (Sayekti Puja Suwarno 1994: 2) that the family is a bonding basis on the grounds of marriage between two adults of the opposite sex who live together between a man with a woman who already had children or without children either his own or adoption and living in a household.
Besides, Emil Salim in 1983 states that the family is the smallest part of the structure of society that will be the basis in creating a country.
According to a psychological sense, the family is a group of people living together in a dwelling together and each member feel their inner linkage resulting in mutual influence, mutual regard and mutual submission (Soelaeman 1994: 5-10).
Meanwhile, in the sense Pedadogis family is "a" communion of life is woven by love between two human couples that strengthen marriage, which means to enhance mutual self-contained realization that the role and function as a parent (SOELAEMAN 1994: 12).
b. Framework for Thinking About Family 
The family is the natural social system, serves to form the rules, communication, and negotiation among its members. Families do an interaction pattern that is repeated through the participation of all its members. Family counseling strategies mainly assist the maintenance of family relationships, is also required to modify the patterns in a transaction meeting the needs of family members who are subject to change. 
In the perspective of the relationship, the family counselor does not eliminate the significance of the individual's intrapsychic process, but put the behavior of individuals in a broader view. Thus, there is a paradigm shift from traditional ways to understand human behavior into epistimologi cybernetic. This paradigm emphasizes the feedback mechanism operates in generating stability and change. Causality is circular in many homes. A family counselor more focused understanding of the family rather than seeking explanations that are linear. Within this framework, the patient's symptoms indicated seen as a reflection of the family system that is not balanced 
c. Family development
One way to understand individuals and their families, that is by examining their progress through the cycle of family life. Sustainable and change is a hallmark of family life. The family system is progressing all the time. Family development generally occurs regularly and gradually. In the event of stagnation in the family, it will disrupt the family system. The emergence of symptomatic behaviors in family members at the time of transition in the life cycle of the family signifies family had difficulty in adjusting to the changes. 
Family life cycle leads to an arrangement of the theme of the view that the family as a system to change. There are special development tasks that must be met for each development. 
In the family, men and women grew up with different role expectations, experiences, goals, and opportunities. These sex differences, influences the interaction later married. The number of women entering the work force these days affects also the tradition of the roles of men and women on household responsibilities and work outside the home.
Ethnicity and socio-economic considerations also affect the family's lifestyle. First, the thing to note is to help determine how the family was formed indigo-value, determine the patterns of behavior, and determine ways to express emotions, and determine how they evolve through the family life cycle. Living in poverty can erode the family structure and create a family that is not organized. In poor families, the development of the life cycle are often accelerated by early pregnancy and the number of mothers who are not married. The absence of the father at home allows the grandmother, mother and daughter were more interconnected. 
d. As a family of systems of Psychosocial 
General systems theory provides a theoretical basis on the theory and practice of family counseling. The concepts of organization and integrity menegnai special emphasis, that the system operates fully organized. The system can not be properly understood if divided into several components. 
Family reflects a complete system of relations, there causality sikuler and multidimensional. Family roles are largely static, it should be understood by family members to help establish and regulate the function of the family. The balance is achieved within the family through the process of dynamic interaction. This helps restore stability at times threatened, namely the activation of rules that describe relationships. At the time of family change occurs, the cycle of positive and negative feedback to help restore the balance. 
Subsystems in the family perform the functions of the family in particular. The most important thing and mean is a subsystem of husband and wife, parents, and siblings. The boundaries of the system to help separate the system-system, as well as separate sub-subsystem in the system as a whole.
Family systems interact with other systems of greater outside the home, such as the system of places of worship, schools and nursing homes. In some cases, there was a blurring of family problems and contradictions completion of the aid providers in the macro system. In a broader context, the boundaries between the donor as well as the boundaries between the client's family. Those limits may need to be explained in the macro system in order to operate effectively.
source: makalah89

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