Kamis, 19 Januari 2023


The term computer is taken from English, namely from the word TO COMPUTER or COMPUTARE in Latin which means calculating. Thus, the function of the computer is clear, namely only as a calculating machine. However, the definitions of computers made by experts are different because they make definitions according to their needs.

The origins of computers originate from the abacus or abacus, which existed in China in the 6th century BC, and the Mediterranean region during the ancient Greeks and Romans. a pebble used for counters. The Romans called such a pebble calculus, from which the word calculus comes from.

However, its development seemed to stop until Wilhelm Shickard, a friend of astronomer Johannes Kepler, invented the first mechanical calculator in Germany (+/- 1623). Nineteen years later, the French scientist Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) carved out a new step with an eight column digit automatic calculator. , which can only operate addition and subtraction.

Thirty years later this tool was developed again for division and multiplication by the German mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm Von Leibniz (1646-1716). He also developed the binary system, which later played an important role in the development of ways of thinking and computer language.

In 1801 the French weaver Joseph Marie Jacquard (1752-1834) invented a Jacquard loom which worked according to a command code in the form of holes in punched cards. The needle would pass if it found a hole, but could not tie the thread if the card surface was tight.
The tool inspired the British inventor and mathematician, Charles Babbage (1792-1871) to develop a mechanical computer or analytical engine that had all the basic elements of an automatic computer. But the project stalled because there were no proper parts. After all, he was short on funds.

In 1930 Vannevar Bush, US electrical engineer, developed a machine to solve differential equations. This machine was considered an analog computer that

reliable.Meanwhile, only 14 years later, a digital computer in its initial form was successfully designed by Howard Aiken, a professor at Harvard University, AS.Mark I, as the name implies, can do three additions per second.

The University of Pennsylvania didn't want to lose. Two years later, two of its engineers, J. Presper Eckert, JR and John William Mauchlay, built an electronic digital computer or Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer (ENIAC). The machine, weighing more than 27 tons, required 140 square meters of space. To operate, it needs 150 kilowatts of electricity, equivalent to the power supply for a small complex of 65 medium-sized housing units. This computer as big as a house is 1,000 times faster than the Mark I. It can do 5,000 additions and 1,000 multiplications per second.

Eckert and Muchlay then collaborated with Hungarian-born American mathematician, John Von Neuman. The result, in 1951 they designed the Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC), which influenced the design of the next generation of computers. Also in that year, they built more advanced computers, Universal Automatic Computer (UNIVAC), which became the first commercial computer.

Thanks to the invention of the transistor in 1947, a fully transistorized computer appeared by American engineer Seymour Cray in 1958. However, the invention of the Integrated Circuit (IC) in the 1960s led to a revolution in terms of work capacity and size. Because it was able to store thousands of transistors in a tiny chip of silicon, IC allows the form of a compact computer with high-speed main frame and large memory capacity. Microprocessor makers compete to enter data processing speeds in giga (GHz). For example Athlon from AMD, Pentium III and Pentium IV.

The development of computers became more closely related to human life when personal commuters (PCs) made by Altair were discovered (1975). Only in 1977, when two American students, Steven P. Jobs and Stephen G. Wozniak, founded the Apple Computer Company, the Apple II PC was born. at affordable prices.
Finally the Personal Computer (PC) developed as it is today. Many of the programs that accompany it, especially the discovery of windows-based programming, make it easier for computer users.

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