Minggu, 15 Januari 2023

Definition, Source & Scope of History

this time regarding the understanding of history both in general and according to experts along with historical sources and historical scope. Immediately, in General Understanding History is an event that occurred in the past which is arranged based on the remains of various events. These remains are historical sources. History can also be interpreted as a branch of knowledge that systematically examines the entire development process of change and the dynamics of people's lives with all aspects of their lives that occurred in the past.

Definition of History According to Terms

In English, the word History comes from the word Historia which means the past; humanity's past.

In Arabic, history is called sajaratun (syajaroh) which means tree and offspring, meaning that when we read the genealogy of the kings, a tree will appear from the smallest to the largest, so history is interpreted as the genealogy of the kings, which means the events of government. royal family in the past.

In Greek, the word history is called istoria which means study. So that the meaning of history is the science that studies all events, events that occurred in the past in human life.

In German, the word history is called geschichte which means something that has happened, something that has happened in the past of human life.

Definition of History According to Language

The understanding of history according to language is divided into two, namely the understanding of history in a narrow sense and in a broad sense. In a narrow sense, the notion of history is an incident or events. While the understanding of history in a broad sense is a human event that has roots in self-realization with freedom and spiritual power decisions. In Indonesian, history has 3 meanings, namely history is genealogy or origin, history is events or events that really happened in the past and history is science and stories.

Understanding History According to Experts

R.Mohammad Ali: The understanding of history according to R.Mohammad Ali is the whole of the changes and events that have actually occurred or the science that investigates the changes that have actually occurred in the past.
Ibn Khaldun: According to Ibn Khaldun who defines history as a record of human society or world civilization, about the changes that have occurred in the character of that society.

Moh. Yamin, SH: History according to Moh. Yamin, SH is a science that is compiled based on the results of investigations into several events that can be proven with material facts
Roeslan Abdulgani: The definition of history according to Roeslan Abdulgani is a science that examines and systematically investigates the overall development of society and humanity in the past and its events; with the intention to critically evaluate all the results of his research, to serve as a treasury-guideline for assessing and determining the current situation and the direction of progress in the future.
WHWalsh: The definition of history according to WHWalsh is recording which is meaningful and important for humans. The record includes human actions and experiences in the past on important matters so that it is a meaningful story.
Patrick Gardiner: Understanding history according to Patrick Gardiner is a science that studies what has been done by humans.
JVBryce: According to JV Bryce, history is a record of what humans have thought, said, and done.
Thomas Carlyle: Understanding history according to Thomas Carlyle is past events that study the biographies of known people. They were the saviors of their time. They are great people who have been recorded as the foundation stone of history.
Historical Aspects

There are three aspects in history, namely past, present, and future.

The past becomes the beginning of the future so that in history there are lessons about values ​​and morals.

The present, is history which is a source of understanding for successive generations from the former society as a mirror towards the life of society, nation and state.

The past is a description of human life and its culture in the past so that it can formulate causal relationships why an event can occur in that life, although not necessarily every event or event is recorded in history.

Historical Sources

Definition of Historical Sources - Historical sources are all that are the basis of history. According to Moh. Ali said that what is said with historical sources is everything that is tangible and intangible and is useful for historical research from ancient times to the present. While the opinion of Muh. Yamin that historical sources are a collection of cultural objects to prove history.

Types of Historical Sources - Historical sources are grouped into

There are several types, including the following...
Oral sources, are historical sources that are obtained directly from the statements of historical actors or eyewitnesses to events in the past. For example, a member of the Veterans Legion of the Republic of Indonesia (LVRI) who had participated in a general attack to tell others about the events he had experienced, what he had seen and what he had done were oral narratives (oral sources) used for historical research.
Written Sources, are historical sources obtained from written remains, records of events that occurred in the past, such as manuscripts, newspapers, documents, tambo (annual records from China), chronicles, and recordings
Source Objects (Artefacts), are historical sources obtained with relics in the form of cultural objects. Such as axes, jewelry, temples, pottery, beads and statues. However, this historical source cannot be confirmed. Therefore, historical sources require careful research, study, analysis, and interpretation by experts.
Based on the sequence that conveys historical sources, among others, as follows...

Primary Source, is the original historical relics. For example, charters, inscriptions, temples, chronicles, which originated in his era.
Secondary sources are imitation objects from the original objects or library sources as a result of historians, research reports, and translations of ancient books
Tertiary sources, are historical books compiled on expert research reports without conducting direct research
Scope of History

The scope of history is an understanding that becomes history as a science. The scope of history includes historical concepts, historical elements, and the relationship between history and science. The following describes the scope of history...

a. Historical Concepts - Concepts are a manifestation of the ability of the mind to form new images that are abstract (not real) according to data or a study.

History as an event, is an event, reality (reality), historical actuality that has occurred or took place in the past. History contains events that happened or took place in the past.

History as a story, is a series of stories in the form of narratives arranged according to memory, interpretation, people or impressions.

History as a science, learns reality by conducting research and studying the events of historical stories. History as a science has several scientific requirements, for example empirical, objective, theoretical, and general conclusions (generalizing).

History as art is said to be art because history requires intuition, imagination, emotion and style of language in writing history.

b. Elements of History - History consists of

The 3 elements are as follows.

Space, is the place where an event occurs which is proof that historical events become real.
Time is a historical element that plays an important role as a chronological characteristic in historical studies, so it is known as the concept of periodization.

Humans are historical elements that are central or play a role because historical events can take place in a complex way depending on the human mind and the existing environment. c. Relationship of History with Science

1). Equation of History with Science - The equation of history as a science is based on experience, observation and absorption. Both have a basic theory and method.

2). The difference between history and science - The difference between history as a science can be understood if history is bound by...

History is bound by time, because time plays an important role in history. but science is not bound by time because it is not the important thing of science

History is bound by place, because it has a unique and einmalig nature or occurs only once. Unique properties are bound by place or spatial.

History is bound by specificity, because place and time make history unique and special.
Thus the information regarding the Definition of History, Sources & Scope of History. Hopefully friends can accept and benefit us all, both in terms of history in general, understanding of history according to language, understanding of history according to terms, understanding of history according to experts, historical aspects, historical scope. That is all and thank you. Greetings Sharing Friends.

References: Definition of History, Sources & Scope of History

Marwan Supriyadi, History 1 for SMA / MA Class X / compiler, Jakarta : Center for Books, Ministry of National Education, 2009.
Kartodirjo, Sartono. 1993. Social Science Approach in Historical Methodology. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka.

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