A complete history of the Political, Economic, Social Life of the Kingdom of Aceh
KINGDOM OF ACEH
Aceh is one of the regions in Indonesia which has a number of histories during the kingdom. This province, which is famous for its strong Islamic religion, has a kingdom that was once ruled by Sultan Iskandar Muda.
For Indonesians, history is very important and even their children and grandchildren must know this. One of them is the history of the Aceh kingdom. Well, this time we will review the kingdom of Aceh, see the following review!
Location of the Kingdom of Aceh
The Early Building of the Baiturrahman Mosque (steemit.com)
The Kingdom of Aceh is a kingdom that developed as an Islamic empire that experienced glory during the reign of Sultan Iskandar Muda. Because of its strategic location, which is located in the area of Sumatra which is close to the location of international trade, the development of this kingdom has been very rapid.
Apart from that, the hectic activity of shipping trade services for the kingdom of Aceh also affected the development of the life of the Kingdom of Aceh in various fields such as politics, economics, social and culture. His territory stretched from the Deli area to the Malacca Peninsula area.
Political Life of the Kingdom
After Malacca was successfully occupied by the Portuguese in 1511, the Kingdom of Aceh began to develop because most of the major Islamic traders from Malacca moved to Aceh. Apart from that, another reason for Aceh to become crowded was due to the collapse of Samudra Pasai into the hands of the Portuguese in 1521.
And based on the genealogy of the sultans of Aceh, and European news, the Acehnese kingdom managed to break away from the pedir kingdom. And at that time the kingdom of Aceh was established with the first king led by Sultan Ali Mughayat in 1514-1528. And during the leadership of Sultan Iskandar Muda in 1607 - 1636, the Aceh kingdom experienced its glory.
Sultan Iskandar Muda has an aspiration to make Aceh a big and strong empire. Therefore, Sultan Ali Mughayat had the determination to conquer the kingdoms on the Malacca Peninsula including Pahang, Kedah, Perlak, Johor and many more.
After Sultan Iskandar Muda died, his leadership was replaced by Sultan Iskandar Tani in 1636-1641. And then the Aceh kingdom suffered a setback because there were no more powerful sultans, so that Aceh in 1641 was no longer able to fight the Dutch who at that time controlled Malacca.
The Economic Condition of the Kingdom
of the Kingdom of Aceh's Gold Currency (tribunnews.com)
The economy of the people of Aceh at that time was mainly trade. In a fertile area that produces a lot of pepper. Because the east and west coast areas are controlled by Aceh, the amount of pepper exports has also increased.
Apart from that, because several areas of the Malacca Peninsula were also controlled by Aceh, it also led to an increase in the important export bodies of tin and pepper. And the Malacca Strait is also Aceh's territory where this strait is an international trade route. So that many traders from foreign nations traded in the Aceh region, such as the Dutch, English, Arabs, Persians, Turks, Indians and so on.
The goods exported abroad included rice, pepper (Minangkabau), spices (Maluku) and goods imported to Indonesia at that time included fabrics from Koromendal (India), Japan and China, oil Fragrance from Europe and the Middle East. And it should also be noted that Acehnese ships are also active in trade and shipping to the Red Sea.
Iskandar Muda Port During the Kingdom of Aceh (busy.com)
Social life in the kingdom of Aceh at that time saw the emergence of two factions competing with each other to become influential groups in Aceh. The two groups are the Teuku group and the Teungku group. Which Teuku group is a group of noble people who hold civil power.
While the Teungku group is a group of scholars' who have an important role in the field of religion. Within the group of 'ulama' who hold power on the basis of religion, there are still two rivalries, namely the competition between the Shia sect and the Ahlussunnah wal Jama'ah sect. During the leadership of Sultan Iskandar Muda, the flow that developed rapidly was the Shi'a sect.
The figure in this flow is Hamzah Fansuri and then continued by Syamsuddin Pasai. After Sultan Iskandar Muda died, the ahlussunnah waljama'ah tradition grew rapidly.
The character in this school is Nurruddin Ar Raniri, who succeeded in writing the history of Aceh with the title Bustanussalatin. In addition to the social field, in the cultural field, it can be seen by the presence of the mosque building left by Sultan Iskandar Muda as evidence. Inside is the Baiturrohman mosque building.
The collapse of the Kingdom of Aceh
Taman Sari Gunongan (steemit.com)
The collapse of the kingdom of Aceh began with the strategy carried out by Dr. Christian Snougck Hurgronje by infiltrating pretended to enter the Islamic religion and at that time he was well received by the people of Aceh.
After he converted to Islam, he gained the trust of the Acehnese leaders and at that time he began to know the weaknesses of the Acehnese people. Then he suggested to the Dutch to attack the Ulama' because the strength of the people of Aceh lies in the Ulama'.
Then the Dutch carried out an attack and as a result, the attack was successful, the Dutch were able to control Aceh. After Aceh was controlled by the Dutch, then Dr. Christian Snougck Hurgronje was appointed governor of Aceh in 1898 at which time, most of Aceh had been controlled by the Dutch.
When Sultan Muhammad Dawud's child and mother were captured by the Dutch, in 1093 Sultan Muhammad Dawud surrendered to the Dutch. So that in 1904 the Aceh sultanate collapsed marked by the fall of all of Aceh's territory into Dutch hands at that time.
Legacy of the Kingdom of Aceh Pinto Khop (indonesiakaya.com) After the kingdom of Aceh collapsed, there are some remnants of the kingdom of Aceh that still remain, including: 1. Baiturrahman Mosque Baiturrahman Mosque is a mosque inherited from the kingdom of Aceh which was built during the reign of Sultan Iskandar Muda in 1612 AD. This mosque was burnt by the Dutch during the second Dutch military aggression. 2. Taman Sari Gunongan
Taman Sari Gunongan is a garden that was built during the reign of Sultan Iskandar Muda where this garden was built as a gift for the Boyongan princess in the Pahang kingdom where this princess was a daughter who was greatly admired by Sultan Iskandar Muda.
3. Indra Puri
Mosque Indra Puri Mosque is an old mosque where it is known that this mosque used to be a Hindu stronghold that controlled the land of Aceh. After Islam entered, around 1300 AD the fort was converted into a mosque.
4. Fort Indra Prata
Fort Indra Prata is a relic of the kingdom of Aceh which is located on the coast of Aceh. This fort is a fort whose function is very vital for the defense of the sea so that its authenticity is still maintained by Sultan Iskandar Muda until now.
5. Pinto Khop
Pinto khop is a heritage building from the kingdom of Aceh which at that time served as the entrance to the Putroe Phang park. What is unique about this building is the shape of the roof which resembles a dome.
Those are some of the legacies of the Aceh kingdom and many more.
source : https://informazone.com/kerajaan-aceh/