Sabtu, 21 Januari 2023

Computer History and Computer Development (Full Discussion)

The computer is a very important device nowadays to help complete your daily work quickly, besides that with a small size so it's easy to carry around. However, if we look at the past few decades regarding the history of computers and their developments, which at that time were not as sophisticated as they are today, their size was fairly large and heavy.

The history and development of computers is divided into five generations, each generation being determined based on the development technology used to make the computer operate. From each of these development technologies produce computers that are smaller, cheaper, more efficient and powerful. See the explanation below to find out more about the history of computers and their development from the first generation of computers to the present:

First Generation Computers (1946 – 1959) Vacuum Tubes

The first generation of computers was made in 1946 using a vacuum tube as a basic component. The vacuum tube is an inefficient material because it generates excessive heat and also requires a large amount of electricity to work.

ENIAC or Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer is an example of the first generation of computers made by Mauchly and Echert. ENIAC used 18,000 vacuum tubes measuring 1800 square feet and weighing up to 30 tons.

The first generation of computers used machine language, which is the most basic programming language that only computers can understand. This generation of computers has limited ability to solve a problem at one time. For input, punched cards and paper tape are used. The resulting output is a print-out. Even with very limited functions, the cost of making this generation of computers is fantastic, which is around one million dollars.

Second Generation Computers (1959 – 1965) Transistors

Transistor technology became the beginning of the emergence of the second generation of computers, which replaced the role of the vacuum tube in the first generation of computers. The development of the transistor symbolized the technological advancement of that era.

When compared to vacuum tubes, transistors are smaller in size and produce less heat, their failure rate also tends to be smaller when compared to computers made with vacuum tubes. As a result, transistors were able to create computers that were smaller, faster and cheaper than the first generation of computers.

This generation of computers has also experienced developments in its programming language. The machine language that used to be used is now being replaced by assembly language or what is also commonly called symbolic language. This means the programmer can give instructions with words. At the same time high level programming languages ​​are also being developed such as Common Business-Oriented Language (CBOL) and Formula Translator (FORTRAN). This change in programming language provides faster and more accurate computing benefits.

Third Generation Computers (1965 – 1971) Integrated Circuits

src="https://blogger.googleusercontent.com/img/b/R29vZ2xl/AVvXsEi5pOljLl8Ey2qQ6zlXQ11xPNx_1j8LS6OFkgvhPbLJXzgoCM0XAx7wgO-U_Sdv1IoPLeogpX6kTDwm_qYYEOZXUUNhsp8LdNDUutKY4RSSO_NRJxNmk6fs3gwbnunqDJCr0DwIOFgwXJ0/s320/3.jpg" width="320">

In this third generation computers use Integrated Circuits (ICs) to replace transistors as computer components. Transistors in this generation have been miniaturized and placed on ICs, one IC consists of several transistors, resistors and capacitors.

The IC was first developed by Jack Kilby, an electrical engineer who was later awarded the Nobel Prize for his invention. How could it not be, with this invention it provides a significant increase in the speed and efficiency of a computer, and makes computers in this generation much smaller than before.

The computers in this generation were the first computers where users were able to interact using a keyboard and monitor with an operating system interface, an improvement compared to punched paper.

As a result of these technological developments, computers at that time were accessible to the public because they were cheaper and smaller in size.

Fourth Generation Computer (1971 – Present) Microprocessor

This is the generation you are in now, the computers you see around you are the computers of the fourth generation, “Microprocessor” is the main concept behind this generation. In one chip, it consists of thousands of transistors and other circuit elements connected together.

The development of the fourth generation of computers is inseparable from Intel, one of the chip manufacturing companies that has created the Intel 4004 Chip which is the first step in the development of computer technology which then replaces computer components that were once the size of a room, now only the size of a fist.

In 1971 the first computer made by IBM was created specifically designed for home use and in 1984 the Macinthos was first introduced by Apple. Seeing the increase in computers in this generation gave birth to the idea of ​​creating a computer network, which eventually led to the development and birth of the internet. Another major advancement that occurred in this generation was the creation of a Graphical User Interface (GUI), mouse, and other astonishing advances to produce portable computers that can be carried anywhere or commonly called laptops.

Fifth Generation Computers (Present – ​​Future) Artificial Intelligence

The fifth generation of computers has technology based on artificial intelligence, and it is still in the development stage. The goal of developing this fifth generation computer is to produce a computer that is able to respond to the input of the language we speak and has the ability to learn about the environment and adapt itself.

Quantum computers, molecular and nanotechnology are the keys to this generation of computer technology. So it can be said that this generation of computers will have intelligence like intelligence in humans.

After reading the history of computers above along with comparisons from each generation, of course you will be amazed at the achievements that have occurred, I mean just try to imagine if today's computers were still as big as the first generation of computers, can you imagine how big a building an office needs to store some computer? What an unreasonable thing!

Source: https://www.nesabamedia.com/history-computer-and-computer-development/

Baca Artikel Terkait: