History of the Indonesian Army (Army), Main Duties and Complete Explanations
History of the TNI Struggle.
a. The History of the Struggle of the Indonesian Armed Forces. At the beginning of independence, the accumulation of armed forces came from armed warrior figures, both from Japanese (PETA), Dutch (KNIL) education, as well as those from the people's army, this was the forerunner to the birth of the TNI, which in its development consolidated itself into the Security Agency. People's Defense Forces (BKR), which later successively changed their names to the People's Security Army (TKR), the People's Safety Army (TKR), the Indonesian Republican Army (TRI), the Indonesian National Armed Forces (TNI), the Indonesian Armed Forces (APRI), the United Republic of Indonesia War (APRIS), which returned to become the Armed Forces of the Republic of Indonesia (APRI), the Armed Forces of the Republic of Indonesia (ABRI), through a merger with the National Police, and based on MPR Decree No. VI/MPR/2000 returned to using the name Indonesian National Armed Forces (TNI) after the separation of roles between the TNI and Polri. Since its inception, the TNI has faced various tasks in the context of upholding state sovereignty, defending the territorial integrity of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia based on Pancasila and the 1945 Constitution of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia, as well as protecting the entire nation and all of Indonesia's bloodshed from threats and disturbances to the integrity of the nation and state. . TNI's dedication to the state can be seen in the history of its struggle as follows maintaining the territorial integrity of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia based on Pancasila and the 1945 Constitution of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia, as well as protecting the entire nation and all of Indonesia's bloodshed from threats and disturbances to the integrity of the nation and state. TNI's dedication to the state can be seen in the history of its struggle as follows maintaining the territorial integrity of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia based on Pancasila and the 1945 Constitution of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia, as well as protecting the entire nation and all of Indonesia's bloodshed from threats and disturbances to the integrity of the nation and state. TNI's dedication to the state can be seen in the history of its struggle as follows
1) Defending Independence. Immediately after the Proclamation of Independence on August 17, 1945, the Indonesian people faced the Allies/Dutch who were trying to re-colonize the Indonesian nation. The return of the Allies/Dutch was met with resistance by the TNI forces together with the people, namely there were battles everywhere, such as in Semarang (1945), Ambarawa (1945), Surabaya (1945), Bandung Lautan Api (1946), Medan Area (1947), Palembang (1947), Margarana (1946), Menado (1946), Sanga-Sanga (1947), Dutch Military Aggression I (1947), Dutch Military Aggression II (1948), and General Offensive March 1, 1949 so that the Indonesian nation was able to maintain recognition for the independence and sovereignty of the Republic of Indonesia on December 27, 1949. This struggle was successful thanks to strong self-confidence, an unyielding spirit, selfless struggle with a determination to be free or die.
2) Maintaining the Integrity of the Nation and State.
a) The TNI together with the people carried out domestic operations such as the crushing of the PKI in Madiun 1948 and the 30 September 1965 Movement, against the DI/TII rebellion in West Java, Aceh, South Sulawesi, against the PRRI in West Sumatra, Permesta in Menado, Kahar Muzakar in Sulawesi South, PGRS/Paraku in West Kalimantan, Republic of South Maluku in Ambon, GPLHT in Aceh, Ganda Council in South Sumatra, and OPM in Irian. This struggle is carried out in the interest of saving the life of the nation and state and adhering to the principles for the interests of the integrity of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia.
b) Security operations are carried out on state activities such as elections, General Sessions / Special Sessions of the MPR, and safeguarding against communal conflicts. This security operation is based on the interests of the state and nation, saving the life of the nation and state.
TASKS OF THE ARMY
a. Principal Tasks.
As part of the TNI, the main task of the TNI AD is to uphold state sovereignty, maintain the territorial integrity of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia based on Pancasila and the 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia, and protect the whole nation and all of Indonesia's bloodshed from threats and disturbances to the integrity of the nation. and country.
b. Tasks .
1) Carry out the duties of the TNI in the field of defense, namely by carrying out Military Operations for War (OMP) and Military Operations Other Than War (OMSP).
2) Carry out the duties of TN1 in maintaining the security of land border areas with other countries: namely by making all efforts, work and activities to ensure the upholding of state sovereignty, territorial integrity and safety of the nation in land border areas with other countries and on the outermost islands isolated from all forms of threats and violations.
3) Carry out the duties of the TNI in the development and development of land force forces, namely by making all efforts, work and activities to realize the appearance of the TNI AD posture which is the integration of the strengths, capabilities and titles of the TNI AD forces as well as the preparation of reserve components and components supporting national defense land mat.
4) Carry out the empowerment of land defense areas by carrying out planning, development, deployment and control of defense areas for the interests of national defense on land in accordance with the Universal Defense System (Sishanta) through territorial development, namely by:
a) Assisting the government in preparing the national potential to become a ground defense force which is prepared in advance, which includes the defense area and its supporting forces, to carry out Military Operations for War, the implementation of which is based on the interests of the state in accordance with Sishanta.
b) Helping the government organize mandatory military training for citizens in accordance with statutory regulations.
c) Helping the government empower the people as a supporting force.
The TNI-AD is under the TNI Headquarters. The Army's senior officer, the Indonesian Army Chief of Staff, is a four-star high-ranking officer with the rank of General in charge of the Army under the TNI Commander.
Chief of staff
!The main article for this section is: Chief of Staff of the Indonesian Armed Forces
The highest position in the Indonesian Army is the Army Chief of Staff, which is usually held by a four-star General. Currently the Indonesian Army is led by General TNI Pramono Edhie Wibowo.
! The main article for this section is: Army Rank Insignia
In the Indonesian Army, as in other branches, ranks consist of officers, non-commissioned officers and privates. The highest rank in the Army is Major General with five stars. To date, 3 Army officers have been awarded this rank. They are:
Great General Soedirman;
Major General AH Nasution; and
Major General Suharto.
Army Headquarters Officer
Army Chief of Staff General Pramono Edhie Wibowo
Wakasad Lt. Gen. Budiman
Inspector General Major General TNI Adi Mulyono
Irum Brigadier General Suhastir Susmex
Irben Colonel Inf Djoko Subandrio, S.IP
Assistant for Security Major General TNI Eko Wiratmoko
Deputy Assistant for Security Brigadier General Benny Indra Pujihastono
Assistant Operations Major General TNI Dedi Kusnadi Thamim S.IP
Deputy Assistant Operations Brigadier General George Elnadus Supit
Assistant Personnel Major General TNI Sunindyo
Deputy Assistant Personnel Brigadier General Aris Martono Haryadi
Logistics Assistant to Maj. Gen. TNI Joko Sriwidodo
Deputy Assistant for Logistics Brigadier General I Nengah Widana
Territorial Assistant to Major General TNI Thomas Edy Widagdo
Deputy Territorial Assistant Brigadier General Abdul Kadir Sultan
Assistant for Planning and Budgeting for Maj. Gen. TNI Dicky Wainal Usman, S.IP., M.Sc.
Deputy Assistant for Planning and Budgeting Brigadier General Ir Wiryantoro NK
Koorsahli Kasad Major General TNI Muktiyanto
Dandenma Army Headquarters Colonel Inf Udin Supidin
Central Defense Force
Indonesian Army Strategic Reserves Command (Kostrad)
Commander of Kostrad Lieutenant General TNI Muhammad Munir Kaskostrad Major General TNI Harry Purdianto, S.IP., M.Sc
Special Forces Command (Kopassus)
Danjen Kopassus Maj. Gen. TNI Agus Sutomo, S.IP Wadanjen Kopassus Brigadier General Jaswandi
Iskandar Muda Military Command
Pangdam Iskandar Muda Maj. Gen. TNI Zahari Siregar, S.IP Kasdam Iskandar Muda Brig. Gen. TNI Iskandar Muhammad Sahil
Kodam I/Bukit Barisan
Pangdam I/Bukit Barisan Major General TNI Lodewijk Freidrich Paulus Kasdam I/Bukit Barisan Brigadier General I Gede Sumertha KY, PSC., M.Sc.
Korem 031/Wirabima Riau
Danrem Riau Brigadier General Teguh Rahardjo Kasrem Riau Colonel Inf Achmad Daniel Chardin
Korem 033/Wira Pratama Riau Archipelago
Danrem Riau Islands Brigadier General Deni Kurnia Irawan Kasrem Riau Islands Colonel Kav Drs Yotanabey AM
Pangdam II/Sriwijaya Maj. Gen. Nugroho Widyoutomo, S.IP Kasdam II/Sriwijaya Brigadier General Syahding A
Pangdam Jaya Jayakarta Major General TNI E.Hudawi Lubis Kasdam Jaya Jayakarta Brigadier General Agung Risdhianto, MBA
Pangdam III/Siliwangi Major General TNI Sonny Widjaja Kasdam III/Siliwangi Brigadier General Sudirman Kadir, S.IP
Pangdam IV/Diponegoro Major General TNI Hardiono Saroso Kasdam IV/Diponegoro Brigadier General Agus Kriswanto
Korem 072/Pamungkas Yogyakarta
Danrem Yogyakarta TNI Brigadier General Adi Widjaja Kasrem Yogyakarta Colonel Inf Iswandono
Pangdam V/Brawijaya Major General TNI H Murdjito Kasdam V/Brawijaya Brigadier General TNI Amrid Salas Kembaren
Pangdam VI/Mulawarman Maj. Gen. TNI Ir. Drs. Subekti, M.Sc.M.Pa Kasdam VI/Mulawarman Brigadier General Wiyarto, S.SOS
Pangdam VII/Wirabuana Major General TNI Drs Muhammad Nizam Kasdam VII/Wirabuana Brigadier General Hari Mulyono, SE, MM
Pangdam IX/Udayana Maj. Gen. TNI Wisnu Bawa Tenaya, S.IP Kasdam IX/Udayana Brigadier General TNI Pratimun, S.Sos
Korem 091/Aji Surya Natakesuma, East Kalimantan
East Kalimantan Danrem TNI Brigadier General Gadang Pambudi
Military Command XII/Tanjungpura
Pangdam XII/Tanjungpura Maj. Gen. Ridwan Kasdam XII/Tanjungpura Brigadier General H Robby Win Kadir
Korem 131/Santiago North Sulawesi
Danrem North Sulawesi Brigadier General Johnny Lumban Tobing Kasrem North Sulawesi Colonel Inf Mohamad Shokir, SE
Korem 161/Wira Sakti East Nusa Tenggara
East Nusa Tenggara Danrem Brigadier General Ferdinand Setiawan East Nusa Tenggara Kasrem Colonel Inf Agus Suhardi
Regional Military Command XVI/Pattimura
Pangdam XVI/Pattimura Major General TNI Suharsono, S.IP Kasdam XVI/Pattimura Brigadier General WinstonPeace Simanjuntak
West Papua Military Command
Danrem West Papua Brigadier General Pandji Suko Hari Yudho Kasrem West Papua Colonel Inf Ali Hamdan Bogra
Korem 173/Praja Vira Tama Central Papua
Danrem Central Papua Brigadier General FX. Build Pratiknyo Kasrem Central Papua Colonel Inf Agus Hernawan
Regional Military Command XVII/Cendrawasih
Pangdam XVII/Cendrawasih Major General TNI Moh Erwin Syafitri Kasdam XVII/Cendrawasih Brigadier General TNI I Made Agra Sudiantara
South Papua Military Command
Danrem South Papua Brigadier General Edy Rahmayadi Kasrem South Papua Col. Arh Karev Marpaung
Type of Indonesian Army beret
Kostrad beret: Green with the symbol of the Sapta Agni Cakra (Kostrad symbol)
Kopassus beret: Red with the Tribhuana Chandrasa symbol (Kopassus symbol)
Infantry beret (under the Pussenif or Kodam organic): Green with the Pussenif symbol
Cavalry beret: Black with the emblem Pussenkav
Air Defense Artillery Beret: Brown in color with the Pussenarhanud
Beret insignia Field Artillery: Brown in color with the Pussenarmed
Beret Engineer insignia: Gray in color with the Ditziad
Beret symbol of Communications: Green in color with the Dithubad
Beret insignia Military Police: Light blue in color with crossed pistols ( different from the Puspomad symbol which depicts a Gajah Mada mask)
Transport Provision Beret: Dark blue with the Ditbekangad emblem Army Aviator
Beret: Red with the winged horse symbol
Not all branches have berets.
If a unit is under the Kostrad organic, then it uses a Kostrad beret (for example: Yonkav-1/Kostrad wears a green beret (Kostrad) not black), unless it is under the Kodam organic.
A beret is a term for getting a beret. It's not easy to get. Therefore beret is the pride of each branch.
The latest KSAD policy regarding berets is that all corps wear green berets with their respective corps insignia except for the Kopassus, Cavalry and Artillery corps.
Central Level Implementing Agency
Infantry Armament Center
Danpussenif Kodiklatad TNI Major General Mohamad Nasir Wadanpussenif Kodiklatad TNI Brigadier General Tatang Sulaiman
Cavalry Armament Center
Danpussenkav Kodiklatad TNI Brigadier General Purwadi Mukson, S.IP Wadanpussenkav Kodiklatad Colonel Kav Mulyanto
Medan Artillery Center
Danpussenarmed Kodiklatad Brigadier General TNI Aryadi Padmanegara Wadan Pussenarmed Kodiklatad Colonel Arm Yudi Satriono, SH
Air Defense Artillery Armament Center
Danpussenarhanud Kodiklatad Brigadier General Sudharmato Wadan Pussenarhanud
Kodiklatad Colonel Arh Fakhrudin, SE, MBA
Army Military Police Center
Danpuspomad Major General Iran Syaefudin, S.IP Wadan Puspomad Brigadier General Maliki Mift, S.IP., MH
Army Intelligence Center
Danpusintelad Brigadier General Teddy Lhaksamana WK Wadan Pusintelad Colonel Inf Kasim Genawi, S.IP
Army Aviation Center
Danpuspenerbad Brigadier General Mochamad Afifuddin, SE, MM Wadan Puspenerbad Colonel Cpn Miswanto, SM
Directorate of Army Topography
Dirtopad Brigadier General Eko Suprijanto Deputy Director of Topography Tniad Colonel Ctp Ir Asep Edi Rosidin, MDA
Directorate of Adjutant General of the Army
Dirajenad TNI Brigadier General Heri Herawan
Army Health Directorate
Director of Health, Brigadier General of the Indonesian National Armed Forces, Dr. Dedy Achdiat Dasuki, Sp M
Directorate of Army Finance
Director of Squad Brigadier General Bambang Ratmanto, ST, MM
Directorate of Army Engineers
Dirziad Brigadier General Zainal Arifin, S.IP. Deputy Dirziad Colonel Czi Satriyo Medi Sampurno
Directorate of Army Transport Supplies
Dirbekangad TNI Brigadier General Hadi Sutrisno Deputy Director of Rbekangad Colonel Cba Raden Budiono
Directorate of Army Transportation
Dirhubad TNI Brigadier General Sahrun Abu Junwar
Directorate of Army Law
Dirkumad TNI Brigadier General Tisyanto, SH
Directorate of Army Equipment
Dirpalad TNI Brigadier General Prawiro Prasetyanto, S.IP, SE
Army Information Service
Kadispenad TNI Brigadier General Sisriadi
Army Psychology Service
Kadispsiad TNI Brigadier General Drs. Ketut Ngurah Sumitra JMPsi.
Army Information and Data Processing Service
Kadisinfolahtad Brigadier General TNI Iswandhi Setyobudi
Army Physical Service
Kadisjasad TNI Brigadier General Agus Haryono
Army Research and Development Service
Kadislitbangad TNI Brigadier General R. Kun Priyambodo
Army Mental Development Service
Kadisbintalad TNI Brigadier General Djati Pontjo Oesodo, S.SOS
Army Territorial Center
Danpusterad Major General TNI Indra Hidayat Rahman Wadan Pusterad TNI Brigadier General Bambang Wiryadi
Army Officer Candidate School
And Secapa TNI Brigadier General Hartomo Wadan Secapa Colonel Inf Achmad Yuliarto, M.AP S.SOS.
Governor of the Indonesian Military Academy Major General Istu H Subagio, SE Deputy Governor of the Indonesian Military Academy Brigadier General Sumedy
Indonesian Army Career Soldier Officer School
And Sesko TNI Marsdya TNI Ida Bagus Putu Dunia
Indonesian Armed Forces Command
And Kodiklat TNI Lieutenant General Gatot Nurmantyo Wadan Kodiklat TNI Major General Mulyono
Army Staff and Command College
Danseskoad TNI Maj. Gen. Burhanuddin Siagian, S.IP Wadan Seskoad Brigadier General Danu Nawawi
of Regional Military Command
Establishment of regional military command for military commanders who have upgraded status, namely:
Korem 031/Wirabima will be upgraded to Kodam Riau
Korem 033/Wirapratama will be upgraded to Kodam Riau Islands
Korem 072/Pamungkas will be upgraded to Kodam Yogyakarta. This Regional Military Command will have 2 Korem, namely Korem 072/Pamungkas and Korem 074/Warastratama.
Korem 091/Aji Surya Natakesuma will be upgraded to become the East Kalimantan Regional Military Command.
Korem 131/Santiago will be upgraded to become the North Sulawesi Regional Military Command. The Kodam will have 2 Korem, namely Korem 131/Santiago and Korem 132/Tadulako.
Korem 161/Wirasakti will be upgraded to East Nusa Tenggara Regional Military Command.
Korem 171/Praja Vita Tama will be upgraded to become the West Papua Regional Military Command.
Korem 173/Praja Vita Braja will be upgraded to become the Central Papua Regional Military Command.
Korem 174/Anim Ti Waninggap will be upgraded to become the South Papua Regional Military Command.
Korem Up Status
The Korem that will rise in status is
Korem 081/Dhirotsaka Jaya
Korem 083/Balaidhika Jaya
Korem 121/Alam Bhana Wanawai
Weapons and Equipment Light weapons
Name Origin Type Caliber Remarks
Pindad P1/P2 Indonesia Semi-automatic pistol 9x19mm Local copy of the Browning Hi-Power. Approximately 30,000 P1s and 2,000 P2s were manufactured.
G2 ELITE AND G2 COMBAT Indonesia Semi-automatic pistol 9x19mm Used by Indonesian Army (TNI-AD Standard Issue)
Pindad PM2 Indonesian Submachine gun 9x19mm
MP5 series Germany Submachine gun 9x19mm Used by special forces
AK-47 Union Soviet Assault rifle 7.62x39mm
Pindad SS1 Indonesian Assault rifle 5.56x45mm Based on the FN FNC
Pindad SS2 Indonesian Assault rifle 5.56x45mm Modernized SS1.
M16 United States Assault rifle 5.56x45mm
Pindad SPR-1 Indonesia Sniper rifle 7.62x51mm
Pindad SPR-3 Indonesia Sniper rifle 7.62x51mm
Pindad SPR-2 Indonesia Anti-materiel rifle 12.7x99mm
Pindad SM3 Indonesia Light machine gun 5.56x45mm Locally produced version of the FN Minimi.
Pindad SM2 Indonesia General purpose machine gun 7.62x51mm Locally produced version of the FN MAG.
Pindad SMB-QCB Indonesia Heavy machine gun 12.7x99mm Locally produced version of the CIS 50MG.
Grenade and Rocket System
Name Origin Type Quantity Remarks
Pindad SPG1 Indonesia Under barrel grenade launcher The first locally produced grenade launcher.
M79 United States Single-shot grenade launcher
AT-13 Metis M Russia Anti tank missile launchers
M80 Rocket Launcher Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Shoulder-fired missile
Model Origin Type Quantity On Order Remarks
German Leopard Revolution Main Battle Tank 0 61 ordered by General Pramono Edie Wibowo 
German Leopard 2A4 Main Battle Tank 0 42 One package with Leopard Revolution
Marder 1A3 Germany Medium tank 0 50 + 20 One package with Leopard Revolution
AMX-13 France Light tank 325 Upgraded
FV101 Scorpion 90 United Kingdom Light tank 100
Light Personnel Transport
Model Origin Type Quantity Acquired Notes
AMX-VTT France Armored Personnel Carrier 200
K21 South Korea Infantry Fighting Vehicle 22
V-150 Commando United States Armored Personnel Carrier 200
VAB France Armored Personnel Carrier 46 14 were originally supplied. Another 32 were acquired in 2006 for the Indonesian peacekeeping mission in Lebanon.
Alvis stormer United Kingdom Armored Personnel Carrier ~70 Includes the armored personnel carrier, command post, ambulance, recovery, logistics and bridge laying variants.
Pindad APS-3 ANOA Indonesia Armored Personnel Carrier 226 2008–2012 The first Anoa order by the TNI AD in 2008 was 154 units for various types. in 2011 ordered 11 units of all APC types. In 2012 ordered 61 units.
Pindad APR-1V Indonesia Armoured Personnel Carrier 40 2004 Early predecessor to the Pindad PS-3. Based on a commercial Isuzu truck chassis. Follow on orders cancelled following the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami.
Kendaraan Lapis Baja
Model Origin Type Quantity Acquired Notes
FV601 Saladin Britania Raya Armoured Car 69
Ferret[rujukan?] Britania Raya Armoured Car 55
Cadillac Gage Scout Amerika Serikat Armoured Car 26 1983
BTR-40[rujukan?] Uni Soviet Armoured Car 100-130 1963–1965 Locally modified from armoured personnel carrier to armoured reconnaissance variants.
Utilitas, Dukungan, dan Logistik kendaraan
Model Origin Type Quantity Acquired Notes
M151 MUTT Amerika Serikat Light utility vehicle
Renault Sherpa 2 France Light utility vehicle 30 July 2011 Announced in July 2011
Land Rover LWB United Kingdom Light utility vehicle
Steyr Puch Haflinger 700 AP Austria Light utility vehicle
Nissan Q4W73 Japan Light truck
DAF YA400 Netherlands Transport truck
Unimog Germany Medium truck
Steyr 680M Austria Medium truck
Bedford MK United Kingdom Light truck
Steyr 17M29 Austria Medium truck
Cakra FAV Indonesia Fast attack vehicle
Artillery and Air Defense Systems
Model Origin Type Quantity Acquired Notes
ASTROS II MLRS Brasil 300mm Multiple rocket launcher 36
NDL-40 Indonesia Multiple rocket launcher 50 77 mm rockets. Built by PTDI
Bofors 40 mm[rujukan?] Swedia Anti-aircraft artillery
M48 Republik Federal Sosialis Yugoslavia 76mm Mountain gun 144 active
57 mm AZP S-60 Rusia 57mm Anti-aircraft artillery 256
M101 howitzer  Amerika Serikat Towed artillery 54
KH 178 105mm Korea Selatan Towed artillery 72
FH-2000 Singapura Towed artillery 8
POPRAD ( a version of Grom (rudal) in KOBRA V-SHORAD air defense system  ) Polandia Short Ranged Surface-to-air missile unknown number but believed more than 70 
Rapier missile Britania Raya Surface-to-air missile 120 Not operational, to be replaced due to service life
RBS-70 Swedia Surface-to-air missile 45
AMX MK61 Perancis HOWITZER 105MM SELF PROPELLED 57
French CAESAR self-propelled howitzer en:self-propelled howitzer 36
Aircraft Origin Type Versions In service Notes
Aero Commander United States utility transport 680 3
AH-64 Apache United States Attack helicopter 0 8 on order
Bell 47 United States utility helicopter 47G 10
Bell UH-1 Iroquois United States utility helicopter UH-1D 10
Bell 412 United States/ Indonesia transport helicopter 412 412SP 14 14 Built under license by PTDI
Britten-Norman Islander United Kingdom utility transport BN-2A 1 Possibly not operational
CASA C-212 Aviocar Spain/ Indonesia tactical transport 4 Fully transfer to produce on PTDI
Cessna 310 United States utility transport 4
C-47 Skytrain Amerika Serikat tactical transport 2 Possibly not operational
Eurocopter Bo 105 Jerman/ Indonesia utility helicopter 30 Built under license by PTDI
Mil Mi-17 Hip-H Rusia transport & light attack helicopter Mi-17-V5 16
Mil Mi-35 Hind Rusia attack helicopter Mi-35 Hind-F 8 
Schweizer 300 Amerika Serikat utility helicopter 300C 6
^ abcdefghij “TNI ARMY – Official Site of TNI AD” (in Indonesian). 19 March 2011.
^ ANNUAL REPORT ON THE TRANSFERS OF CONTROLLED GOODS IN 2008 – Serbia, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, 24 September 2010
^ "The Indonesian Army will buy 100 Leopard tanks and 8 Apache helicopters from Europe", (detiknews.com). Retrieved 14 October 2012.
^ "Soon, TNI will have 150 Leopard tanks", (berita.yahoo.com). Retrieved 14 October 2012.
^ “TNI defends purchase of 32 armored vehicles”. The Jakarta Post. 18 September 2006. Retrieved 10 July 2009.
^ “Stormer – Light Armored Vehicles – Jane's Land Forces”. Jane's Information Group. 18 January 2011. Archived from the original on 6 May 2009.
^ Pindad (August 2009). PINDAD DELIVERS 40 UNITS OF 6×6 ARMORED PERSONNEL CARRIER TO DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE. Press conference. Accessed on 19 March 2011.
^ “Malaysia and Iraq Have Not Reached Consensus with Pindad”. http://indo-defense.blogspot.com.+16 October 2012. Accessed 16 October 2012.
^ BTR-40 series of wheeled armored vehicles
^ http://www.renault-trucks-defense.com/en/news /renault-trucks-defense-receive-new-orders-from-indonesia.html
^ ab http://pussenarmed.kodiklat-tniad.mil.id/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=46&Itemid=57
^ “World Military Aircraft Inventory”, Aerospace Source Book 2007, Aviation Week & Space Technology, January 15, 2007.
l • b • s
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Central Executive Agency
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