Minggu, 15 Januari 2023


1. The Origin of the Malay Language
To know the origin of the Malay language we need to know the origin of the original speakers first, namely the Malays. The origins of the Malay race are still unclear. However, some European scholars such as Hendrik Kern (Netherlands) and Robert von Heine Geldern (Austria) have done a rough research on the background and movement of the ancient Malay community.

Their theory states that the Malay race originates from the Austronesian group, which is a group of people from the Yunan area in China who later migrated in the form of several waves of human movement and eventually occupied the region of Southeast Asia.

The first wave is known as Melayu-Proto and happened about 2500 years before Christ. Around 1500 years before Christ, came the second wave known as Melayu-Deutro. They inhabit fertile areas on the coast and valleys of Southeast Asia. Their presence caused the Proto-Malay people such as the Jakun, Mahmeri, Jahut, Temuan, Biduanda and some other small groups to move to the interior. Thus, this Malay-Deutro is the Malay community that exists today.

Malay comes from the Austronesian language group, while this Austronesian language comes from the Austrian language family. Apart from the Austronesian language group, the Austro-Asiatic language group and the Chinese Tibetan language group.

This group of Austronesian languages ​​is divided into four smaller groups:

1. Languages ​​of the Malay Archipelago or Archipelago Language.
Example: Malay, Acehnese, Javanese, Sundanese, Dayak, Tagalog, Solo, Roto, Sika and others.

2. Polynesian languages
​​Example: Hawaiian, Tonga, Maori, Haiti

3. Melanesian languages
​​Example: languages ​​of the Fiji Islands, Irian and Caledonia Islands

4. Micronesian languages
​​Example: languages ​​of the Marianna Islands, Marshall, Carolina and Gilbert.
Malay belongs to the branch of Archipelago languages ​​that has the most languages, which is about 200 to 300 languages. The form of Malay spoken in the Malay Archipelago in the past is known as Old Malay and is very different from modern Malay. The form of Ancient Malay can only be seen through traces of historical remains such as inscribed stones.

Inscribed stones that use Malay are believed to have been written at the end of the 7th century. A total of four inscribed stones have been found that have the following dates:

1. Stone inscriptions Kedukan Hill (683 M) - Palembang
2. Talang Tuwo Lettered Stone (684 AD) – Palembang
3. Kapor Town Lettered Stone (686 AD) – Bangka Island, Palembang
4. Brahi Coral Stone (686 AD) – Palembang

Based on its content, the writing on the inscribed stone was made on the orders of the king of Srivijaya, a kingdom that had an empire covering Sumatra, Java, the Malay Peninsula, Segenting Kra and Sri Lanka. Therefore, this shows that the Malay language has been used as the official language and the administrative language of the Srivijaya kingdom, as well as expanding the spread of the Malay language to its conquered colonies. Although the language on the inscribed stone is still Sanskrit, there is still the influence of Ancient Malay in it.

The term "Malay" appeared for the first time in Chinese writing in 644 and 645 AD. This writing mentions the "Mo-Lo-Yue" people who sent messengers to the State of China to present the fruits of the earth to the King of China. The location of this "Mo-Lo-Yue" kingdom cannot be firmly established. Some recorded in the Malay Peninsula and in Jambi, Sumatra. Apart from the four inscribed stones mentioned earlier, there are also other materials produced during the Srivijaya kingdom in the 7th to 13th centuries AD.

2. The Development of the Malay Language
Linguists divide the development of the Malay language into three main stages, viz

• Old Malay (7th to 13th century)
• Classical Malay, written with the Jawi script (since the 15th century)
• Modern Malay (since the 20th century)

Old Malay

It is a family of Nusantara languages. Its glory from the 7th century to the 13th century during the Sriwijaya kingdom, as a lingua franca and administrative language. Speakers in the Peninsula, Riau Islands and Sumatra. It became a lingua franca and an administrative language because:
• Is simple and easy to accept outside influence.
• Not tied to differences in social strata
• Has a simpler system compared to the Javanese language.

Much influenced by the Sanskrit language system. Sanskrit was later identified as contributing to the enrichment of the vocabulary and scientific (scholarship) characteristics of the Malay language.
Malay is easily influenced by Sanskrit because:
• Hindu influence
• Sanskrit is in the aristocracy, and is said to have a high hierarchy.
• The nature of the Malay language that is easily flexible according to circumstances and needs.

Ancient Malay on 7th century inscribed stones written in Pallawa script:
• An inscribed stone at Kedukan Bukit, Palembang (683 AD)
• Stone with inscriptions in Talang Ruwo, near Palembang (684 AD)
• An inscribed stone in Kampur City, Bangka Island (686 AD)
• An inscribed stone in Karang Brahi, Meringin, Upper Jambi area (686 AD)
Ancient Malay on an inscribed stone in Gandasuli, Central Java (832 AD) is written in the Nagiri script.

Characteristics of the ancient Malay language:
• Full of Sanskrit loanwords
• Malay sentence structure
• The sound b is w in ancient Malay (Example: moon - wulan)
• The sound e pepet does not exist (Example dengan - dngan or dangan)
• The prefix ber- is mar- in Ancient Malay (example: berlepas-marlapas)
• The prefix di- is ni- in the ancient Malay language (Example: done - niparwuat)
• There are aspirated consonant sounds such as bh, th, ph, dh, kh, h (Example: sukhatshitta)
• The letter h is missing in modern languages ​​(Example: all-samuha, me: sahaya)

Transition from Old Malay to Classical Malay

This shift is linked to the growing influence of Islam in Southeast Asia in the 13th century. After that, the Malay language underwent many changes in terms of vocabulary, sentence structure and writing. There are three important epitaphs:

a. Inscribed stone at Pagar Ruyung, Minangkabau (1356)
• written in Indian
script • contains ancient Malay prose and a few lines of Sanskrit poetry.
• the language is slightly different from the 7th century inscribed stone language.
b. Inscribed stone in Minye Tujuh, Aceh (1380)
• still using the Indian alphabet
• for the first time there is the use of Arabic words such as the sentence of the prophet, Allah and mercy
c. inscription stone in Kuala Berang, Terengganu (1303-1387)
• written in Jawi script
• proves Arabic script has been used in Malay in that century.

These three inscribed stones are evidence of the last record of the development of the Malay language because after the 14th century, Malay literature appeared in written form.

Classical Malay

Its glory can be divided into three important periods:
• Melaka kingdom
period • Acheh
kingdom period • Johor-Riau kingdom period

Among the important writers are Hamzah Fansuri, Syamsuddin al-Sumaterani, Syeikh Nuruddin al-Raniri and Abdul Rauf al-Singkel. Characteristics of classical language: • sentences: long, repetitive, convoluted. • many passive sentences • use palace language • classic vocabulary: ratna mutu manikam, edan kesmaran (drunken in love), sahaya, masyghul (sad) • use a lot of verbs (sentence stems): sebermula, alkisah, hatta, adapun. • inverted sentences • use a lot of particles ``pun'' and ``lah''

Modern Malay

Began in the 19th century. Munsyi Abdullah's writings are considered to be the beginning of the modern Malay language era. Before the British colonization, the Malay language reached a high position, functioning as an intermediate language, administration, literature, and the language of instruction in Islamic education centers. After the Second World War, the British changed their policy to make English the medium of instruction in the education system. When Malaysia achieved independence, Article 152 of the Federal Constitution established Malay as the national language. The National Language Act 1963/1967 establishes Malay as the official language of the country. The 1956 Razak Report suggested the Malay language as an introduction in the country's education system.

However, there is no evidence that the three forms of Malay are continuous. In addition, widespread use in various places gave rise to various dialects of Malay, either due to population distribution and isolation, or through creolization.

After the Sriwijaya period, written records of and in Malay only appeared since the time of the Malacca Sultanate (15th century). Portuguese reports from the 16th century mention the need to master the Malay language for trade transactions. Along with the collapse of Portuguese rule in Malacca, and the emergence of various sultanates on the coast of the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Kalimantan, and the southern Philippines, documents written on paper in the Malay language began to be found. Correspondence between royal leaders in the 16th century is also known to have used the Malay language. Because they are not native speakers of Malay, they use "simplified" Malay and experience mixing with the local language, which is more popular as Bazaar Malay.

The pioneering direction towards Modern Malay began when Raja Ali Haji, a court poet from the Riau Lingga Sultanate, systematically compiled a one-language dictionary of Malay (the Book of Knowledge of Languages, namely the first Malay-Johor-Pahang-Riau-Lingga Loghat Dictionary) in the middle of the 19th century. 19th. The next development occurred when European scholars (especially Dutch and English) began to study this language systematically because they considered it important to use it in administrative matters. This happened in the second half of the 19th century. Modern Malay is characterized by the use of the Latin alphabet and the inclusion of many European words. The teaching of Malay in schools since the early 20th century has made this language increasingly popular.

In Indonesia, the establishment of Balai Poestaka (1901) as a printing company for textbooks and literature led to the popularity of Malay and even formed a separate language variant which began to differ from its parent, Riau Malay. Researchers of the history of the Indonesian language today call it "Balai Pustaka Malay"[6] or "van Ophuijsen Malay". Van Ophuijsen was the person who in 1901 compiled the spelling of the Malay language with Latin letters for use in the Dutch East Indies. He is also the editor of various literary books published by Balai Pustaka.

In the following 20 years, this "van Ophuijsen Malay language" became widely known among native people and began to be considered as Indonesian national identity. The climax was when the Second Youth Congress (28 October 1928) clearly stated, "upholding the language of unity, the Indonesian language". Since then, the Malay language has been appointed as the national language.

The introduction of this national variant pushed other forms of Malay, including Chinese Malay, as an offshoot of Pasar Malay, which was popularly used as the language of newspapers and various works of fiction in the late 19th century. Forms of the Malay language other than the national variant were considered "less noble" forms and their use gradually weakened.

Maintenance of the standard Malay language (Riau Malay language) is maintained due to the widespread use of this language in everyday life. The attitude of the Dutch people, who at that time did not like it when native people spoke Dutch, also caused the Malay language to become increasingly popular.

In early 2004, the Language and Library Council (Malaysia) and the Brunei Darussalam - Indonesia - Malaysia Language Council (MABBIM) planned to make Malay the official language within the ASEAN organization, with the view that more than half of the ASEAN population could speak Malay. This plan has never been realized, but ASEAN now always produces original documents in English and

translated into the official language of each of its member countries.

The Malay language is very varied. The main cause is the absence of an institution that has the power to regulate standardization. The Malay kingdoms only had regulatory powers limited to their territory, even though the Malay language was used by people far beyond their limits. As a result, various dialects (geographical) and sociolects (social dialects) emerged. The use of this language by people with other ethnic backgrounds also gave rise to various creole variants everywhere, which are still used today. Betawi language, a form of creole, is even now starting to strongly influence Indonesian due to its use by Jakarta's youth and its widespread use in national television entertainment programs.

3. Various Malay Dialects

There are difficulties in grouping the Malay languages. As with several languages ​​in the Indonesian archipelago, there are no clear boundaries between one variant and another whose speakers are geographically next to each other. Dialect changes are often gradual. For convenience, variants are usually grouped as follows:

The number of Malay speakers in Indonesia is very large, even in terms of numbers exceeding the number of Malay speakers in Malaysia and in Brunei Darussalam. Malay is spoken along the east coast of Sumatra, Riau Islands, Bangka Belitung Islands, Jambi, South Sumatra, Bengkulu to the coast of Borneo Island and the city of Negara, Bali.

Indonesian Malay dialect
Tamiang dialect: spoken in Aceh Tamiang district, Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam
Langkat dialect: spoken in the Langkat area, North Sumatra
Deli dialect: spoken in Medan, Deli Serdang and Serdang Bedagai
Asahan dialect: spoken along the coastal area of ​​Asahan district
Kualuh dialect: spoken along the upstream to downstream areas of the Kualuh river, North Labuhanbatu district
Bilah dialect: spoken along the downstream area of ​​the Bilah river, Labuhanbatu district
Panai dialect: spoken along the downstream area of ​​the Barumun river, Labuhanbatu district
Kotapinang dialect: spoken along the Barumun river basin, South Labuhanbatu district
Riau Malay dialect: spoken in the Riau Archipelago
Mainland Riau Malay dialect: divided into several other dialects depending on the region (Siak, Rokan, Inderagiri, Kuantan)
Dialect of Anak Dalam: possibly including the Kubu group, Talang Mamak in the Riau and Jambi regions
Jambi Malay dialect : spoken in Jambi province
Bengkulu Malay dialect: spoken in the city of Bengkulu
Palembang Malay Dialect: spoken in the city of Palembang and the City of Muara Enim and its surroundings
Bangka-Belitung dialect : spoken in the province of Bangka-Belitung, there is a slight difference between the pronunciation of words, for example, the word "APA-Ind" Bangka uses "APE" like saying the word "PEPES" and Belitung "APE" like saying the word "Remang".
Pontianak Malay dialect: spoken in Pontianak district, Kubu Raya district and Pontianak city, West Kalimantan
Landak dialect: Landak district and its surroundings, West Kalimantan
Sambas dialect: spoken in Sambas district and its surroundings, West Kalimantan
Ketapang dialect: spoken in Ketapang district and its surroundings, West Kalimantan, consisting of 2 dialects of the city of Ketapang and Balai Berkuak.
Berau dialect: spoken in Berau district and its surroundings, East Kalimantan
Kutai dialect: used in Kutai Kertanegara district, East Kalimantan
Loloan dialect : spoken in the town of Negara, Jembrana, Bali.
The Riau Archipelago dialect and several areas in Mainland Riau are spoken the same as the Johor Dialect.
Malay relative language

"Language of relatives" are other languages ​​similar to Malay, but there are still differences of opinion on this matter. They are :
1. Minangkabau language (min) in West Sumatra
2. Banjar language (bjn) in South Kalimantan
3. Kedayan language (kxd) (Kedayan tribe) in Brunei, Sarawak
4. Kedah Malay dialect (meo) (Satun Malay)
5. Dialect Kokos Island Malay (coa)
6. Pattani Malay Dialect (mfa)
7. Sabah Malay Dialect (msi)
8. Bukit Malay Dialect (Bukit Language) (bvu) (Bukit Dayak Tribe) in South Kalimantan
9. Serawai Language (srj) in Bengkulu
10. Rejang language (rej) in Rejang Lebong, Bengkulu
11. Lebong language in Lebong, Bengkulu
12. Rawas language (rws) in Musi Rawas, South Sumatra
13. Penesak language (pen) in Prabumulih, South Sumatra
14. Komering language in Ogan Komering Ulu and Ogan Komering Ilir, South Sumatra
15. Enim (eni)
16. Musi (mui)
17. Kaur (vkk)
18. Kerinci/(Kerinci-Sakai-Talang Mamak)(vkr)
19. Stronghold (kvb)
20. Lematang ( lmt) )
_ Rawas (rws)
28. Ogan (ogn) language in Ogan Ilir, Ogan Komering Ulu and Ogan Komering Ilir, South Sumatra
29. Pasemah language ( pse) in South Sumatra
30. Inner tribal language [sbv] in Jambi
31. Kutai language in Kutai Kartanegara, East Kalimantan

Creole Malay

Malay has long been known as the language of ethnic groups, especially in Indonesia. In its development, especially in areas where the population is not Malay and have their own language, Malay undergoes a pidginization process by mixing various elements of the local language into Malay and because it is spoken by their children, Malay undergoes a process of creolization. The Malay language, especially in Eastern Indonesia, was also introduced by missionaries from the Netherlands for the purposes of spreading Christianity.

On the island of Java, especially in Jakarta, the Malay language is undergoing a creolization process in which the basic elements of Market Malay are mixed with various surrounding languages, especially Chinese, Sundanese, Javanese, Balinese, Bugis, even elements of Dutch and Portuguese. Malays in this creole form are often found in the Eastern Indonesia Region which stretches from Manado to Papua.

These Creole Malay forms include:Jakarta Malay dialect, Betawi language: spoken in Jakarta and its surroundings
Peranakan Indonesian Malay dialect: widely spoken by the Chinese community on the coasts of East and Central Java.
Manado Malay dialect (Manado language): used as a lingua franca in North Sulawesi
North Maluku Malay dialect (max): spoken in almost all of North Maluku
Bacan Malay dialect (btj): spoken in the Bacan island area, North Maluku
Ambon Malay dialect: used as the first language for residents of the city of Ambon, and a second language for residents around it
Banda Malay dialect: different from Ambon Malay, and used in the Banda Islands, Maluku
Larantuka Malay dialect: used in East Flores district, East Nusa Tenggara
Kupang Malay dialect: became the lingua franca in the Kupang region and parts of the island of Timor
Papuan Malay dialect: Papua, West Papua
Makassar Malay dialect (mfp): South Sulawesi
4. Various dialects of Riau Malay

Language shows culture. Riau is known to the world as the center of Malay culture in Indonesia regardless of whether this status is recognized or not. So of course the migrants, tourists who come to the Lancang Kuning earth will look for that culture, Malay culture, meaning they are looking for language.

What language is commonly spoken in Riau? Is it Malay? If you look in the mirror from the "Malay cultural center" of course the answer is correct. But let's look at a detailed map of the use of languages ​​in Riau.

Pekanbaru City is like a heterogeneous Jakarta. It can also be said that no particular regional language dominates the city. Malay language? Not too many people speak Malay. In fact, more people speak ocu.

Regarding the ocu language, there has been no official research on where this ocu language came from. Is it closer to the Malay language of the Riau-Lingga kingdom or the Minangkabau language. If you ask several ocu people, then you will find various confessions. Some claim that ocu is Malay, but others say that ocu is closer to the Minangkabau language, the language of the Pagaruyung kingdom.

It can be concluded that the ocu language is in power in the provincial capital of Riau. It can be seen from the position of the city itself, surrounded by Kampar Regency, the ocu people's home. But if you go to traditional markets, don't expect Malay to be there, because the market language in Pekanbaru is Minang

Nearly 90 percent of the people of Kampar district speak ocu.

This area has a language that is not much different from the Ocu and Minang languages. The language commonly used in this district is also called the Pasir language (Pasir Pengaraian).

This is an area where the Malay language is strong because it really is on the east coast of Sumatra. However, the Batak and Chinese ethnic groups are also not insignificant in this area.

The language here is what many people call the Taluk language or the Kuantan Taluk language. The Taluk language is almost the same as the Ocu language, only differing in a few syllables. However, the taluk language is also close to the Minang language because this area is indeed close to the Minangkabau region, West Sumatra. Check out the mythological similarities between the three languages ​​compared to Malay (Johor-Riau/Riau-Lingga):
Malay : Parit
Ocu : Bondau Taluk : Bondar Minangkabau : Banda Siak, Meranti, Bengkalis, Pelalawan, Indragiri Upstream and Downstream

It is clear that the above areas are dominated by the Malay language. There were four kingdoms that once stood here: Siak, Indragiri, and Pelalawan, of course all of these could not be separated from the Riau-Lingga influence.

Even though they are mastered by one language, Malay, the dialects for each region are different. But other languages ​​such as Banjar, Bugis, Javanese are also not small in number in these areas. In addition, the ethnic Chinese language is also quite large in number, especially in riverside areas and the east coast of Sumatra, such as Inhil, Bengkalis and Meranti.

5. Practicing Riau Malay
Practicing the Malay language in everyday life, especially for us as people who live in Malay land, especially Pekanbaru, is very important, because, one of the impacts that has occurred from the things described above is the very rapid decline in the development of Malay culture, it is difficult to maintain what which should be a benchmark with other cultures. For that, wouldn't it be better for us to examine further.

Riau Province consists of six regencies and two municipalities, namely Indragiri Hilir Regency, Indragiri Hulu Regency, Kampar Regency, Bengkalis Regency, Riau Islands Regency, Pekanbaru Municipality, and Batam Municipality. Based on its natural condition, this province is divided into two parts, namely Riau Mainland and Riau Archipelago. The Riau Mainland includes Kampar Regency, Bengkalis Regency, Indragiri Hulu Regency, Indragiri Hilir Regency, and the Municipality of Pekanbaru, while the Riau Archipelago includes a group of islands that spread to the border of Malaysian waters in the South China Sea and the border of West Kalimantan.

Such an area is inhabited by various sub-dialects of Malay, which as already explained can be divided into two sub-dialects, namely the Mainland sub-dialect and the Archipelago sub-dialect. The Mainland sub-dialect has phonological characteristics that are close to Minangkabau Malay, while the Archipelago sub-dialect has phonological characteristics that are close to Malaysian Malay. In addition to various other characteristics, these two subdialects are characterized by words which in Indonesian are words that end in a vowel /a/; in the Mainland sub-dialect it is pronounced with the vowel /o/, while in the Island sub-dialect it is pronounced /?/ (Hasan, 1976: 50).

So, the first impression when dealing with the Riau (Archipelago) Malay dialect is the high frequency of occurrence of the vowel /e/ in open-syllable words and the absence of the same vowel in closed-consonant syllables, such as Indonesian in the Javanese dialect. The other vowels also have a distinctive distribution, which the author will show on the back. The most impressive group of consonants is the uvular trill /R/ which is different from the tip of the tongue trill in Indonesian.

As is generally the case in spoken language, in this dialect many words appear in abbreviated forms such as is for already or has, na‘ for wanting, ta‘ for not. In fact, the word ta‘ which in Indonesian only appears in the bound form, in this dialect can stand alone as a minimal sentence.
+ Na ae eat ta? / ae˜ Do you want to eat or not? ae
- Ta ae / ae Tidak ae
In the field of morphology, the prefix per- and the suffix -i rarely appear. To go through, for example, is used to go near (the mosque) and to heighten is used to make high or raise, whereas in the area of ​​syntax, the impression that the writer gets is that the words assignments rarely appear, such as towards or will, with, and by.

In the field of vocabulary, there are no significant differences, but it can also be noted that there are some distinctive words that are not normally used in modern Indonesian. To invite guests to drink or eat, the word pick-up is used, 'please take it', for neighbors it is used in the house next door, the word patek ae patik ae is used when people want to humble themselves, and when addressing teachers, it is used for check gu.

In speaking and saying, a lot of advice is found, because words are very influential in social relations, "Language shows the Nation." The word nation here means a person with a degree or a good person. People who use profanity, he is certainly a person of no nation and low rank.
Language is always associated with the mind, so the height of a person's mind is also measured from his words, as in the expression:

Live as a single page
Can't squeal
Can't overlap
Can't hold grudges Don't

open shame on people Don't
tear the clothes off the body Don't
tap water on the tray
Lose your temper because of language
Run out of sovereignty because of power
Spicy pepper reaches the mouth
Spicy words invite death

Can be a snake on its fangs It can be
thick on its sting
Can be human on its mouth
Can poison can be cured
Can be the mouth of life on it

Therefore, words and expressions play an important role in association, so guidance is always given so that harmony is maintained. source : http://diasdiari.blogspot.co.id/2013/09/asal-usul-language-melayu-riau.html

Baca Artikel Terkait: