THE STRUGGLE TO KEEP INDONESIA'S INDEPENDENCE (1945 - 1949)

THE STRUGGLE TO KEEP INDONESIA'S INDEPENDENCE (1945 - 1949)


A. Factors Causing Conflict Between Indonesia and the Netherlands
1. Arrival of Allied troops accompanied by NICA
a. September 29, 1945 Allied troops landed in Indonesia tasked with disarming the Japanese army, carried out by the Allied Defense Command in Southeast Asia named the South East Asia Command (SEAC) led by Lord Louis Mountbatten based in Singapore.
b. To carry out his duties, Lord Louis Mountbatten formed a special command called Allied Forces Netherland East Indies (AFNEI) under Lieutenant General Sir Philip Christison.
c. AFNEI's duties in Indonesia were:
1) to accept the handover of power from the hands of the Japanese
2) to release the Allied prisoners of war and internees
3) to disarm and round up the Japanese for later repatriation
4) to uphold and maintain a state of peace to then be handed over to the civilian government


5) collect information and prosecute war criminals.

Allied Troops Land in Indonesia
d. AFNEI troops landed in Jakarta on September 29, 1945 consisting of 3 divisions namely:
1) The 23rd Indian Division, under the command of Major General DC Hawthorn assigned to the West Java area
2) The 5th Indian Division, under the command of Major General EC Marsergh assigned for the East Java area
3) The 26th Indian Division, under the command of Major General HM Chambers assigned to the Sumatra area.
e. AFNEI troops only served in Sumatra and Java, while for other Indonesian areas their duties were handed over to the Australian military.
f. At first the arrival of the Allies was welcomed by the Indonesian people, because they proclaimed peace.


g. After it was discovered that the Allies were secretly bringing in Netherland Indies Civil Administration (NICA) people, namely Dutch civil servants, the Indonesian people became suspicious and eventually created hostility.
2. The arrival of the Netherlands (NICA) seeks to re-establish its power in Indonesia
a. NICA is trying to rearm the KNIL (Koninklijk Nerderlands Indisch Leger, namely the Dutch Royal Army stationed in Indonesia).
b. NICA and KNIL people in Jakarta, Surabaya and Bandung staged provocations that provoked riots.
c. the Indonesian people fought diplomatically as well as by force of arms against the Dutch who would re-colonize.
d. The conflict between Indonesia and the Netherlands eventually involved the role of the international world to resolve it.

B. The Role of the International World in Resolving the Indonesian-Dutch Conflict
1. The Role of the United Nations
a. July 31, 1947 India and Australia submitted the Indonesian-Dutch issue to the UN Security Council. In the UN Security Council Session on August 1, 1947, a resolution was issued inviting both sides to stop shooting to resolve the dispute peacefully.
b. August 25, 1947 The UN Security Council accepted the United States' proposal regarding the establishment of a Committee of Good Offices to help resolve the Indonesian-Dutch dispute.


c. This commission is known as the Three Nations Commission (KTN) which consists of:
1) Australia (represented by Richard C. Kirby), at the choice of Indonesia
2) Belgium (represented by Paul Van Zeeland), at the choice of the Netherlands
3) the United States (represented by Dr. Frank Porter Graham), selected Australia and Belgium.
d. October 27, 1947 KTN arrived in Jakarta to carry out their duties, but experienced difficulties because Indonesia and the Netherlands were not willing to meet in areas controlled by each party.
e. KTN succeeded in bringing Indonesia and the Netherlands together in negotiations on December 8, 1947 on the USS Renville warship which was anchored in the Jakarta Bay (Renville negotiations).
f. As a result of the Renville negotiations, the territory of the Republic of Indonesia became narrower and lost areas rich in natural resources because they were occupied by the Dutch.
2. The Role of the Asian Conference and UN Security Council Resolutions
a. The Asian Conference was held in New Delhi on 20 - 23 January 1949 attended by delegates from Afghanistan, Australia, Burma (Myanmar), Sri Lanka, Ethiopia, India, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Pakistan, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Syria and Yemen. Present as observers were representatives from China, Nepal, New Zealand and Thailand. Representatives from Indonesia who attended included Mr. AA Maramis, Mr. Utojo, Dr. Surdarsono, H. Rasjidi, and Dr. Soemitro Djojohadikusomo.
b. The Asian Conference produced a resolution which was then submitted to the UN Security Council, the contents of which were:
1) Return of the Government of the Republic of Indonesia to Yogyakarta


2) Establishment of an ad interim order that has independence in foreign policy before March 15, 1949
3) Withdrawal of Dutch troops from all over Indonesia
4) Transfer of sovereignty to the United Indonesia government no later than January 1, 1950.
c. There was support from countries in Asia, Africa, Arabia and Australia for Indonesia, so on January 28, 1949 the UN Security Council issued a resolution to Indonesia and the Netherlands, namely:
1) Urged the Dutch to stop all military operations and urged the Indonesian government to order units guerrillas stop their guerrilla operations.
2) Urge the Dutch to release the President and Vice President and political prisoners who have been detained since December 17, 1948 in the territory of the Republic of Indonesia without conditions
. 3) Return the Indonesian government to Yogyakarta and assist the return of Indonesian officials to Yogyakarta so that they can carry out their duties freely.


4) Suggest that the Republic of Indonesia and the Netherlands reopen negotiations based on the Linggajati and Renville agreements, and especially based on the formation of an ad interim federal government no later than March 15, 1949, Election of the United Indonesia Constitution-making Council no later than July 1, 1949.
5) The Three Nations Commission was changed to UNCI (United Nations Commission for Indonesia = UN Commission for Indonesia with greater powers and the right to make binding decisions on the basis of majority). UNCI's duties are:
a) to assist in conducting negotiations to arrange for the restoration of power to the Republican government
b) to observe elections and reserve the right to put forward suggestions on various matters that may assist in reaching a resolution.
d. The UN resolution of 28 January 1949 was felt by the Indonesian people to still have deficiencies, namely:
1) The UN Security Council did not urge the Netherlands to vacate the Indonesian regions apart from Yogyakarta.
2) The Security Council does not impose sanctions for violations of its resolutions.
e. The Indonesian nation as a peace-loving nation always obeys all contents of UN resolutions if it is in accordance with "the principle of an independent Indonesia and the attitude of fighting to defend itself".

C. Existence of NKRI Dutch Military Aggression
1. Existence of NKRI at the time of the First Dutch Military Aggression
a. The Linggajati Agreement was signed on 25 March 1947 between Indonesia and the Netherlands to resolve the conflict through diplomacy, but the Dutch reneged on negotiations by carrying out military aggression I on 21 July 1947.
b. The aims of the Netherlands to carry out military aggression I were:
1) Political Sector: besieging the capital of the Republic of Indonesia and erasing RI from the map (eliminating RI de facto).
2) Economic Sector: seizing food-producing areas (rice areas in West Java and East Java) and export materials (plantations in West Java, East Java and Sumatra as well as mining and plantations in Sumatra)
3) Military Sector: destroying the TNI .
c. The Dutch's efforts to destroy the TNI experienced difficulties because the TNI used the strategy of universal people's war by guerrillas and defending in the villages, so that the Dutch only controlled and operated in big cities and main roads, while outside the cities they were still controlled by the TNI.
d. there was military aggression I, the UN Security Council intervened to form the Three Nations Commission (KTN), through the Renville Negotiations and Kaliurang Negotiations to resolve the conflict.
2. The existence of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia at the time of the Second Dutch Military Aggression
a. December 19, 1948, at 06.00, the Dutch launched their second military aggression by attacking the Indonesian capital in Yogyakarta. In this event, the Indonesian leaders were taken prisoner by the Dutch, namely President Soekarno, Vice President Moh. Hatta, Syahrir (Presidential Advisor) and a number of ministers including Minister of Foreign Affairs Agus Salim. President Soekarno was flown to Prapat on the shores of Lake Toba and then transferred to Bangka and Vice President Moh. Hatta to Bangka.
b. December 19, 1948 Syafruddin Prawiranegara succeeded in establishing the Emergency Government of the Republic of Indonesia (PDRI) in Bukittinggi, Sumatra.
c. in reality the Dutch only controlled the cities and highways and the Government of the Republic of Indonesia was still ongoing in the villages, the people and the TNI united to fight against the Dutch with a guerrilla war strategy and culminated in carrying out the General Offensive on March 1, 1949 in Yogyakarta which was controlled by the Dutch.


2nd Dutch Military Aggression
d. The conclusion was that during the Indonesia-Dutch conflict, the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia still existed even though the Netherlands thought that the Republic of Indonesia had disappeared.

D. Indonesian Diplomacy Activities Defending Independence in International Forums
1. Soekarno-Van Mook Meeting
a. This meeting is to explore the agreement of the two disputing parties.
b. President Soekamo expressed the willingness of the Government of Indonesia to negotiate based on the recognition of the Indonesian people's right to self-determination.
c. Van Mook expressed his view that the Netherlands wanted Indonesia to become a federal commonwealth state with its own government within the Dutch empire and would include Indonesia as a member of the United Nations.
2. Sjahrir-Van Mook meeting
a. The meeting was held on 17 November 1945 at the British Army Headquarters in Jakarta.
b. The aim was to bring together the Indonesian and Dutch sides and explain the purpose of the arrival of the Allied troops, but this meeting did not bring results.
3. Sjahrir - Van Mook negotiations
a. On 10 February 1946 the Indonesian-Dutch negotiations began, Van Mook conveyed a political statement by the Dutch government, namely:
1) Indonesia would be made a Commonwealth state in the form of a federation that would have self-government within the Dutch kingdom.
2) Domestic affairs are run by Indonesia while foreign affairs are handled by the Dutch government.
b. March 12, 1946 Sjahrir submitted a counter-suggestion, namely:
1) The Republic of Indonesia must be recognized as a fully sovereign country over the territory of the former Dutch East Indies.
2) The Indonesian-Dutch Federation will be implemented for a certain period and foreign affairs and defense will be handed over to a federation consisting of Indonesians and Dutch people.
c. The proposal from the Indonesian side was not accepted by the Dutch and Van Mook personally proposed recognizing the Republic of Indonesia as the representative of Java to cooperate in forming a federal state within the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
d. March 27, 1946 Sutan Sjahrir submitted new proposals to Van Mook, namely:
1) the Dutch government recognized the Republic of Indonesia's de facto sovereignty over Java and Sumatra.
2) RI and the Netherlands work together to form the United Republic of Indonesia (RIS).
3) RIS together with the Netherlands, Suriname, Curacao, became a participant in the Dutch state bond.
4. Negotiations at the Hooge Veluwe
a. The negotiations were held on 14 - 25 April 1946 in Hooge Veluwe (Netherlands), as a continuation of the talks that had been agreed upon by Sjahrir and Van Mook, with the negotiating delegates namely:
1) Mr. Kelvin, dr. Sudarsono, and Mr. AK Pringgodigdo representing the Indonesian government
2) Dr. Van Mook, Prof. Logeman, Dr. Ideburgh, Dr. Van Royen, Prof. Van Asbeck Sultan Hamid II, and Surio Santosa who represented the Netherlands
3) Sir Archibald Clark Kerr represented the Allies as a mediator.
b. The negotiations which took place at the Hooge Veluwe did not bring results because the Dutch rejected the concept of the results of the Sjahrir-Van Mook-Clark Kerr meeting in Jakarta.
c. The Dutch were not willing to give de facto recognition of Indonesian sovereignty over Java and Sumatra, but only Java and Madura and minus the areas occupied by the Allied Forces, so that for the time being the Indonesian-Dutch relations were cut off, but Van Mook was still trying to submit a proposal for his government to RI side.
5. Linggarjati Negotiations
a. The Linggarjati negotiations were held on 10 November 1946 at Linggarjati, near Cirebon.
b. The negotiating delegation:
1) Indonesia was represented by Prime Minister Sutan Syahrir
2) The Netherlands was represented by Prof. Scermerhorn.
3) The negotiations were chaired by Lord Killearn, a British diplomat.

Map of Indonesian Territory Result of Linggarjati Negotiations

c. decisions of the Linggajati Negotiations:
1) The Netherlands recognizes de facto the Republic of Indonesia including Java, Madura and Sumatra.
2) The Republic of Indonesia and the Netherlands will work together to form the United States of Indonesia, with the name of the United Republic of Indonesia, one of whose states is the Republic of Indonesia.
3) The United Republic of Indonesia and the Netherlands will form a Dutch Indonesian Union with the Queen of the Netherlands as its chairman.
d. In subsequent developments, the Netherlands violated the terms of the negotiations by carrying out military aggression I on 21 July 1947.
e. In the contents of the Linggajati negotiations there were differences in interpretation between Indonesia and the Netherlands, but the position of the Republic of Indonesia in the international world was strong because Britain and America gave de facto recognition.
6. Renville Negotiations
a. The Renville Negotiations were held on the Renville Ship Deck owned by the United States on January 17, 1948.
b. Renville negotiation delegation:
1) The Indonesian government is represented by Prime Minister Amir Syarifuddin.
2) The Netherlands is represented by Abdul Kadir Widjojoatmodjo.
c. The results of the Renville negotiations were:
1) Indonesian territory was recognized based on the demarcation line (van Mook's line)
2) The Netherlands remained sovereign over all Indonesian territory until the United States of Indonesia was formed
3) RIS and the Netherlands had equal positions in the Indonesian-Dutch Union
4) RI was part of RIS
5) Indonesian troops in the enclaves had to be withdrawn to RI territory.
6) The Government of the Republic of Indonesia must recognize Dutch sovereignty over the Dutch East Indies until the time set by the Kingdom of the Netherlands to recognize the United States of Indonesia (NIS).
7) A vote will be held to determine whether residents in the areas of Java, Madura and Sumatra want their regions to join the Republic of Indonesia or the states of the United States of Indonesia.
8) Each country (part) has the right to live outside the NIS or to carry out special relations with the NIS or with the Netherlands.
d. As a result of the Renville negotiations, the territory of the Republic of Indonesia which included Java, Madura and Sumatra became even narrower.
e. The Indonesian government was willing to sign the agreement because:
1) the supplies of war ammunition were dwindling so that if they refused, it meant that the Dutch would attack more violently.
2) there is no guarantee that the UN Security Council will be able to help
3) the Indonesian government believes that the vote will be won by the Indonesian side.
f. The fate and continuation of the Renville Negotiations was relatively the same as the Linggajati Negotiations, because the Dutch again violated the agreement by carrying out military aggression II on 19 December 1948.

Map of Indonesian Territory as a Result of the Renville Negotiations

7. Asian Conference in New Delhi
a. The conference was held in New Delhi (the capital city of India) on 20 - 25 January 1949 attended by 19 countries including delegates from Egypt, Italy and New Zealand. Representatives from Indonesia, among others, Mr. Utoyo Ramelan, Sumitro Djoyohadikusumo, H. Rosyidi, and others.
b. The results of the conference included:
1) the return of the Government of the Republic of Indonesia to Yogyakarta,
2) the formation of an ad interim government before March 15, 1949,
3) the withdrawal of Dutch troops from all parts of Indonesia, and
4) the transfer of sovereignty to the United Indonesia Government no later than January 1, 1950
c . The UN Security Council responded to the recommendations of the New Delhi Conference by issuing a resolution dated January 28, 1949 which contained:
1) cessation of military and guerrilla operations,
2) release of Indonesian political prisoners by the Dutch,
3) the Indonesian government returns to Yogyakarta, and
4) negotiations will be held as soon as possible.
d. The impact of the Asian Conference in New Delhi was that Indonesia was increasingly receiving international support in the struggle for independence from the Dutch threat.
8. Roem - Royen negotiations
a. The occurrence of the Dutch Military Aggression caused quite a strong reaction from the United States and Britain, even the United Nations, as a result of the struggle of Indonesian diplomats in fighting for and explaining the reality of Indonesia at the United Nations, including LN Palar.
b. As a reaction to the Dutch Military Aggression, the United Nations expanded the authority of KTN. The Three Nations Commission was changed to UNCI. UNCI stands for United Nations Commission for Indonesia. UNCI is led by Merle Cochran (United States) assisted by Critchley (from Australia) and Harremans (from Belgium).
c. The result of UNCI's work was to enter into a Roem-Royen Agreement between Indonesia and the Netherlands. Roem-Royen Agreement dated 14 April 1949 at Hotel Des Indes (in Jakarta):
1) The representative from the United Nations was Merle Cochran (United States of America),
2) The delegation of the Republic of Indonesia was led by Mr. Moh. Roem,
3) The Dutch delegation led by van Royen.
d. In the Roem-Royen negotiations each party submitted a statement namely:
1) The Indonesian delegation states the willingness of the government of the Republic of Indonesia to

:
a) stop the guerrilla war
b) cooperate in restoring peace and maintaining order and security
c) participate in the Round Table Conference in The Hague to accelerate the recognition of sovereignty to the United States of Indonesia without conditions.
2) Statements from the Dutch delegation namely:
a) agreeing to the return of the Indonesian government to Yogyakarta
b) guaranteeing the cessation of military movements and the release of all political prisoners
c) not establishing or recognizing countries in areas controlled by RI before December 19, 1948
d) agreeing the existence of the Republic of Indonesia as part of the RIS
e) endeavoring that the KMB be held as soon as RI returns to Yogyakarta.
3) From the Indonesian and Dutch proposals, it was finally agreed upon and signed by the Roem-Royen negotiations on May 7, 1949, the contents of which were:
a) The Indonesian and Dutch governments agreed to stop shooting and work together to create security
b) The Dutch government would immediately return the Indonesian government to Yogyakarta
c) both parties agreed to hold a Round Table Conference (KMB) in The Hague, Netherlands.
9. Round Table Conference (KMB)
a. The Round Table Conference (KMB) is a follow-up to the Roem-Royen Negotiations.
b. Before the KMB was held, RI held a meeting with the BFO (Federal Consultative Body), known as the Inter-Indonesian Conference (KII), the aim of which was to equate the steps and attitudes of fellow Indonesians in facing the KMB.
c. The Inter-Indonesian Conference was held from 19 - 22 July 1949 in Yogyakarta and from 31 July to 2 August 1949 in Jakarta. The talks focused on forming the United Republic of Indonesia (RIS). The decisions that are quite important are:
1) recognition of sovereignty without political and economic ties will be carried out.
2) In the field of defense it was decided:
a) The Armed Forces of the United States of Indonesia (APRIS) is the National Armed Forces
b) TNI is the core of APRIS
c) states do not have their own armed forces.
d. The Round Table Conference (KMB):
1) is a real step of diplomacy to seek a settlement of disputes between Indonesia and the Netherlands.
2) The activity was held in The Hague, Netherlands from August 23 to November 2, 1949.
3) It was attended by delegates from Indonesia, BFO, the Netherlands, and UNCI representatives.
4) the delegates who attended the KMB, namely:
a) Indonesia consisting of Drs. Moh. Hatta, Mr. Moh. Roem, Prof. Dr. Mr. Soepomo.
b) BFO led by Sultan Hamid II from Pontianak.
c) The Netherlands is represented by Mr. van Maarseveen.
d) UNCI is represented by Chritchley.


MBC atmosphere
5) The KMB produced several decisions, namely:
a) The Netherlands recognized RIS as an independent and sovereign country with recognition of sovereignty no later than December 30, 1949.
b) The West Irian issue will be held for further negotiations within 1 year after the recognition of RIS sovereignty.
c) The United Republic of Indonesia (RIS) consists of the Republic of Indonesia and 15 federal states. The RIS government style was set according to the constitution drawn up by the RI delegation and BFO during the Round Table Conference.
d) Between RIS and the Kingdom of the Netherlands there will be relations between the Dutch Indonesian Union headed by the King of the Netherlands.
e) Dutch warships will be withdrawn from Indonesia provided that several corvettes will be handed over to RIS.
f) The Dutch Royal Army will withdraw as soon as possible, while the Royal Dutch East Indies Army (KNIL) will be disbanded on condition that the required members will be included in the TNI unit.
g) RIS must pay all Dutch debts that it has committed since 1942.
e. December 27, 1949 the signing of recognition of sovereignty was carried out simultaneously in the Netherlands and in Indonesia, namely:
1) in the Netherlands, Queen Juliana, Prime Minister Dr. Willem Dress, Minister for Overseas Mr. AMJA Sassen, and Drs. Moh. Hatta, jointly signed the text acknowledging sovereignty.
2) in Jakarta Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono IX and High Representative of the Dutch Crown AHJ Lovink signed the text acknowledging sovereignty.
f. The impact and influence of the KMB for the Indonesian people, namely:
1) The Netherlands recognizes Indonesia's independence.
2) The conflict with the Netherlands can be ended and construction can begin immediately.
3) West Irian cannot be handed over to the United States of Indonesia.
4) The form of a united state is not in accordance with the ideals of the Proclamation of Independence on August 17, 1945.

E. The Struggle of the People and the Government in the Regions to Defend Indonesian Independence
1. The flag incident in Surabaya
a. September 19, 1945, in Surabaya there was a flag incident.
b. the incident stems from the actions of several Dutch people raising the red white blue flag over the Yamato Hotel on Jalan Tunjungan.
c. This action caused people's anger, by storming the hotel and taking down the Dutch flag and the blue part was torn off, then they raised it again as the red and white flag.
2. Battle of Surabaya November 10, 1945
a. events in Surabaya began with the arrival of Allied troops on October 25, 1945 led by Brigadier General AWS Mallaby (leader of British forces).
b. On October 30, 1945 there was a heavy battle at the Bank Internatio Building at Jembatan Merah which killed Brigadier General Mallaby, so the British gave an ultimatum which said that the people of Surabaya surrendered to the Allies.
c. officially the people of Surabaya, represented by Governor Suryo, rejected the British ultimatum, as a result, on November 10, 1945, in the morning, British troops deployed infantry troops with heavy weapons and invaded Surabaya from land, sea and air.
d. the people of Surabaya were not afraid of the onslaught of the Allies, Bung Tomo led the people by giving an uplifting speech over the radio. The battle lasted for 3 weeks, with the death of 6,000 people in Surabaya.
h. In this battle in Surabaya all elements of the people's forces worked hand in hand, both from TKR, PRI, BPRI, Student Army, Special Police, BBI, PTKR and sea TKR under the City Defense Commander, Soengkono, the battle lasted until the end of November 1945, the people of Surabaya managed to defend Surabaya city from British onslaught.
i. the influence of the Battle of Surabaya had a wide impact on the international community, and was even included in the agenda for the UN Security Council meeting on 7-13 February 1946.
j. To commemorate this event every November 10, the Indonesian people commemorate Heroes' Day, as a tribute to the services of the heroes in Surabaya who defended the Indonesian homeland from foreign rule.


Battle of Surabaya
3. Battle of Ambarawa
a. The Battle of Ambarawa took place from 20 November to 15 December 1945, between TKR troops and Indonesian Youth against Allied troops (British).
b. The Battle of Ambarawa started from the incident that occurred in Magelang on October 26, 1945.
c. On November 20, 1945 in Ambarawa a battle broke out between the TKR troops under the command of Major Sumarto and the Allied troops.
d. The Battle of Ambarawa resulted in the death of Lieutenant Colonel Isdiman, Commander of the Banyumas Regiment. The position of Lieutenant Colonel Isdiman was replaced by Lieutenant Colonel Soedirman. The city of Ambarawa was successfully surrounded for 4 days and 4 nights by Indonesian troops. Given the squeezed position, the Allied troops left the city of Ambarawa on December 15, 1945 for Semarang.
e. TKR's success in expelling the Allies from Ambarawa became one of the important events in the struggle to defend Indonesian independence, so to commemorate this event every December 15 is celebrated as Infantry Day and in Ambarawa City the Palagan Ambarawa Monument was built.


4. Battle of Medan Area December 1, 1945
a. On October 9, 1945, British troops accompanied by NICA landed in Medan, led by Brigadier General TED Kelly.
b. Initially they were well received by the Indonesian government in North Sumatra because of their duty to free prisoners of war (Dutch soldiers).
c. An incident occurred at the Jalan Bali hotel, Medan on October 13, 1945. At that time a hotel occupant (NICA troops) stole and trampled on the Red and White badge worn by Indonesian youths. This angered the youths, which resulted in vandalism and attacks on hotels where many NICA troops lived.
d. December 1, 1945, the Allies put up boards that read Fixed Boundaries Medan Area in various corners of the city of Medan. Since then the Medan Area has become famous.
e. British troops and NICA held a purge of Republican elements in the city of Medan, this caused a reaction from the youth and TKR to fight against foreign powers who were trying to return to power.
f. On August 10, 1946 at Tebingtinggi a meeting was held between the commanders of the troops fighting in the Medan Area, deciding to form a command named the Medan Area People's Laskar Regiment Command.
5. The five day battle in Palembang
a. Allied troops and NICA landed in Palembang on October 12, 1945 led by Lieutenant Colonel Carmichael.
b. The Indonesian government in Palembang allowed Allied troops to only occupy the Talang Semut area, but did not heed the regulation, so the incident with youths erupted when they searched people's homes looking for weapons.
c. The Allies continued to increase their strength in Palembang and in March 1946, the Allied troops numbered 2 battalions, the Allies also protected the entry of Dutch troops, so that the number of Dutch troops increased.
d. When leaving the city of Palembang, the Allies surrendered their position to the Dutch, so that the Dutch and the youth fighting erupted when the Dutch asked the youths and fighters to vacate the city of Palembang.
e. The Dutch invited to negotiate and carry out a ceasefire, while the negotiations were ongoing, on January 1, 1947 the fighting erupted again.
f. The battle lasted for 5 days, so that 1/5 of the city of Palembang was destroyed.
g. January 6, 1947 a ceasefire agreement was reached between the Netherlands and the Government of the Republic of Indonesia in Palembang.
6. Battle in Jakarta
a. NICA and KNIL people carried out armed provocations, provoking public anger so that the situation in Jakarta became chaotic and difficult to control.
b. Dutch soldiers were increasingly rampant and the landing of Dutch marines at Tanjung Priok on 30 December 1945 made the situation even worse.
c. the security situation worsened in Jakarta, so the President and Vice President on 4 January 1946 moved to Yogyakarta and the capital of the Republic of Indonesia moved to Yogyakarta.
7. Puputan Margarana in Bali (20 November 1946)
a. The Puputan Margarana War in Bali began with the Dutch's desire to establish the State of East Indonesia (NIT). Lt. Col. I Gusti Ngurah Rai, Commander of the Nusa Tenggara Regiment, attempted to thwart the formation of NIT by carrying out an attack on the NICA barracks in Tabanan on 18 November 1946.
b. Consolidating and concentrating Ngurah Rai's troops (known as the Ciung Wanara troops) were stationed in Adeng Village, Marga District. The Dutch were in an uproar and were trying to find the center of the Ciung Wanara troops.
c. November 20, 1946 with a large Dutch force launched an attack from the air against Ngurah Rai's position in the village of Marga. In a critical condition, Lieutenant Colonel I Gusti Ngurah Rai issued the order "Puputan" which meant fighting to the end (fight to the end).
d. Lt. Col. I Gusti Ngurah Rai died along with all members of the troops in the battle, his body was buried in the village of Marga. The battle is known as Puputan Margarana.
e. The death of Lt. Col. I Gusti Ngurah Rai paved the way for the Dutch's efforts to form the State of East Indonesia.
8. The Red and White incident in Manado
a. Allied troops landed in North Sulawesi also piggybacking NICA people, then armed former KNIL soldiers who were captured by the Japanese.
b. Since the end of 1945, the Allied forces surrendered North Sulawesi to NICA troops.
c. The NICA troops acted arbitrarily against the people, so the people of North Sulawesi reacted by forming the Indonesian Youth Troops (PPI). PPI plans to attack the NICA troops, but the plan is leaked and the PPI leaders are arrested and imprisoned.
d. On February 14, 1946, PPI fighters stormed the NICA headquarters in Teling, they managed to free the PPI leadership and captured the NICA commander and his troops. Furthermore, the fighters tore up the Dutch red and white blue flag and became the red and white flag, then hoisted it at the Dutch headquarters in Teling, so that the event was known as the red and white event in Manado.
e. The fighters were able to expel the NICA from North Sulawesi and on February 16, 1946, a civilian government was formed led by BW Lapian as resident.
9. General Offensive 1 March 1949
a. The Netherlands in Military Aggression II:
1) succeeded in arresting political leaders and occupying the Republic of Indonesia's capital in Yogyakarta.
2) the goal is to show the world that the Indonesian government has been destroyed and the TNI has no more power.
b. To deal with the Dutch's actions, the TNI organized forces against the Dutch, with the climax of the attack in the form of a general attack on the city of Yogyakarta on March 1, 1949 led by Lieutenant Colonel Suharto, who had previously coordinated with Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono IX as the Head of the Special Region of Yogyakarta, the TNI's attack used the wehrkreise. To facilitate the attack, several sectors were formed, namely:
1) the West sector led by Major Ventje Sumual,
2) the South and East sectors led by Major Sardjono,
3) the North sector led by Major Kusno,
4) the City sector led by Lieutenant Amir Murtono and Lieutenant Masduki .
c. On the eve of the general assault, troops had crept near the city and made incursions. On the morning of March 1, 1949, at around 06.00 WIB, sirens sounded, attacks were launched from all over the city. Lieutenant Colonel Suharto immediately led the attack from the western sector to the boundary of Jalan Malioboro. The people helped expedite the course of the attack by providing logistical assistance. Within six hours the city of Yogyakarta was controlled by the TNI, at 12.00 WIB, the TNI troops withdrew. This is in accordance with the plan determined from the beginning. At the same time, Dutch aid arrived with armored vehicles and airplanes. The Dutch counterattacked.
d. The objectives of the March 1, 1949 General Offensive were:
1) To the interior of the country:
a) Support the struggle that is carried out diplomatically.
b) Increase the morale of the people and the TNI who are in guerrilla warfare.
c) indirectly influencing the attitude of the leaders of the federal states formed by the
Netherlands (such as the Pasundan state, the East Sumatra state and the
East Indonesian state) which are members of the Bijeenkomst Federal Voor Overleg (BFO).
2) Going abroad:
a) Demonstrating to the international community that the TNI has the power to carry out an offensive.
b) Breaking the morale of the Dutch troops.
e. The General Offensive on 1 March 1949 was primarily aimed at proving that the Republic of Indonesia still existed and the TNI was still strong, because it succeeded in repelling the Dutch position in Yogyakarta for 6 hours.
f. to commemorate the fighters and the events of the March 1, 1949 General Offensive, the Yogyakarta government built the "Yogya Return Monument".

F. Factors that forced the Dutch to leave Indonesia
1. When the Dutch carried out their second military aggression, December 19, 1948:
a. The UN Security Council was offended because the Dutch action violated the ceasefire agreement initiated by the Three Nations Commission (KTN).
b. The Dutch in Indonesia did not receive political support and the fighters carried out guerrilla and general attacks.
2. Facing this condition, the Dutch changed their attitude by agreeing to a ceasefire, so that the cessation of shooting took effect in Java on August 11, 1949, and in Sumatra on August 15, 1949.
3. During the armistice period the Round Table Conference took place in The Hague on 23 August 1949, with the main outcome being that the Netherlands would recognize the sovereignty of the United Republic of Indonesia at the end of December 1949, thus forcing the Dutch to leave Indonesian soil.
4. The factors that forced the Dutch to leave Indonesia, namely:
a. Internal Factors
1) The Netherlands realized that its military strength in Indonesia was not strong enough to force RI to submit to it.
2) The prolonged war resulted in the destruction of Dutch plantations and factories, so to avoid this the Dutch had to change their strategy.
3) The Netherlands did not receive political support from within Indonesia, because when they persuaded Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX to become state leader in Java, they refused.
4) The fighters of the Republic of Indonesia continued to carry out guerrilla warfare and general attacks.
b. External Factors
1) The United Nations and the United States took a firmer stance towards the Netherlands.
2) The United States has threatened to stop development aid on which the Dutch economy depends.
5. With these factors in mind, the KMB was held which led to the recognition of the sovereignty of the United States of Indonesia on 27 December 1949, thereby forcing the Dutch to leave Indonesia.

G. Recognition of Sovereignty
1. The signing ceremony of the text acknowledging Indonesian sovereignty from the Netherlands was carried out in 2 places at the same time in Indonesia and in the Netherlands on 27 December 1949:
a. In the Netherlands, the signing of the document acknowledging sovereignty was carried out in the throne room of the Royal Palace of the Netherlands by Queen Juliana, PM Dr. Willem Drees, Minister for Overseas Mr. AMJA Sassen, and Mohammad Hatta signed the text of the recognition of sovereignty.
b. in Jakarta, Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX and AHJ Lovink (High Representative of the Crown) signed the text acknowledging sovereignty.
2. On December 27, 1949 in Yogyakarta, the transfer of sovereignty from the Republic of Indonesia to the United States of Indonesia was also carried out.