Sabtu, 14 Januari 2023


RMS Titanic (also SS Titanic) was the second of three superpassenger ships whose purpose was to initiate the trans-Atlantic travel trade. Owned by the White Star Line and built at the Harland and Wolff shipyards, Titanic was the largest passenger steamer in the world at the time of her launch.
During her maiden voyage, Titanic hit an iceberg at 11:40 pm (ship's time), Sunday, April 14, 1912, and sank about two hours and forty minutes later at 2:20 am Monday.

The disaster resulted in the death of more than 1,500 people, and made it the worst sea disaster of all time in history and until now the most famous. The Titanic was equipped with the most advanced technology of its time and common people believed it to be "unsinkable". It came as a shock to many people that even with modern technology and an experienced crew, the Titanic still sank with a high number of deaths. The excitement in the media about the famous victims of the Titanic, the legends about what happened on board the ship, resulted in the law of the sea being changed, and the discovery of the wrecked ship in 1985 by troops led by Jean-Louis Michel and Robert Ballard.
The Titanic became famous the following year


The Titanic was a passenger ship belonging to the White Star Line, built at the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast, Northern Ireland, designed to compete with Cunard Line's Lusitania and Mauretania. The Titanic, along with her sister ships Olympic, Olympic and the future Britannic (originally called Gigantic), were intended to be the most luxurious and largest ships ever built. The construction of the RMS Titanic, was financed by American billionaire JP Morgan and his company International Mercantile Marine Co., began on March 31, 1909. Titanic's hull was completed on May 31, 1911, and internal equipment was completed on March 31 the following year.

Titanic was 269 meters (882 ft 9 in) long and 28 meters (92 ft 6 in) wide, had a dead weight of 46,328 tons, and a height from the surface of the water to the deck of 18 meters (60 ft). Although it covered a lot of space and with such a large dead weight, the Titanic was as long as the Olympic. Titanic was equipped with two engines with four cylinders, three propellers, and a low-pressure Parsons turbine driving three propellers. There are 29 boilers heated by 159 coal fireplaces capable of producing speeds of up to 23 knots (43 km/h). Only three of the ship's four 19-metre (63 ft) tall chimneys were functional; the fourth chimney was used as an air hole, and to show the prowess of the ship. The Titanic was able to carry 3,547 passengers and crew, because it also sent letters,

At that time, in comfort and luxury can not be matched. It offers swimming pool, gym, Turkish bath, library and squash court facilities. The first class room is decorated entirely with wood paneling, luxurious furniture and other beautiful adornments. It offered three lifts for first-class passengers to use and, an innovation at that time, one lift for second-class passengers.

Titanic regarded as the pinnacle of naval architecture and technological achievement. She was described by Ship Builders magazine as "virtually impossible to sink." The Titanic was divided into 16 watertight chambers with electrically locked doors that would close at the push of a button from the deck, although the ship's bulkheads did not block the entire deck height (only up to Deck-E). The Titanic was able to float properly even though the two middle rooms were filled with water or the first four parts were filled with water if it was more than that then it would sink.

First voyage

The Titanic began its maiden voyage from Southampton, England, en route to New York City, New York, on Wednesday, April 10, 1912, under the command of Captain Edward J. Smith. As the Titanic moved out of her berth, the waves generated by the ship caused the passenger liner New York, which was anchored nearby, to break her mooring line and be pulled nearly (about 4 feet) from the Titanic before the tugboat New York left. The incident only stopped after an hour. After crossing the English Channel, Titanic stopped at Cherbourg, France, to disembark and pick up additional passengers and made one stop at Queenstown (now known as Cobh), Ireland, before continuing on to New York with 2,223 passengers.

Titanic had three separate classes of passengers. The third class, also known as the deck, consisted of small cabins on the lower decks, filled mostly with arrivals from England who hoped to make a better living in America. The cabins and rooms of second class, located at the rear, have the same facilities as first class on other ships. Most of the second-class passengers initially occupied first class on other ships but, due to the lack of coal, were transferred to the Titanic. First class is the most luxurious part of the ship.

Some of the famous people also sailed as first class passengers. These include millionaire John Jacob Astor and his wife Madeleine Force Astor owner of the factory, Benjamin Guggenheim owner of Macy's, Isidor Straus and his wife Ida, millionaire Denver Margaret "Molly" Brown, Sir Cosmo Duff-Gordon and his wife Lady Lucille Duff-Gordon; George Elkins Widener and his wife Eleanor; John Borland Thayer, his wife Marian and their seventeen-year-old child, journalist Jack William Thomas Stead, Countess of Rothes, aide to United States president Archibald Butt, author and public figure Helen Churchill Candee, author Jacques Futrelle, and his wife May, and associates them, Broadway editors Henry and Irene Harris, silent film actress Dorothy Gibson and others.


Iceberg chunks in Newfoundland.

On the evening of Sunday, April 14, the temperature dropped to near freezing levels and the sea was calm. The moon is not out and the sky is clear. Captain Smith, noticing the warning of an iceberg by wireless communication several days ago, had turned the Titanic's course further south. On Sunday at 13:45 local time, the wireless communications officer of the American steamer warned that a large iceberg was floating in the path of the Titanic, but this warning was not relayed to the guard deck. That afternoon, another report of a large mass of icebergs, this time from Mesaba, also failed to reach the guard deck.

At 11:40 pm local time while sailing south of the Grand Banks in Newfoundland, overseers Fredrick Fleet and Reginald Lee spotted a large chunk of iceberg directly ahead of the ship. Fleet rang the ship's bell three times and telephoned the guard deck saying, "Iceberg, right ahead!" First Officer Murdoch immediately steered to the port side and reduced speed, then reversed the ship's engine. The collision was inevitable, and the floating iceberg rubbed against the ship's starboard section, tearing the hull in the first four sections and snapping steel nails on the bottom of the ship through the water for about 91 m (300 ft). The new watertight door managed to close tightly when the water had rushed into the first five watertight sections, more than a fraction of what the Titanic could keep from sinking. The weight of the five watertight compartments that entered the water pulled the ship down beyond the level of the watertight walls, then the water entered another section. Captain Smith, feeling the shock, reached the guard deck and ordered a complete halt. After an inspection by the captain's clerk and Thomas Andrews, realizing that the Titanic was going to sink, and after midnight on April 15, lifeboats were to be readied and a distress call notified.

The first rescue boat, lowered at 00:40 local time on the right with only 28 people on board. Titanic carried 20 lifeboats with a full capacity of 1,178 passengers. Although not enough to carry all the passengers and crew on board, the Titanic carried enough lifeboats and life jackets due to regulations set by the British Regulatory Agency. In those days, the number of lifeboats needed was determined by the ship's dead weight, not the number of passengers it carried.

First and second class passengers could easily reach the lifeboats by stairs leading straight to the boat deck but third class passengers had more difficulty. Many of the passages from the bottom of the ship were elusive and made it difficult for them to get to the life boats. Even worse, third class passengers when the door was locked by the crew

who were waiting their turn to allow passengers onto the deck.

Wireless radio operators Jack Phillips and Harold Bride were busy sending CQD, a distress signal. Several ships responded, including Mount Temple, Frankfurt and Titanic's sister ship, Olympic, but all were too far to reach before the Titanic sank. The closest ship is Cunard Line's RMS Carpathia which is 93 kilometers (58 mi) away and only four and a half hours away; it took too long to save more than half of Titanic's passengers because the ship had already sunk. The only land that received Titanic's distress signal was a wireless station at Cape Race, Newfoundland.

At first, the passengers were reluctant to leave the Titanic for the smaller lifeboats because they felt the Titanic was safer and there were no signs of being in any danger or sinking. This resulted in most of the lifeboats being released half empty; a boat capable of carrying 40 passengers was released with only 12 passengers on it.

"Women and children first" preferred to board the lifeboats. Second Officer Lightoller, who was loading the lifeboats on the port side, allowed only the men needed as rowers and for no other reason; although there is still an empty space. First Officer Murdoch, who filled the boat on the starboard side, allowed the men to board if no women wanted to board again. As the ship sank, the passengers began to worry and several rescue boats were released with full passengers. At 02:05 local time, the entire forward bow of the ship was submerged, and except for two boats, all other lifeboats had been lowered.

At around 2:10 a.m. local time, the stern of the ship lifted from the surface of the water exposing the ship's bottom, rudder and propellers, and at 02:17 local time the water surface flooded the boat deck. The situation got worse when the last two lifeboats floated off the deck, one capsized and the other half filled with water. Shortly thereafter, the forward chimney fell, crushing part of the guard deck and those afloat in the water. On the deck, the passengers ran backwards or jumped overboard in hopes of getting to the lifeboats. The stern of the ship slowly lifted upwards, and unattached items fell into the sea. When the stern of the ship rises, the electrical system turns off and the lights start to go out. Shortly after, When the hull failed to support the weight, the Titanic broke in two between the last two funnels, and the front sank completely. The back of the ship immediately hit the surface of the water and was lifted up straight. After a while, at 02:20 local time, all of them sank into the sea.

Out of a total of 2,223 passengers, only 706 passengers survived; 1,517 passengers died. Most of the passengers died when the victim was exposed to hypothermia in 28 °F (−2 °C) water. Only two of the 18 lifeboats returned to rescue victims from the water after the ship sank. Lifeboat number four returned and rescued five people, two of whom later died. Almost an hour later rescue boat number fourteen returned and rescued four passengers in which one passenger later died too.

The other passengers managed to board a lifeboat that floated off the deck. There was debate among the surviving passengers. some of the surviving passengers took the initiative to return, but most of the survivors were afraid that their rescue boats would sink as a result of being climbed by victims trying to get on their boats or being pulled by the sinking Titanic, even though there was actually only a slight pull. The two halves of the ship sank in different ways. The forward dives approximately 609 m (2,000 ft) below the surface of the sea floor and lands rather slowly. Meanwhile, the back sinks quickly to the bottom of the ocean; the hull of the ship is unraveled due to the trapped air inside the ship. The stern of the ship hit the bottom at great speed, sinking deep into the mud.


Nearly two hours after the Titanic sank, the RMS Carpathia arrived on the scene and took the first lifeboat. Within hours, those still alive were rescued. On the deck of the Carpathia, a short solemn prayer for the survivors and to commemorate those who died was held, and at 08:50 AM, Carpathia headed for New York, arriving April 18th.

When compensation for souls was given, the White Star Line chartered the ship MacKay-Bennett to evacuate the bodies. A total of 338 bodies were eventually found. Most of the bodies were evacuated to Halifax, Nova Scotia, while the remains unidentified were interred at Fairview Cemetery.
Impact after the incident

When news of the disaster spread, many people were shocked that the Titanic had sunk with such a high death toll despite being equipped with advanced technology. Newspapers were filled with news and descriptions of the catastrophe and all were constantly looking for the latest news. Many charity boxes were set up to help victims and their families, many lost people who were the backbone of the family, or in the case of third class passengers, all their possessions were sunk.

The sinking of the ship had a profound impact on the people of Southampton. According to the Hampshire Chronicle on April 20, 1912, nearly 1,000 local families were directly affected. Nearly every street in the Chapel area of ​​the city lost more than one resident and nearly 500 homes lost family.

Before the survivors reached New York, inquiries were made to find out what happened to the Titanic, and what could be done to prevent a recurrence. The United States Senate began an inquiry into the Titanic disaster on April 19, the day after Carpathia arrived in New York with survivors. The Lead Inquisitor, Senator William Alden Smith, wanted to gather accounts from passengers and crew while they were still fresh in their minds. Smith also requires subpoenas of British citizens to court while they are still in the United States. The American inquiry lasted until 25 May Lord Mersey was appointed to chair the British Council of Commerce's inquiry into the accident. The UK inquest took place between 2 May and 3 July.

Investigators found that most safety regulations were out of date and with them new safety measures were put in place. Both inquiries into the disaster found the captain and the Californian failed to provide the Titanic with reasonable assistance. The inspection found that the Californian was closer to the Titanic by 31 km (19.5 mi) which was unfortunate by Captain Lord and that Lord should have awakened the wireless operator after flare shots were reported to him. Because the Californian wireless operator was out of action, 29 states passed the Radio Act 1912, which equates radio communications, especially in situations of danger.

The accident contributed to the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea in London, England, on November 12, 1913. On January 20, 1915, an agreement was signed by the organization and resulted in the establishment and financing of the International Ice Patrol, the United States Coast Guard agency which to this day it monitors and reports the locations of Atlantic Ocean floating icebergs that could pose a threat to the trans-Atlantic sea lanes. It was also agreed in the new regulations that all passenger ships should have sufficient lifeboats for all passengers on board, and that appropriate safety drills be carried out, and that all radio communications be controlled 24 hours a day with a second control center, so as not to miss an emergency call. In addition to,

Reference source:

Eaton, John P. and Haas, Charles A. Titanic: Triumph and Tragedy (2nd ed.). WW Norton & Company, 1995 ISBN 0-393-03697-9
Lynch, Donald and Marschall, Ken. Titanic: An Illustrated History. Hyperion, 1995 ISBN 1-56282-918-1
O'Donnell, E. E. Father Browne's Titanic Album. Wolfhound Press, 1997. ISBN 0-86327-758-6
Quinn, Paul J. Titanic at Two A.M.: An Illustrated Narrative with Survivor Accounts. Fantail, 1997 ISBN 0-9655209-3-5

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