Minggu, 15 Januari 2023

Indonesian Association Organization (PI), Read This

The Indonesian Association is one of the national movement organizations that was founded in the Netherlands. The Indonesian Association was founded by Indonesian students and Dutch people who were concerned about the fate of the Dutch East Indies who lived in the Netherlands. The Association of India or Indische Vereeniging (IV) was founded in 1908, which was formed as a social association. This organization is an event for meetings and communication between Indonesian students studying in the Netherlands.

However, after the arrival of Indische Partiij leaders in the Netherlands, IV grew rapidly and focused his activities on politics. These forward-looking organizational figures sparked for the first time the concept of a Free Indies from the Netherlands and the formation of an Indian state ruled by its own people. Its program of activities includes working in Indonesia and forming the Indonesische Verbond van Studeerenden (Indonesian Student Association).

The most important thing from this merger is the replacement of "Indische" with "Indonesische." This was the first time in the history of the Indonesian national movement that the term "Indonesische" or "Indonesia" was introduced in academic and political activities. In 1923, Iwa Kusumumatri as chairman, since then the nature of the organization's political struggle has grown stronger. In the 1923 general meeting this organization agreed on three main organizational principles, namely:

a) Indonesia determines its own destiny;
b) for that Indonesia must rely on its own strength and will;
c) to fight the Dutch colonial government, the Indonesian nation must unite.

To show their nationalism, the organizers of this organization then changed the name of the Indigenous Peoples magazine to Indonesia Merdeka. In the first edition of the magazine Indonesia Merdeka, it was revealed that the Dutch colonization by the Dutch and the Dutch colonization by the Spanish had many similarities. Apart from that, the reason for not mentioning the Dutch East Indies was also explained because it was almost the same as the Dutch people who did not want to call their country Nederland-Spain. Students know this after learning about the Dutch struggle against Spain.

This organization also believes that independence is the right of every nation in the world, including the rights of the Indonesian people who are still colonized. Its clear spirit of political struggle towards an independent Indonesia has made this organization respected by similar organizations among colonized countries in Asia. Propaganda about the goals and new ideology of the Indonesian nation was socialized more intensively by this organization by publishing a booklet in commemoration of its 15th anniversary in 1924.

Indische Vereeniging (IV) on 3 February 1925 changed its name to the Indonesian Association. In the magazine Indonesia Merdeka, it was written that this name change was expected to purify the organization and reinforce the principles of organizational struggle. Meanwhile, in an article that appeared in the same month with the title Strijd in Twee Front (Struggle on Two Fronts), stated that the next struggle would be even tougher and no Indonesian youth would be able to escape it.

They must try to mobilize all their abilities if they want to achieve independence. The leaders of the Indonesian Association stated that their organization was a national movement organization. As an elite group as well as a new middle class, they must play an important role as agents of changing society from a colonized society to an independent society, from a shackled society to a free society, and from an ignorant society to an intelligent society.

To realize these ideals, a state institution is needed

independent and sovereign unit. One of the leaders of the Indonesian Association, Moh. Hatta, passionately called for the unity of all Indonesian nationalist elements. Among the four main ideological thoughts of the Indonesian Association, the main idea of ​​"independence" is the key. The four main ideas are national unity, independence, non-cooperation and self-reliance.

The ideology of the Indonesian Association which consisted of four ideas was approved in January 1925. The four ideas were as follows:

1) forming an independent Indonesian state;
2) the participation of all layers of the Indonesian people in an integrated struggle to achieve independence;
3) the conflict of interest between the colonizers and the colonized must be fought by sharpening and emphasizing the conflict. The conflict is aimed against the invaders; and
4) the bad influence of Dutch colonialism on the physical and psychological health of the Indonesian nation must be immediately restored and normalized by continuing to fight for independence.

The development of Marxism, Leninism and socialism in Europe regarding class struggle and conflict between capitalists and proletarians has influenced the perspective of national movement figures living in the Netherlands, Europe. By national movement figures, these understandings were applied in the ideology of the national movement. They see that the people of the colonial countries are the proletariat who are oppressed by imperialism which is synonymous with capitalism.

Movement figures, such as Semaun, were exiled to Amsterdam, Mohammad Hatta, Ali Sastroamidojo, Gatot Mangkupraja, and Subarjo were adherents of these new ideas from Europe. Marxist, leninist, and socialist ideas have given encouragement to students in fostering the spirit of struggle for the brown-skinned people of Indonesia against the white Dutch people. In carrying out their political activities, Indonesian students in the Netherlands often hold meetings, scientific and political discussions among themselves as well as with various other students in the Netherlands.

The aim was to develop a common view and garner sympathy from both Indonesia, the international community and the Dutch themselves regarding an independent Indonesia. Therefore, PI recommends that all national movement organizations make the concept of an independent Indonesia their main program. The call from Indonesian students in the Netherlands for movement organizations in Indonesia to increase political activity was welcomed in Indonesia. One of them is the PKI.

In November 1926, the PKI revolutionary committee staged an uprising in West Java. January 1927, the PKI also repeated its actions on the west coast of Sumatra. However, both of these actions failed. The PKI rebellion that failed in Banten was considered the PI's responsibility in the Netherlands. After the rebellion occurred, the Dutch colonial government tried to arrest the PI leaders in the Netherlands. PI figures, such as Ali Sastroamidjojo, Abdul Karim, M Jusuf, and Moh.

Hatta was considered to have close ties with Moscow, as the headquarters of the comintern movement. As a result of these accusations they were arrested, then tried on charges of treason against the government. Because of their defense, they were finally released after it was not proven that they were involved in the uprising. In their defense speeches, they explained that the PI was only talking about the possibility of violence, unless the Dutch government was thinking about Indonesian independence.

Their acquittal was celebrated by members of the PI and Indonesian nationalist parties, as it was seen as a victory for the nationalist movement over the Dutch colonial state. Because of this victory, the Indonesian nationalists in the Netherlands increasingly received the sympathy of the masses in the Netherlands. The Indonesian Association has an important role in the Indonesian nationalist movement, even though this organization was established in the Netherlands and has many activities in that country. These roles include:

1) as an opening for the psychological confinement of the Indonesian nation and the power of the colonial system;
2) developing a secular ideology so that it can encourage a revolutionary and nationalist spirit;
3) unify group elements into the overall organization;
4) introducing Indonesian terms to develop national identity and not be regional in nature; and
as the most original national organization in propagating the ideology of Independent Indonesia.

Source: the latest study material ips

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