A. Types of Learning

Although learning is said to change, there are various ways to get change. Every act of learning has its own characteristics. Experts by looking at the characteristics in it, try to divide these types of learning, due to points of view. Therefore, until now there has been no agreement or diversity in formulating it. A. De Block, for example, differs from C. Van Parreren in formulating systematic types of learning. Likewise, between the systematic formulations of types of learning proposed by C. Van Parreren and Robert M. Gagne.
The types of learning described in the following discussion are a combination of the opinions of the three experts above. Even so, from the opinions of the three experts above, there are certain types of learning that are not discussed on this occasion, taking into account the nature of the books discussed.
Therefore, the types of learning described below involve learning the meaning of words, cognitive learning, memorizing learning, theoretical learning, learning methods, learning concepts/understandings, learning motor skills, and learning aesthetics. .

1. Learn the meaning of words
Learning the meaning of words means that people begin to grasp the meaning contained in the words used. At first a word is already known, but does not yet know its meaning. For example, in young children, he already knows the word “cat” or “dog”, but he does not yet know the object, namely the animal that is mentioned with that word. But over time he also learned what the words "cat" or "dog" meant. He already knew that the two animals had four legs and could run. One time he saw a dog and the child called him "cat". A correction was made that it was not a cat. , but dogs. The child also knew that dogs were big with long ears, and cats were small with ears smaller than dogs.

1;"> Every student or student must learn the meaning of certain unknown words. Without this, it is difficult to use it. Even if you can use it, you can't fail to find usage errors. those who read will have difficulty understanding the contents of the reading. Because the ideas are imprinted in every word. With those words, the writers or authors describe their ideas to the readers. Therefore, mastery of the meaning of words is important in study.

2. Cognitive Learning
There is no denying that cognitive learning is related to mental problems. Observable objects are presented in a person through responses, ideas, or symbols that are mental in nature. For example, someone tells the results of his journey in the form of his experiences to his findings. On the way, he cannot not present the objects he has seen during the trip in front of his friend, he can only describe all the objects in the form of words or sentences. -words or sentences that are conveyed to people who listen to the story.
Cognitive learning is important in learning. In learning, one cannot escape from cognitive learning activities. How can mental activities do not proceed when responding to objects being observed. While learning itself is a mental process that moves towards change.

3. Learn to Memorize
Memorization is an activity to instill a verbal material in memory, so that later it can be reproduced (remembered) literally, according to the original material, and store impressions which later if needed can be recalled back to the basics.
In memorizing, there are several conditions that need to be considered, namely regarding purpose, understanding, attention, and memory. Whether or not it is effective in memorizing is influenced by these conditions. , and memorization without memory is futile.

4. Theoretical Learning
This form of learning aims to place all data and facts {knowledge} in a mental organizational framework, so that they can be understood and used to solve problems, as occurs in scientific fields of study. -concepts and relational structures. For example, “square” includes all rectangles; climate and weather affect plant growth; Plants are divided into genera and species. At the same time, methods are developed to solve problems effectively and efficiently, for example in physics research.

5. Learn Concepts

Concept or understanding is a unit of meaning that represents a number of objects that have the same characteristics, people who have concepts are able to abstract the objects they encounter, so that objects are placed in certain groups. Objects are presented in people's consciousness in the form of mental representations without demonstration. The concept itself can also be represented in the form of a word {language symbol}.

Concepts are distinguished from concrete concepts and concepts that must be defined. Concrete concepts are understandings that refer to objects in the physical environment. This concept represents certain objects, such as tables, chairs, plants, houses, cars, motorcycles and so on. The defined concept is a concept that represents the reality of life, but does not directly refer to the reality in the physical environment, because reality is not bodily. It is only felt through mental processes. For example, cousins, siblings, uncles, aunts, study, marriage, and so on, are words that cannot be seen with the ordinary eye, even with a microscope. To give meaning to all these words, concepts are needed which are defined using symbols language.

6. Learn the Rules
Learning the rules belongs to the type of intellectual skill learning proposed by Gagne.[2] Learning rules is when two or more concepts are connected to each other, a provision is formed that represents an order. People who have learned a rule are able to relate several concepts. For example, one might say, "iron is heated expands", because one has mastered the basic concepts of "iron", "heated" and "expands", and can determine that there is a constant relationship between the three basic concepts {iron, heated, and expands }, then he confidently said that "heated iron expands".
A rule is a rule that cannot be changed. A rule is a mental representation of the reality of life and is very useful in regulating everyday life. This means that a rule is an order that applies throughout time. Therefore, learning Rules are very important for someone as one of the efforts to master knowledge while studying at school or at a university {university}.

7. Learn to Think
In this study, people are faced with a problem that must be solved, but without going through observation and reorganization in observation. Problems must be solved through mental operations, especially using certain concepts and rules and working methods.
In this context there are terms convergent thinking and divergent thinking. Convergent thinking is thinking in one right direction or one most appropriate answer or one solution to a problem. Divergent thinking is thinking in different directions, different units will be obtained but correct.
Dewey's concept of thinking becomes the basis for problem solving is as follows.
a. There is a perceived difficulty and awareness of the problem.
b. The problem is clarified and defined.
c. Looking for information or data and then the data is organized.
d. Looking for relationships to formulate hypotheses, then those hypotheses are assessed, tested, so that they can be determined to be accepted or rejected.
e. The application of the solution to the problem at hand also acts as a test of the truth of the solution to arrive at a conclusion.

According to Dewey, the steps in problem solving are as follows.
a. Awareness of the problem.
b. Formulate the problem.
c. Searching for data and formulating hypotheses.
d. Test the hypotheses.
e. Accept the correct hypothesis.
Although steps are needed, according to Dewey, problem solving does not always follow an orderly sequence, but jumps between the various steps. This is more so when people are trying to solve complex problems.

B. Learning Principles
It has been understood that learning is changing. Changing means learning, not changing, means not learning. That is why the essence of learning is change. But not all change means learning.
So that after carrying out learning activities effective and efficient results are obtained, of course certain learning principles are needed that can clear the way to success. So the prospective teacher/supervisor should be able to develop their own learning principles, namely learning principles that can be implemented in different situations and conditions, and by each student individually. However, let us arrange the principles of learning, as follows:
In each student's learning, active participation must be sought, increasing interest and guiding to achieve instructional goals;
Learning is overall and the material must have a structure, a simple presentation, so that students easily grasp the meaning;
Learning must be able to generate reinforcement and strong motivation in students to achieve instructional goals;
Learning is a continuous process, so it must be step by step according to its development;
Learning is a process of organization, adaptation, exploration and discovery;
Learning must be able to develop certain abilities in accordance with the instructional goals that must be achieved.
Learning requires adequate facilities, so that students can study in peace;
Learning requires a challenging environment in which children can develop their ability to explore and learn effectively;
Learning needs to have student interaction with their environment;
Learning is a process of continuity {the relationship between one understanding and another} so that it gets the expected understanding. The given stimulus causes the expected response;
Repetition, in the learning process, it is necessary to repeat many times so that the understanding/skills/attitudes are deep in students.

Source : – _ftn1