Complete History and Development of the Guitar Musical Instrument

Complete History and Development of the Guitar Musical Instrument

history is known about the guitar instrument before 1650. It is called known because much of the evolution of this instrument is not known but only taken from pictures, sculptures and others.

The European Lute will be a start. This instrument was developed from an Arabic musical instrument called the Oud and has between 12 and 24 strings where this instrument is played by plucking a pair of strings for 1 note (like you play a 12-string guitar). The strings are made of catgut (sheep intestine) and the frets are made of catgut tied around the fingerboard/neck with some wood or ivory frets attached to the top end of the soundboard. The frets and soundboard are the same height, in contrast to modern guitar frets which are generally higher than the soundboard and many of the inlays are ornaments. The shape of this instrument resembles a pear and the back is rounded like half a melon. The bridge has no saddle and the tuning head is similar to a violin.

Theorbo is a variation of the lute with a few extra strings. The difference with the lute is that Theorbo has extra strings as mentioned above and a tuning head parallel to the neck, where the tuning head for the lute is similar to that of a violin. The notes include a bass-baritone tone.

The arch lute is an instrument similar to the lute but the arch lute is more melodic than the lute.

The lute is usually tuned with high notes. If today's guitars are tuned in E, the lute is tuned in A which is two and a half notes higher than E.

The lute can be tuned and played the same as the guitar (finger picking or pick). This is called new tuning. It is also possible that the third pair of strings from the lute is tuned half a note down from the new tuning. Stemans for the lute were also not standardized until the mid-1700s. The players can tune it according to their wishes. So it doesn't have to be set in A.

The Lute itself is not a direct ancestor of the guitar, but is one of its predecessors. What is important here is that the lute made a major contribution to the development of the guitar to its present form. And in Spain, where the guitar was really developed, the lute is often equated with the moor which is why the lute is not very popular.

Another instrument that contributes no less to the development of the guitar is the Cittern instrument. This instrument was also pear-shaped with a flat back, with four or five pairs of wire strings and with permanent fretting whether diatonic like the Appalachian Dulcimer or chromatic like the modern guitar. The tuning head is mounted much like a guitar or mandolin. The friends are the same as the mandolin (in fifths) with the same fingering and chords and are played with a plectrum or pick.

Guitarra Moresca is an instrument with 4 pairs of strings with an oval shape resembling an egg and the fretboard covered with leather like a banjo. The popularity of this instrument was in the 13th century.

The Guitarra Latina is also an instrument with 3 or 4 pairs of strings with a small body shape resembling the baritone ukulele and parlor guitar. This instrument was quite popular in the 13th century. The fretboard is made of wood but the rest resembles Guitarra Moresca.

Guittern is an instrument with 5 pairs of strings and is played with fingerpicking or a pick. They vary in shape but the most common is that of a violin and has a movable bridge and tailpiece to tighten the strings, although strings are sometimes tensioned in a saddleless bridge. Each pair of strings is tuned in unison but is sometimes tuned by an octave.

The Chittarra Battente is an instrument that uses wire strings and has a soundboard that is angled towards the back of the body. Popular in the 1500s and using permanent metal frets.

The Bandora is a variation of the citern with a flat back and shape similar to the A-Style mandolin.

Vihuela De Mano comes from Spain and is an instrument with six pairs of strings. The body is quite large like today's classical guitar and has several sound holes above it. This instrument uses a fixed bridge and is probably the direct ancestor of the 12-string USA guitar that entered North America via Mexico, Texas and Louisiana.

The Four Course Guitar has 4 pairs of strings, a guitar-shaped body and a flat soundboard, the bridge of the lute and the back are half curved but not too round. This instrument is about the size of a child's guitar.

The Five Course Guitar appeared around 1490 and is similar to a four course guitar with the addition of one pair of bass strings. This instrument is also called the English Guitar.

The Baroque Guitar appeared in the early 17th century. This guitar uses nylon strings, has a long, slim body with the top and bottom of the same size. The tuning heads are made of wood and mounted like on a classical guitar. The frets whether made of wood, metal or ivory are permanent.

Most of the instruments mentioned above have a fingerboard that is the same height as the soundboard. Raised fingerboards as they are today did not exist until the advent of Parlor Guitars.

The Six String Guitar, the actual guitar, didn't develop until 1750.

Parlor Guitars are very similar to Baroque Guitars with the exception that the tuning for Parlor Guitars is usually more mechanical. Sometime after 1820, the lower body was made larger than the top. This guitar is similar to the 1887 Washburn.

The modern classical guitar that we see today did not develop until 1840 in Spain.

The guitar is a stringed musical instrument made of wood with several metal / metal parts and there are 6 strings / strings to play. The top and bottom of the guitar body is in the shape of a figure 8. 6 strings are attached to pegs or string players that are pulled along the body of the guitar. Pegs / player strings are used for Tuning. This instrument is very well known. Just by strumming the strings, the people immediately joined together. At a party you can play guitar to sing and dance. While the sound itself is produced like a small orchestra.

The sound of the guitar has a romantic nature. Therefore, the song "Romansa" is most suitable when sung with guitar. Besides traditional guitars, there are several other types of guitars. For example, the Hawaiian guitar uses a slide system; then there are guitars that use nylon strings (classical guitar and folk guitar), and some that use metal strings (steel guitar).

A. History of the Guitar

The authenticity of the guitar cannot be seen from its antiquity. Some experts feel the tool originated on the continent of Africa, where many modern replicas are in the shape of a round box
like seashells with gut/silk threads, in many parts of the continent. Other experts find this tool in the form of glass in old stone reliefs reliefs at the time of Central Asia and Ancient Asia.

Another food for thought also arose with the discovery of ancient Greek vase patterned vase. Greek Strings is probably the first instrument that is categorized as a guitar. The modern guitar may have its roots in the Spanish guitar, but the various types of guitars such as the instruments we can see painted in Medieval and Renaissance times are widespread throughout Europe. The following are historical places where guitars were found from the Medieval era to the 20th century, based on their history and development.

1265 Juan Gil of Zamora stated that the early history of the guitar began with "Ars Musica".
1283 –1350 Guitarra Latina and Guitar Moresca are found in the poem "Archpriest of Hita".
1306 A guitar player plays at a religious place (The Feast of Westminister) in England.
1487 Johannes Tinctoris argues that the guitar instrument was invented by the Catalans.
1546 Alonso Mudarra creates the composition "Tres Libros de Musica en Cifras Para Vihuela" which involves the guitar in it.
1551 – 1555 Nine books of guitar tablature published by Adrian Le Roy.
1600 – 1650 Various types of tablatures for the guitar are published. Its popularity began to rival the Lute (a type of guitar instrument as well).
1674 The book "Guitarre Royal" published by F. Corbetta which increases the popularity of the guitar. This book is dedicated to King Louis XIV.
1770 – 1800 A 6th string is added to the guitar and everything becomes Single String.
1800 – 1850 The guitar is experiencing the peak of its popularity in terms of appearance and publication. Fernando Sor, Mauro Guiliani, Matteo Carcassi and Dioniso Aguado are well-known composers who write, teach and publish their compositions.
1850 - 1892 A manual guitar manufacturer Torres developed the generation we know today.
1916 Segovia gave a concert at the Ateneo, which was the most famous concert hall in Madrid at that time. Previously it was known that guitar instruments could not be displayed at an event of this magnitude.

The development of the guitar in the ancient East

It is believed that the history of the guitar comes from the Inner East. There the archaeologists found the instrument and objects related to it as a benchmark in the world of origin of the guitar which is not so well known. Among the historical objects found in Babylonia, the most relevant are the Plaques made of clay (1900-1800 BC), which show naked figures playing musical instruments. Some of the instruments have a general equation similar to the guitar. Further analysis proves that there is a difference between the body and neck of the guitar. The back of the guitar is very flat; where the back of the guitar is attached to the chest of a priest. This is sufficient to prove that there is no possibility of the instrument being bowl-shaped. It is very clear that the right hand is strumming the strings / strings. Unfortunately the number of strings is not clearly visible.

But in other Plaques there are at least 2 strings. Evidence of guitar-like instruments has been seen; Syria, Susa (an ancient city in the North of the Persian Gulf : capital of the Persian empire).

Egyptian and Roman

At first, the only stringed instrument in Egypt was the bow-shaped harp. Much later, the instrument had a neck marked with frets, and possibly made of silk thread/gut which hung around the neck. In the end some of the parts and characteristics that will become an instrument related to the guitar and also all stringed instruments that have a neck, with the method of picking and bowing the head. Subsequent developments make this instrument more like a guitar shape.

Instruments from the Roman era (30 BC – 40 AD) were all made of wood which was previously made from goat skins. This instrument has a small 5-section sound hole. These characteristics prevailed until the 16th century. An instrument found in a Coptic burial in Egypt, which shows the basic shape of a guitar, has deep indentations on the curves of the sides with a very flat back. The front and back surfaces are joined by strips of wood that form the sides of the instrument. This characteristic can be found until now.

Middle Ages in Europe

Europe's first stringed instruments date back to the 3rd century AD Analysis from the 3rd century proves that this instrument had a rounded sound box connected to a broad neck. This type of instrument continues to be used for a long time. There are also descriptions of other instruments dating from the Carolingian period which may have been French or German in origin.
This Carolingian instrument is rectangular in shape, about the same length as the neck, the neck ends slightly flared and has Small Pegs. In another illustration, these instruments have 4 Pegs and 5 Pegs on the other instruments. The number of these strings together and plucked in 2 ways: With fingers or using a plectrum / string picking device. This Carolingian instrument was not changed until the 14th century.

Guitarra Latina dan Guitarra Moresca

There is a difference between Guitarra Latina and Guitarra Morisca. said Morisca brought by people of Arab descent. the sound box is oval in shape and has many earpieces. During his travels through Egypt, most of the people from Africa and Spain spread the main features of this guitar design to instrument makers in Western Europe. It is equally likely that the first Spanish guitars were of European manufacture. The only thing that is certain is that the Arab influence in Spain was the beginning of the emergence of the guitar.

The Guitarra Latina has curved sides, which are thought to have come to Spain from several countries in Europe. This form is the type that was developed into the modern guitar.
The success of the guitar has something to do with the nomadic traits of the Troubadours. On his way to Catalonia he passed through Spain through the Troubadours. The Troubadours in the European part organize tours and performances, as well as broadly enrich musical culture and have a major influence in spreading the guitar on this continent.

IV. Abad ke-16

Until the Middle Ages, important information about the guitar and its genealogy was depicted in figures and pictures on bas-reliefs. It becomes a belief in an indirect and unavoidable fact. Beginning in the 16th century, the forms of instruments that exist today are direct facts. Guitars in the 16th century were distributed as The Vihuela from the time of Luis Milan, the Rizzio Guitar from France and the Guitarra Battente from Italy.

The Vihuela

The Vihuela originates from Spain, where the instrument is 4 small Vihuela put together and 5 stringed Guitarra. At the same time a new tool appeared, namely the Lute. Instruments favored by the nobility in almost all of mainland Europe. Spain is a special exception. Lute has also become one with people of Arab descent who determine the rules of the game themselves. Because of this, the nobility felt humiliated because these instruments were also used by immigrants. Then the nobility popularized the Guitarra with the same 4 strings / Double-Strings. Along with its development, the guitar with 4 strings was enlarged and given the same 6 strings / Double-Strings. The rules are the same and with the exception of the third string, which is dropped by half in tone.

In 1535 Luis Milan published a book entitled Libro de Musica de Vihuela de Mano Intitulalo "El Maestro". This book is the most important work for Milan. The last record of the Vihuela is in 1700 which represents the end of the development of the stage instrument. The instrument is made of carved metal, the vihuela has arches along the deep sides and the sound hole is oval. The popularity of this instrument is evidence of the quantity of music that still exists. Inscribed in the tablature of this instrument, each line represents a string and in Spanish and Italian tablatures, the top string represents the deepest string. While in English and French the Vihuela strings are on the tablature, the note values ​​indicate the various types of notes and are on the top line. These kinds of notes are similar to the notes that exist today.

Spanish Vihuela tablature works were first published by Luis de Milan in 1535, Luis de Narvaez in 1538, Alonso de Mudarra in 1546. This Tablature collection consists of the best compositions of instruments during the Renaissance era in the 16th century, which was the golden age for Spanish Vihuela music.

4 String Guitar

The 4-string guitar comes from Egypt, one of which came from Europe and underwent many changes and variations; 3, 4 and 5 string strings. This stringed guitar was most popular until the late Middle Ages.

The 4-string guitar in Italy has the notes G, C, E, A. And in Spain the notes are different, G, D, F#, B.

5 String Guitar

In the Middle Ages, the existence of 3, 4, and 5 string guitars simultaneously began to be seen. In the 15th century, instruments with 4 double-strings skyrocketed in popularity. The first double-string 5-string guitar found in an engraving in Italy. The designation and type of this 5-string guitar is the Guitarra Battente, which has a characteristic curved back.
The tunings for this instrument are A, D, G, B, E.

V.Abad ke-17

King Louis XIV of France could play the guitar and considered it his favorite instrument. His teacher was one of the famous French guitar players; Robert de Visee (1650-1725). Jean Baptise Lully was a well-known composer at the time. He plays the guitar and composes the music for the instrument.

The names of guitar players in the Baroque period in France have been recorded in history, for example Rene Voboam who represents the pinnacle of French instrument making in the 17th century. He made a guitar in 1641 which shows the creation of a more ornate guitar instrument. Alexandre Voboam and his son Jean also make guitars that are 17th century.

VI. Influence in Germany

In Northern Europe to be precise in Germany, the guitar instrument reached its peak of popularity; Heinrich Schutz (1585-1672), Samuel Scheidt (1587-1654) and Johann Hermann Schein (1586-1630). The first example of a German guitar that still exists today was made by Jacobus Stadler in 1624. It had a distinctive bend and a plain back and also

shows the great influence of Italian design. A 17th century guitar made by a priest, John of Apsom has a very different design than any other guitar. The back of this guitar is decorated with a “Crucifixion” image.

The most prominent European guitar maker was Joachim Tielke of Hamburg (1641-1719). His guitar is decorated with ivory, tortoise shell, ebony, gold and silver, mother-of-pearl, jarcanda wood. His work is always of the highest and consistent quality. The side is handcrafted in ivory with an engraved Genesis image.
VII. Influence in Eastern Europe

In Czechoslovakia, the Czech 'Luthier' tried to adapt to the Battente type guitar. As well as having the 5 double-strings like the original Battente guitar, the Czech guitar has an additional single-string which is used to play the 'Melodic Line'. The guitars made by Andrees Ott, an expert instrument maker from Prague show Italian influence.

Polish guitar history is represented by Jakob Kremberg, poet, singer and composer from Warsaw. The importance of Kremberg's work also gives us important information about the tuning of guitar instruments, which is 1 tone lower than the tunings of today's instruments.

VIII. Spain and Portugal

One of the prominent guitarists at that time was Francisco Corbera. He dedicated his work called Guitarra y sus differencias de sonos to Philip IV, king of Spain from 1621 to 1665. But the most prominent French guitarist in the 17th century was Gasper Sanz.

Sanz studied guitar in Italy as well as organ and music history. He became an organizer at King's Chaples in Naples. By the time he returned to Spain, he had published three books on music on the guitar in 1674, 1675 and 1697. These books contained his extensive teachings on improvisation and performance, using two playing methods: strumming and plucking. He believed the strumming technique was very suitable for dance music. The tunings used are A, D, G, B, E.

IX. Influence in Italy

The main factor that popularized the guitar in Italy and which enriched guitar literature was the introduction of the strummed guitar from Spain. Because of that guitar In Italy it is also known as Chitaria Spagnuola. The strumming style inherited from the Vihuela technique was adapted by the Spaniards for their guitars. Chitaria Spagnuola was a common technique in the 17th century and the use of the "Spanish Guitar" continues to this day as a continuation of its use from the 17th century.

These two guitar playing techniques are very different from the strumming and plucking techniques and existed together in Italy in the 17th century. These picking techniques were expressed in the form of tablature notation. The Strumming of Chords is dedicated to a special notation developed by Italian composers of the 16th and 17th centuries.

X. 18th century

In the 18th century, the increase in the number of guitarists equaled the number of composers. As for some of the famous composers at that time, among others; Johann Arnold (1773-1806), Friedrich Baumbach (1753-1813), and Johann Christian Franz (1762-1814). The most important aspect of guitar music in Germany in this century was using guitar instruments in various "ensemble" combinations. For example; guitar and flute, guitar and bass, guitar, violin and bass.

18th century performer and composer

One of the composers is Trille Labarre, he composes compositions for solo guitar, guitar and violin, guitar and singing. Other composers are; Antonie Lemoine (1763-1877) a famous "virtuoso" who composed and played the violin. B. Vidal played the role of performer, teacher and composer. He wrote Nouvelle Methode.

6 string guitar

The 6-string guitar is an innovation that dates back to the 18th century. The guitar comes from Italy and is very popular and very popular. The reasons are;

1. Guitarra Battente from Italy, which appeared in the late 17th and early 18th centuries, underwent a change to 6 strings. Where each string there are 2 strings (double-strings).
2. In 1732, JBFK Majer created a tunning on the 6 string guitar.
3. German 6-string guitar, made by Otto, made according to the Italian method.

XI. abbot ke-19

In the first half of the 19th century, a renewed interest in the instrument was concentrated in the city of Vienna. The city of Vienna itself is a center for musical instruments and musicians from all over Europe. The musician's performances gave the initial impetus that the guitar became a serious instrument. Like Mauro Giuliani (1780-1840) who initiated the trend of guitar tours for guitarists. Then Fernando Sor, a famous Spanish guitarist in the Spanish Romantic era and the only and first guitarist invited by the London Pihlharmonic Society.

XII. Never ke-2

It is the century in which we have witnessed the unexpectedly drastic development of the guitar as an artistic instrument of expression. Also as the only century that welcomed the guitar on the concert stage. There are 2 basic reasons for the popularity of the guitar;

1. Inspired by the phenomena that existed in the 20th century. Revolutionary technological developments and the development of mass media communication and transportation that are faster and more efficient are visible aspects. Radio, TV, the recording industry, communication satellites, jet transport have helped to demonstrate this instrument globally. Musicians can give concerts all over the world in a short time. They can reach a large audience, not only the audience on the concert stage but also the audience at home to watch it on television, listen to it on the radio and through recordings (LPs, cassettes and CDs), as well as via the internet. The composer, performer or listener, creates many opportunities to arouse interest in playing guitar.

2. Even though it's not as dramatic as before, it doesn't mean it's not significant. This was an expansion, a natural consequence of the development that had taken place in the previous centuries. The 19th century is remembered as the century in which Francisco Tarrega (1852-1909) brought guitar technique to a point of pure art, which was ready to welcome the arrival of modern techniques. Famous guitar makers such as Luthier Antonio Torres (1817-1892) developed an instrument with slight variations that to this day can be recognized as a guitar. These important events have realized the important role of the guitar in the 20th century.

B. Type of Guitar

The use of the amplifier on the guitar has not been used at this time. Amplification was introduced on the "Dobro" guitar / Resonator guitar which was started by the Dopyera brothers, Slovak immigrants in America. They found innovations in guitars, if the guitar material is made of metal and a metal plate (Pie Plate) with a certain thickness is added, it will increase the sound resonance which is 2 times bigger and 2 times louder. This type of guitar was produced to be played with orchestral music and became very popular in the 1920s and 1930s among blues and jazz musicians.

Then during World War 2 the basic material for the "Dobro" guitar was changed to wood, to replace metal which was very expensive, only the resonator still used metal.

Along with its development, the guitar continues to experience many innovations according to the demands of its use. However, Country, Blues, and Jazz musicians began to create various types of Tones and Sounds that could be produced by guitars from techniques such as Bend, Sustain and others.

This variety of sound also fueled the development of rock and roll music that emerged in the 1950s. Les Paul was the first to experiment with electric guitar sound around 1940. The first electric guitar was a hollow-body / hollow guitar, sometimes with 2 sound holes in the shape of the letter S-Shaped on the front of the guitar body. In 1947 Paul Bigsby teamed up with Merle Travis to design a solid-body guitar like the electric guitar we know today. Leo Fender, a radio repairman, was the first to successfully mass-produce this type of guitar. So there is competition between Fender guitars and Gibson guitars made by Les Paul to date. There are two types of guitars that we usually know, among others:

The Pick Guitar dan The Finger-Style Guitar.

I. The Pick Guitar

The Pick guitar is played by strumming the strings with a pick, where the pick is a flat round shape like an almond made of tortoise shell or plastic.

The difference between this type of guitar is that there are 2 S-Shaped sound holes on the front of the guitar body. The strings are made of wire and connected to the tailpiece / end of the string tie. Fingerboard / guitar neck adjacent and marked with a metal line / name Frets. Frets are the places where the fingers of the left hand press the strings. The point is to make it easier for players to find notes and play with rhythm.

Since the mid-1930s, Pick Guitar has been made / changed to Electric Guitar by installing a Contact Microphone under the strings or Pickups. Then the pickup is connected to the loudspeaker. The Pick Guitar and Electric Guitar are most often used in Jazz music, dance bands and Rock groups.

In general, guitars have 6 strings; Then came the guitar with 12 strings which is more commonly used in the country music scene. In the decade of the 50's, came the guitar with two necks (fretboard); one 6-string and the other 12-string (as often used by John McLaughlin). Then came the 7-string guitar (as used by Bucky Pizzarelli), and even a 10-string guitar. The electric guitar then developed; Solid-Body (as explained above without a resonance sound, until it actually sounds electric) hollow-body and semi-hollowed types of guitars. This type of electric guitar is commonly used in the rock / pop music scene. Types of electric guitars also continue with the use of various kinds of sound effects.

Parts of Electric Guitars

Guitar is the most important element in a band. The guitars that we know today have various types and shapes. But what we will discuss this time is the essence of the guitar parts.

II. The Finger-Style Guitar

The Finger-Style Guitar is played by strumming the strings with your fingers. The strings are made of Nylon, Silk and wire. This guitar has a loop sound hole. The Fingerboard has Frets like a Pick Guitar but wider. Many works by classical masters, including Bach and Chopin, have been arranged for guitar. Guitar, either The Finger-Style Guitar or The Pick Guitar, is often a favorite for singers of folk songs. A popular but difficult form of guitar music is Flamenco, the Spanish Gypsy dance.

C. How the guitar is played

How to hold a good guitar for beginners can be described as follows;

Put the guitar on the groin. Hold the guitar between the thumb and forefinger of your left hand.
The right hand is placed in a circle on the body of the guitar, bringing the fingers close to the strings. Press the guitar strings on the guitar neck / fingerboard according to the tone to be sounded.
The strings of the Finger-style Guitar type are picked by the thumb and the first 3 fingers, while accompanying the song the index finger either alone or with the thumb is used to strum back and forth all the time, with the tip of the pick. Plucking can be done in either an up or down motion.
Practice the ability of our fingers to press the strings (according to the desired tone) so that the resulting tone sounds perfect.

The names of the strings start from the thickest (lowest in the scale) and go to the thinnest (highest in the scale), namely E, A, D, G, B, E.

In guitar playing, we recognize three or more tones that sound simultaneously, namely chords. Commonly known as Grif. Chords are usually used to accompany songs or melodies. Each chord has a different shape and pattern according to the tonal elements that make it up.

To make it easier to read chords in a tablature, pay attention and memorize the following descriptions;

Chord Symbol
M : Major
m : Minor
Dim(0): Diminished
7 : Dominant Seven
Aug/+ : Augmented
Sus : Suspended

Left hand finger code; the fingers used to suppress the tones of a chord

1 : Index finger

2 : Middle finger

3 : Ring finger

4 : Little finger

Chromatic Sign

b : The tone is lowered half a tone, read Mol or Plat.

# : A half-tone raised tone, pronounced Kruis or Sharf.

Mark on the Strings

Black box : Basic tone (Root).

Circle: The strings are sounded without being massaged.

Black circle: The strings are sounded by massaging.

Cross sign: Dead string, not sounded (Dead String).

Roman numerals; (I, II, III, IV, V and so on) represents the guitar column.

The use of chords in a song must be adjusted to the tone or melody of the song to be played. Usually, a beginner will have difficulty finding chords that match the tone or melody of a song.

To practice the skills of using chords in major scales, as follows;

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 : Scale

I II III IV V VI VII VIII : Chord usage code

C Dm Em FG Am BC : Genesis chorus

If the C, Dm, Em, F, G, Am, B0 and C chords sound sequentially, it will produce a note that corresponds to the C = do scale. The chord types used are as follows;

C 1 : major chord
Dm 2 : Achor minor
In 3 : minor chorus
F 4 : major chord
G 5 : major chord
Am 6 : akorminor
B0 7 : diminished chords
C 8 : major chord

A staple chord is a chord that is always used to accompany a song. In the major scale above, which are included in the main chords are chords I, IV and V (C, F and G). The proof is that the C chord used in songs with the basic C = do tone, is always accompanied by an F chord and a G chord.

Auxiliary chords can be inserted to enhance the composition of a song. However, its existence is not absolute. The use of auxiliary chords is adjusted to the needs of the beauty of a song.
The following is a Bantu chord for the major scale in C = do;

II III VI VII : Chord usage code

Dm Em Am B0 : Chord type

To practice the skills of using chords in minor scales, as follows;
I II III IV V VI VII VIII : Chord usage code

Am Bo C Dm Em FG Am : Jenis chorus

If an Am, Bo, C, Dm, Em, F, G and Am chord are sounded in succession, it will produce a note that corresponds to the Am scale. The chord types used are as follows;

Am I : minor chord Em V : minor chord
B0 II : diminished chord F VI : major chord
C III : major chord G VII : major chord
Dm IV : achor minor Am VIII : achor minor

As with the major scale, to accompany a song with the basic tone Am, the use of the chords above is differentiated based on the function of the chord, namely the main chord and the auxiliary chord. The principal chords of the minor scale above are Am, Dm and Em, while the auxiliary chords are B0, C, F and G. Enjoy practicing

Source: Wikipedia