Minggu, 15 Januari 2023

Understanding History According to Experts and In General Complete

Understanding history according to experts - What is meant by history? The general understanding of history is events that have occurred in the past. The meaning of history also has a broad meaning including certain elements and characteristics.

The scope of history can be divided into four, namely history as an event, history as a science, history as a story and history as an art. The four of them have their own definitions and meanings which become the discussion of historical science itself.

As humans, of course we have to learn from history. There are many incidents in the past that we can make reference to in order to be better in the future. We also have to learn from past mistakes so we don't repeat the same thing again.

Many historians and experts around the world have researched history, both Indonesian and foreign experts. Historical studies are also intended to find out things in the past which are the most important historical benefits.

Each expert also has a different opinion regarding the definition and understanding of historical science. Although in general they do not clash with each other, these experts have their own views on what history is in their eyes.


Understanding History

Below, a complete understanding of history will be explained, both the understanding of history according to experts and in general.

Understanding History in General

The following is the meaning of history in general according to KBBI, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia and according to etymology and according to language.

According to KBBI

The definition of history according to KBBI (Big Indonesian Dictionary) is:

genealogical origins

incidents and events that really happened in the past (history)
knowledge or description of events and incidents that actually happened in the past (historical science)

According to the Encyclopedia

Understanding history according to the Encyclopedia is the science that is used to study important events in the human past. Historical knowledge includes knowledge of past events and knowledge of historical ways of thinking.

According to Wikipedia

The definition of history according to Wikipedia is a study of the past, especially how it relates to humans.

According to Etymology

The etymological sense of history comes from the Arabic word, namely sajaratun which means tree. In Arabic itself, history is called date which means time or calendar.

The word history is closer to the Greek language, namely historia, which means knowledge or clever people. Then in English it changes to history which means the human past. Another word that is close to this reference is geschichte in German which means it has happened.

By Language

From the etymological understanding of history above, the meaning of history according to language can be interpreted as follows:

In English, the word history (history) itself comes from the word historia which means the past.

In Arabic, the word history is called sajaratun (syajaroh) which means tree and offspring, meaning that when reading a genealogy of kings it will look like a tree from the smallest to growing to a large extent, then history is interpreted as the genealogy of the descendants of the kings which means the events of the reign of the royal family that existed in the past.
In Greek, the word history is called istoria which means study. So that history is a science that discusses events, events that have occurred in the past in human life.

In German, the word history is called geschichte which means something that has happened in the past of human life.

Understanding History According to Experts

The following is an understanding of history according to experts, both domestic and foreign experts, including historians in the past.

According to Muhammad Yamin

The understanding of history according to Muhammad Yamin is science which is compiled on the results of investigations of several events that can be proven with material facts

According to Moh. Hatta

Understanding history according to Moh. Hatta is in his form about the past. History does not merely produce criteria for past events, but an understanding of the past which contains various dynamics, may contain problematic lessons for the next human being.

According to Moh. Ali

Understanding history according to Moh. Ali that history is the whole change and events that have actually happened. History is the science that investigates the changes that actually occurred in the past.

According to Kuntowijoyo

The understanding of history according to Kuntowijoyo is things that present facts diachronically, ideographically, uniquely, and empirically.

History is diachronic because it deals with time.
History is ideographic because history describes and tells something.
History is unique because it contains the results of research on unique things.
History is empirical, meaning that history rests on genuine human experience.

According to Rochiati Wiriatmaja

The understanding of history according to Rochiati Wiriatmadja that history is a scientific discipline that promises ethics, morals, wisdom, spiritual and cultural values ​​because its studies provide guidelines for life balance, harmony in values, exemplary in success and failure and a reflection of the collective experience that be a compass for future life.

According to Nugroho Notosusanto

According to Nugroho Notosusanto, the notion of history is events involving humans as social beings that occurred in the past.

According to Taufik Abdullah

The understanding of history according to Taufik Abdullah is human action in a certain period of time in the past which was carried out in a certain place.

According to Roeslan Abdulgani

According to Roeslan Abdulgani, history is a branch of science that researches and systematically investigates the entire development of society and humanity in the past along with events with the intention of then critically assessing all the results of the research, to then serve as a treasury of guidelines for assessing and determining the current state and future direction of the process.

According to Sartono Kartodirdjo

Understanding history according to Sartono Kartodirdjo is a form of describing collective experience in the past, and to reveal it can be through the actualization and hatching of past experiences. Telling an incident is a way of making the event reappear by means of verbal disclosure.

According to WJS Poerwadar Minta

The definition of history according to WJS Poerwadar Minta is discussed in a book entitled General Indonesian Dictionary, where the meaning of history can be interpreted as:
Genealogy or origin.

Events or incidents that really happened in the past.
Science, knowledge, story lessons about events or events that have actually happened.

According to Drs. Sidi Gazalba

The definition of history according to Drs. Sidi Gazalba is the human past and its surroundings which are arranged scientifically and completely covering the sequence of facts of that time with interpretations and explanations that give understanding and understanding of what happened.

According to Ismail

The meaning of history according to Ismaun is a science of stories about events that really happened or took place in all its aspects in the past. History is a carefully selected record or record of all aspects of human life in the past.

According to Ibn Khaldun

The notion of history according to Ibn Khaldun is defined as a record of general human society or human civilization that occurs in the character/characteristics of that society.

According to Aristotle

Understanding history according to Aristotle is a system that examines something

events from the beginning arranged in chronological form. History is past events that have records, records or concrete evidence.

According to Leopold von Ranke

According to Leopald Von Ranke, the definition and understanding of history is very simple, namely things that really happened.

According to Benedetto Croce

History according to Benedetto Croce is a record of the creations of the human soul in all fields, both theoretical and practical. These spiritual creations are always born in the hearts and minds of human geniuses, humanists, thinkers who prioritize action and seek religion.

According to JV Bryce

The definition of history according to JV Bryce is a record of what humans have thought, said, and done.

According to WH Walsh

According to WH Walsh, the meaning of history, which defines history, focuses on recording only those that are meaningful and important for humans, which include the actions and experiences of humans in the past on important matters so that they become meaningful stories.

According to J. Bank

History is all past events. History can help students to understand human behavior in the past, present and future. All events referred to in this opinion are incidents or incidents related to humans. In these incidents or events there is how humans behave.

According to Motahhari

According to Mutahhari, there are three ways to define history and there are three interrelated historical disciplines, namely:
Traditional history is the knowledge of events, incidents and conditions of humanity in the past in relation to present conditions.
Scientific history is the knowledge of the laws that appear to have governed past lives obtained through the approach and analysis of past events.
Philosophy of history, namely the knowledge of the gradual changes that carry society from one stage to another, it deals with the laws governing these changes. In other words, it is a science about being a society, not just about being there.

According to Gustaffson

History according to Gustafson is the peak of the mountain of human knowledge from which the deeds of our generation may be recorded and installed into the proper dimensions.

According to Abramiwitz

Understanding history according to Abramiwitz can be interpreted as a sequence of events that have occurred in an event.

According to Sheffer

The understanding of history according to Shefer can be interpreted as an event that has passed and actually happened.

According to Thomas Carlyle

Understanding history according to Thomas Carlyle is an event in the past that studies the biographies of famous people. They were a savior in their day. They are also great people who are recorded as the founders of this history.

According to Bernheim

History according to Bernheim is a science that traces and locates certain events in time and space concerning human development, both individually and collectively, as social beings in a cause and effect relationship, both physically and mentally.

According to RG Collingwood

Understanding history according to RG Collingwood is a form of investigation of things that have been done by humans in the past.

According to Patrick Gardiner

Understanding history according to Patrick Gardiner that the meaning of history is the study of what has been done by humans.

According to Herodotus

The understanding of history according to Herodotus, who is nicknamed as The Father of History, history can be interpreted as a study to tell a cycle of the ups and downs of a figure, society and civilization.

According to William H. Frederick

According to William H. Frederick, the word history comes from the Arabic 'syajaratun' which means tree or lineage or origin. In Indonesian it becomes 'history'. According to the word syajarah or history means a picture of genealogy or descent.

According to Norman E. Cantor

History according to Norman E. Cantor is the study of what humans did, said and thought in the past.

According to Robin Winks

According to expert Robin Winks, the notion of history is a study of humans in social life.

According to Henry Steele Commager

According to Henry Steele Commager, history is a record of the entire past, legal literature, buildings, social institutions, religion, philosophy and everything that is remembered in human memory.

According to Sunnal and Haas

According to Sunnal and Haas, history is a chronological study by interpreting and searching for the meaning of events and passing systematic methods to reveal the truth.

According to Edward Hallet Carr

History according to Edward Hallet Carr is a never-ending dialogue between the present and the past, a continuous process of interaction between the historian and the facts he owns.

According to Sir Charles Firth

The understanding of history according to Sir Charles Firth that history records the life of human society, the continuous changes of society, records the ideas that limit the actions of society and records the material conditions that have helped or hindered its development.

According to Karl Popper

Historical science according to Karl Popper is a science that is interested in specific events and their explanations. History is often described as past events as they actually happened.

According to Robert V. Daniels

According to Robert V. Daniels, the notion of history is the memory of the pedestal of the past. History is meant in the definition of human history as historical actors. The ability possessed by humans is the ability to capture the events around them. The catch becomes a memory or memory within him which will become a historical source.

According to John Tosh

The definition of history according to John Tosh is a collective memory, a source of experience through the development of a sense of social identity of people and the prospects of these people in the future.

According to Henri Pirenne Iseorang

History according to Henri Pirenne Iseorang is interpreted as a story about various events and human activities that live in society.

According to Beverley Southgate

The meaning of history according to Beverley Southgate is a study of the past where a study whose results are ideally is a presentation of the past as it is. The results of this learning can also be useful as a moral lesson for humans.

According to Jan Romein

According to Jan Romein, the word history has the same meaning as the words history (English) and geschichte (German), namely stories about events or events that occurred in the past.

According to Costa

History according to Costa can be defined as the overall record of human experience. In essence, history is a record of all experiences, both individually and collectively, in which the past is about human life.

According to Ertis Stern

Ertis Stern's version of history arises from a problem that lives and even serves people's lives. Therefore, history will change with the changing times, hopes and thoughts of anxiety that grow later.

According to Cleveland

History in Cleveland's opinion can be interpreted as a concept that will be seen to recognize human life.

So that's the reference regarding the understanding of history according to experts and in general it is complete. History is something that happened in the past and humans must learn from history in order to be better in the future. So many historical references this time.

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