The Life of a Hunting and Gathering Society
conditions The natural environment during hunting and gathering was still wild and dangerous. The life of ancient people was very simple as seen from the tools used to support their lives, namely stone tools that were still rough, they were very dependent on nature.
People during the hunting and gathering period were more familiar with group life. The number of members in each group is around 10-15 people. They live moving from one place to another.
The relationship between group members is very close. They work together to make ends meet and defend the group from attacks by other groups or attacks by wild animals. Although in a life that is still simple, they are familiar with the division of work tasks. The men are usually in charge of hunting and the women are in charge of looking after the children and gathering fruits from the forest. Each group has a leader who is highly obeyed and highly respected by members of the group.
In the life of hunting and gathering people, humans prefer to choose caves as a place to live. From here they began to grow and develop. They began to make hunting tools, cutting tools, earthmoving tools, and other tools. Experts interpret that the maker of these tools is a type of human pithecanthropus and its culture is called the Paleolithic (old stone) tradition. These tools are found in the Baksoka River, Pacitan Regency (East Java) and are then referred to as the Pacitan culture. This research was conducted by HR Van Heekeren, Besuki, and RP Soejono (1953–1954). Pacitan culture is known as the earliest stage of development of stone culture in Indonesia and the most numerous.
Similar discoveries were also made in the Jampang Kulon area (Sukabumi) which was investigated by Dr. Erdbrink, in Gombong, Perigi, and the Rice Field Mine (Bengkulu) researched by JH Houbalt, in Lahat, Kalianda (South Sumatra), Sembiran Trunyan (Bali), Wangka, Maumere (Flores), East Timor, Awang Bangkal (East Kalimantan) , and Cabengge (South Sulawesi).
Objects resulting from the culture of this era are as follows:
1. The chopper
ax does not have a pick and is used by holding it. Research on this ax was carried out in the Punung area (Pacitan Regency) by Von Koenigswald (1935). While other experts also conducted research in other places throughout Indonesia, so that the chopping ax was not only found in Pacitan but also in
in places such as Sukabumi, Ciamis, Gombong, Bengkulu, Lahat (Sumatra), Bali Flores, and Timor. Historians concluded that the tools came from the same layer as Pithecantropus Erectus and it is also thought that Pithecantropus Erectus was the maker. The place where the chopping ax was found outside the territory of Indonesia, such as Pakistan, Myanmar (Burma), Malaysia, China, Thailand, the Philippines and Vietnam.
2. The punching
ax has a shape that is almost the same as the crushing ax, but it is bigger than the crushing ax and the way to make it is still rough. This ax serves to split wood, trees, wood, bamboo or according to their needs.
3. Hand ax
The handheld ax has almost the same shape as the chopping ax and the short ax. But the shape is much smaller. The handheld ax is still very simple and has not been sharpened. This ax is also found throughout Indonesia. The way to use it is held at the smaller end.
chisels have a smaller shape than hand-held axes. Experts interpret that the hand-held chisel has the function of loosening the soil. This tool is used to find edible tubers
5. Flakes tool
The flake tool has a very simple shape and based on its shape it is thought to have been used as a knife, auger, and awl. With this tool early humans peeled, cut, and also dug up food. This flake tool was also discovered by Von Koenigswald in 1934 in the Sangiran area (Surakarta). Other places of discovery in Indonesia include: Cabbenge (South Sulawesi), Maumere (Flores) and Timor. The flake tools were very small and measured between 10-20 cm and were found in many caves where they lived at that time.
In general, caves are not disturbed, so what was left by early humans can still be found in a state like it was left by its inhabitants, so that caves are one of the targets of experts for research.
6. Bone tools Bone
tools were made from game bones. Tools made from bone include knives, daggers, spearheads, arrowheads, and others. Bone tools were found in Ngandong.
During the life of hunting and gathering, humans worked together in an effort to make ends meet. In a group usually numbered 10-15 people. With such a small number of groups, they can easily meet most of their subsistence needs from what is already available in the forest. Even when the supplies in the forest run out, they move to find areas that provide their necessities of life.
Community trust life
The concept of public trust at this time, namely the concept of belief in the relationship between people who have died and those who are still alive, is already believed.