Selasa, 24 Januari 2023

The Complete and Latest Indus Valley and Ganges Valley Civilizations in India

Indus Valley and Ganges Valley Civilizations

a. Indus Valley Civilization

The Indus Valley Civilization was in India in the past and is now in the territory of Pakistan. The Indus culture (Sindhu) lasted from 3000 BC – 1000 BC, in the form of the ancient cities of Mohenjo Daro and Harappa. This Indus culture was supported by the Dravidian people who had snub noses, black and curly hair. The Indus culture was successfully investigated by a British archaeologist, Sir John Marshal, who was assisted by Banerji (an Indian). From the findings it can be concluded as follows.

1) The cities of Mohenjo Daro and Harappa were built according to the pattern of modern planned cities.
2) There is a large building as a meeting place for the people.
3) The houses are made of bricks.
4) The streets are made wide.
5) Water canals are made according to modern urban planning.
6) Found a former bath.
7) Found gold and silver necklace jewelry decorated with gems.
8) Found weapons made of stone and copper.

These relics belong to the pre-literate period, but we also find inscriptions in the form of images that are not yet scripted, so they are called pictographs. Ancient objects found in the cities of Mohenjo Daro and Harappa, among others,

1) earthen plates (terra cotta) that are square in shape and depict animals or plants, such as elephants, tigers, cows, rhinos, and banyan trees;
2) the existence of pottery in the form of pots and crockery such as plates and cups;
3) jewelery in the form of necklaces, bracelets and belts made of copper;
4) there are images of a god with horns, a statue of the mother goddess (goddess of fertility), and idols: the god of the earth, the god of the sky, the god of the moon, the god of water, and the god of fire.

His livelihood is farming, as evidenced by the existence of hoes, axes, and statues of the Mother Goddess which are considered symbols of fertility. Results

his farm is wheat and cotton. At that time, irrigation canals were already in place to prevent flooding and to irrigate the people's rice fields.

In trade, there is a relationship with Sumer in the Euphrates and Tigris Valleys, which traded were ceramics and gems. His belief is to worship many gods (polytheism) and everything that is considered sacred. Examples are the pipil and banyan trees which Buddhists consider sacred trees, the animals worshiped are elephants and crocodiles.

Urban planning, sanitation, and hygiene and health from urban planning can be proven by the existence of:

1) houses are made tall based on health guidelines,
2) houses are made uniformly from bricks,
3) no buildings protrude forward, and
4) water channels are constructed according to health requirements.

The Indus culture collapsed in 1000 BC due to:
1) a catastrophic flood from the Indus River (Sindhu);
2) because it was attacked by the Aryans.

b. Ganges Valley Civilization

The proponents of Gangetic culture are the Aryans. They come from around the Caspian Sea who entered India around 2000 BC in the North Indian region. As a result of the arrival of the Aryans, the Dravidians were pushed aside and fled to South India. However, it is unavoidable that there is a mix of cultures which eventually gave birth to Hinduism.

The Aryans became supporters of the Ganges culture and controlled the fertile lands around the Ganges and even the whole area around the Indus Valley. They call it the Arya Warta area or the Hindustan area, meaning the land of the Hindus. Its area includes the Ganges River, Yamuna Valley, and Indus Valley.

To limit the mixing of races, Caste was created and the obligation of sattie (women join their husbands at the cremation ceremony). Inter-caste marriage is one of the causes for someone being expelled from caste. The Aryans belong to the Brahmin, Kshatriya, and slightly Vaishya castes. It was they who wrote the Vedic scriptures.

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