Selasa, 17 Januari 2023

These are 2 Causes of War Between Russia and Ukraine

1. The Post-Soviet Context and the Orange Revolution


Protesters on the Maidan Nezalezhnosti square in Kyiv during the Orange Revolution, November 2004.

After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, Ukraine and Russia continued to maintain close ties. In 1994, Ukraine agreed to abandon its nuclear arsenal and signed the Budapest Memorandum on Security Guarantees on the condition that Russia, Britain and the United States would provide guarantees against threats or the use of force against Ukraine's territorial integrity or political independence.

Five years later, Russia is a signatory to the European Charter for Security, in which Russia "reaffirmed the inherent right of each participating State to freely choose or change its security arrangements, including alliance agreements, as they develop".

The 2004 Ukrainian presidential election was controversial. In November, then prime minister Viktor Yanukovych was declared the winner, despite allegations of vote rigging by election observers. The election results caused outrage among supporters of his opponent, Viktor Yushchenko. This then resulted in widespread protests against the results, which became known as the Orange revolution.

During the turbulent months of the revolution, candidate Yushchenko suddenly became seriously ill, and it was soon discovered by a group of independent doctors that he had been poisoned with TCDD dioxin. Yushchenko strongly suspects Russian involvement in his poisoning. After Ukraine's Supreme Court overturned the results of the initial election, a second round of elections was held.

All these events ultimately led Viktor Yushchenko and Yulia Tymoshenko to become the country's leaders, while Yanukovych became the opposition. In 2009, Yanukovych announced his intention to become president again in the 2010 Ukrainian presidential election, which he won.

2. The Ukrainian Revolution and War

The Euromaidan protests began in 2013 in reaction to the Ukrainian government's move to delay signing the Ukraine-EU Association Agreement, in favor of closer ties with Russia and the Eurasian Economic Union. After weeks of protests, president Viktor Yanukovych and leaders of Ukraine's parliamentary opposition signed a settlement agreement on 21 February 2014 calling for early elections.

The following day, Yanukovych fled Kyiv ahead of an impeachment vote that stripped him of his powers as president. Leaders of the Russian-speaking eastern region of Ukraine declared continued loyalty to Yanukovych, causing the 2014 pro-Russian riots in Ukraine. The riots were followed by Russia's annexation of Crimea in March 2014 and the War in Donbass, which began in April 2014 with the creation of a quasi-state backed by Russia of Donetsk and the Luhansks People's Republic.

On September 14, 2020, Ukrainian president Volodymyr Zelensky approved a new National Security Strategy for Ukraine, "which provides for the development of a special partnership with NATO with the aim of becoming a member of NATO." On March 24, 2021, Zelenskyy signed Decree No. 117/2021 approved the “deoccupation and reintegration of temporarily occupied territories in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and in the city of Sevastopol”.

In July 2021, Putin published an essay entitled On the Historical Unity of Russia and Ukraine, in which he reiterated his view that Russia and Ukraine are “one nation”. American historian Timothy Snyder describes Putin's ideas as imperialism, while British journalist Edward Lucas describes them as historical revisionism. Other observers describe the Russian leadership as having a distorted view of modern Ukraine and its history.

Russia has said that Ukraine's possible accession to NATO and NATO's enlargement in general threatens its national security. On the other hand, Ukraine and other European countries neighboring Russia accuse Putin of trying to perpetrate Russian irredentism, that is, the Russian Federation's claim to the former Russian Empire and the former Soviet Union and pursuing an aggressive militaristic policy.
source: gramedia

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