Selasa, 24 Januari 2023

Complete History of Yellow River Valley Civilization (China)

Yellow River Valley Civilization (China)

The Yellow River Valley Civilization (China) and the Existing Dynasties - The Hoang Ho River when it floods the color of the mud is yellow, that is why it is called the Yellow River. Prof. research Davidson Black confirmed the ancient Chinese culture in the Hoang Ho River Valley whose supporters were found in the Chau Kuo Tien Cave, namely Sinathropus pekinensis. The conclusion of the research results is.

a. supporters of the Hoang-Ho valley culture are Sinanthropus pekinensis (ape man from China);
b. pottery found in the form of a solid-legged bowl (ting), a hollow bowl (li), and a vase for the holy ashes;
c. get to know ancient Chinese writing, namely what symbols are written on;
d. sculpting tools, axes, and bone tools in the form of hairpins and needles were found;
e. the Chinese studied astronomy so diligently that calendars appeared;
f. their beliefs worshiped many gods, for example, the god Shangti was the god of the sky, the god of rain, the god of harvests, and the supreme god who represented the Emperor of China.

In China known for the teachings of Tao. This teaching was introduced by Lao Tse in his book Tao-te-Ching and is called Taoism (the spirit of eternal welfare justice). The outline of his teachings is

a. the existence of the kingdom of heaven and who became its king was the god Ho Tien who controlled the heavens and the earth and appointed the Chinese emperor as the representative of the gods in the world;
b. China is a world empire, the king of the world as the representative of Ho Tien (on behalf of Ho Tien) who rules the earth and holds the title Huang Ti. A Chinese king must have li (righteous actions and full justice).

Chinese philosopher Kung Fu Tse teaches kongfusionism. He was an expert thinker, teacher, and statesman whose teachings were government and family. According to him, a good state is if the king becomes a king, ministers become ministers, children become children. They must carry out their respective duties so that the government runs well. If human actions are accompanied by virtue (te), it will lead to an orderly arrangement (li), both state and religious society.

According to J. Toynbee, the reign of Ancient China began in 3000 BC, as the oldest king was the wise Huang Ti. China's greatness depends on its ability to utilize the Hoang Ho and Yang Tse Kiang rivers whose theory is called "Challenge and Response", namely the law of challenge and answer. Based on ancient stories, there were three eras of kings namely Yi Sui Yen, Fu Shi, Shen Nung, and five emperors, namely Huang Ti, Yao, Shun, Yin, and Lui Tsu. After that China was ruled by the following dynasties.

a. Shang dynasty (1766 –1122 BC)

The Shang Dynasty is the oldest dynasty as the founder of the dynasty and the foundation stone of Ancient Chinese civilization. This dynasty was able to cultivate the Hoang Ho River with embankments so that the Chinese people lived in peace and prosperity by utilizing the river. The people lived farming and raising livestock. They were already familiar with ancient pictograph writing whose script was called Honji. They worshiped God Shang Ti. They are familiar with astronomy and determine the calendar.

b. Chou dynasty (1122 – 255 BC)

The Chou dynasty was founded by Prince Wu Wang with the seat of government in Shensi Province. As a reward, the rulers were given land so that the feudal system was born. An important event is the emergence of master thinkers, such as Lao Tse, Kung Fu Tze, Meng Tze, and Chung Tze.

c. Chin Dynasty (255 BC – 205 BC)

The Chin dynasty ruled China reached its glory, namely during the time of Chin Shih Huang Ti. During his reign, this dynasty succeeded in controlling the Chou, Wei, and Han Kingdoms so that China was unified under its rule. The services are as follows.

dir="ltr">1) China was unified and ruled by only one king.
2) Feudalism was abolished.
3) Built the Great Wall of China which is 3,000 km long, 8 m wide and 16 m high. This wall serves to stem the attacks of the Syiung Nu people.
4) The territory of China is divided into 36 provinces.

d. Han Dynasty (202 – 211 AD)

Its founder was Liu Pang, the famous emperor was Han Wu Ti. During his reign there were advances, among others,

1) expanding territory to Korea,
2) the teachings of Kung Fu Tze became the basis of government,
3) promoting trade,
4) the Chinese were able to make paper from bark called tsa'ilun, and
5) Buddhism began to enter China.

e. Sui dynasty (589 – 618 AD)

The Sui dynasty achieved glory during the reign of Sui Yang Ti by subduing the Han dynasty and conquering the Syiung Nu, a wild tribe from the North who always disturbed China. Efforts were made, among others,

1) expanded China's territory,
2) built royal palaces,
3) held screening exams for officials, and
4) built channels of emperors to facilitate trade.

f. T'ang Dynasty (618 – 906 AD)

The reign of the T'ang dynasty was a critical period for China's growth. It was at this time that relations with Indonesia began to emerge. The great reign was during the time of Tang Tai Sung. The success is

1) Chinese territory outside of China, such as Tonkin, Annam, Kampuchea, and Persia;
2) art progresses rapidly with the characters Li Tai Po, Tu Fu, and Weng Wei, the results are jars, pots, and vases;
3) decentralized government system and construction of pagodas;
4) promulgation of a law governing the issue of land division.

g. Sung dynasty (960 – 1279 AD)

The Sung dynasty ruled China under the emperor Sung Tai Tsu. During his reign, science advanced rapidly. The efforts are

1) establish a museum;
2) exporting porcelain to Japan, Korea, India, Persia, Africa and Europe;
3) use pictograph writing with certain symbols;
4) astronomical knowledge is used to determine the calendar based on the moon and the sun.

h. Mongol dynasty (1279 – 1294 AD)

The Mongols succeeded in controlling China under Genghis Khan who then centered the capital in Kambaluk (Peking). In 1227, Genghis Khan died and was replaced by Ogodai, who expanded into Russia, Hungary, Poland, and Siberia.

In 1260, Kublai Khan replaced his power and established a government that was later called the Yuan dynasty. During his reign, he ordered an envoy to Singasari to ask for recognition from Kertanegara, but was refused. As a result, in 1293 China deployed troops to Singasari to conquer it.

i. Ming Dynasty (1368 – 1642 AD)

After successfully defeating the Mongol dynasty in China, Chu Yuan Chang then ruled by reconstructing China's unification under the Ming Dynasty. He was later succeeded by his son, Yung Lo. It was during this period that China entered into trade relations with Majapahit so that there was a peaceful relationship between the two countries. The art of building greatly advanced with the construction of pagodas. During Yung Lo's reign, the Portuguese (1516), the Dutch and the British came to establish trade relations. The Ming dynasty collapsed due to the attack of the Manchus who finally came to power in China.

j. Manchu dynasty

This dynasty came from Manchuria who came and ruled China. This dynasty was ruled by an emperor who was less intelligent, thus awakening the awareness of the Chinese people to fight for their nation in the Chinese Revolution on October 10, 1911, known as the Wucang Day Revolution. As a result, on January 1, 1912 China was born as a republic with President Sun Yat Sen.

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