Minggu, 15 Januari 2023

History of the Development of Space Technology

Entering the era of the 20th century, advances in science and technology have brought mankind to a fascinating space journey. Travel into space leads to a deeper understanding of the universe and opens the way for deeper exploration of the solar system.

With their historic first-engine flight on December 17, 1903, American aviation pioneers Oliver and Wilbur Wright have captured the world's imagination by realizing the long-standing human dream of flying into space. Less than 66 years later, the world watched as Neil Armstrong became the first person to walk on the moon.

On July 21, 1969, Neil Armstrong, one of the three members of the Apollo-11 crew, set foot on the moon and sent a radio message to Earth with the statement: "The eagle has landed... One small step for man, one giant leap for humanity." (The Eagle has landed... One small step for man, one giant leap for mankin).

Between 1969-1972, United States astronauts made a number of landings on the moon with samples of lunar soil and rocks which added to the technological wealth of those concerned. The adventure on the moon is one of the space research pioneered by three people known as the "Father of Space Flight" namely Robert Goddard (USA), Konstantin Tsiolkovsky (Russia) and Herman Oberth (Germany).

In the 1930s, a dominant figure in space research Wernher Von Braun from Germany became the head of the German rocket development program, but his dreams of space travel were dashed by the demands for armaments for Nazi Germany.

In 1942, under

led by Von Braun, German rocket scientists developed the A4 missile, better known as the V2. thousands of

Russians launched the world's first satellite with the name Sputnik I on October 4, 1957. The US then followed by launching its first satellite named Explorer I on January 31, 1958. then on April 12, 1961 Russia returned to lead by launching the first humans into space outside, namely Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin (1934-1968) a major of the Russian Air Force who launched the Vostok I capsule. Less than a month America followed by launching its first astronaut Alan B. Shepard with the Mercury I Capsule.

Shepard's mission itself is actually just an up-and-down flight and does not orbit the earth. Russia calls the mission a "flea flight". The United States only succeeded in sending an orbiter on February 20, 1962 when the Friendship 7 capsule manned by Lieutenant Colonel John Herschel Glenn managed to make 3 orbits in a flight of 4 hours 56 minutes. This achievement was still far behind the progress achieved by Russia 6 months earlier, when Major German Stephanovich spent 25 hours 18 minutes in the Vostok II capsule.

The moon is the next target of the two competing developed countries. Russia sent the unmanned probe Lunik II on September 14, 1959. The probe was recorded as the first man-made probe to land on the lunar surface. The Russians only managed to land a soft landing vehicle in February 1966 via Lunik IX.

A year later another US probe succeeded in transmitting the first TV images of the lunar surface. The climax occurred on July 17, 1969, when Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin succeeded in writing their names in history as the first humans to step on the surface of the moon through the Apollo-11 mission. the mission was followed by 5 other landings, namely Apollo-12 (November 1969), Apollo-14 (February 1971), Apollo-15 (August 1971), Apollo-16 (April 1972), and Apollo-17 (December 1972).

Source: Heridotus

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