Senin, 23 Januari 2023

Mathematics is one of the educational sciences that is most often used in education and in everyday life. We can learn many things from mathematics, from basic calculations to very complicated mathematical formulas. So when did humans begin to recognize mathematics? Mathematics itself comes from the Greek study of arithmetic, quantity, structure, space and change. starting in Greece around the 6th-3rd century BC mathematics began to develop in various nations, for example in China 3SM, India 100M, Arab 800M, until now.

History of mathematics

Just like other sciences, mathematics also has a history of development (evolution of mathematics) which can be seen as a series of ever-increasing abstractions, or in other words, an expansion of the subject matter. This abstraction is about numbers: the statement that four jackfruit and four watermelons have the same number (example).
In addition to knowing how to count physical objects, prehistoric humans also knew how to count abstract quantities, such as time; day, season, year. Basic arithmetic (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division).
Furthermore, it requires writing or other systems for recording numbers. There are many and varied number systems. The first known written numbers are in the manuscripts inherited from Ancient Egypt in the Middle Kingdom of Egypt, the Rhind Mathematical Gazette.
The ancient uses of mathematics were in commerce, surveying, painting, and patterns for weaving and chronology and did not become widespread until 3000 BC onwards when the Babylonians and Egyptians began using arithmetic, algebra, and geometry for tax calculations and other financial affairs, building and construction, and astronomy. The systematic study of mathematics in its own right began in Ancient Greece between 600 and 300 BC.
Mathematics has since expanded rapidly, and there has been a fruitful interaction between mathematics and science, benefiting both parties. Mathematical discoveries were made throughout history and continue to this day by some well-known mathematicians including;Pythagoras of Samos (570-495SM) who was a mathematician from Greece whose discoveries included the cult of Pythagoras
Alkhawarismi (780-850M) who was a mathematician who created Algebra and algorithms and also introduced the number 0 as part of a number.
Isaac Newton (1643 – 1727) who was the inventor of the infinitesimal branch of calculus
And there are many other math scientists.
Predynastic period Egypt from the 5th millennium BC, graphically featuring geometric designs. It has been claimed that megalithic structures in England and Scotland, from the 3rd millennium BC, incorporated geometrical ideas such as the circle, ellipse, and Pythagorean triples in their design.

200%; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; mso-margin-top-alt: auto;"> 1. Mesopotamian mathematics
– Determine the number system for the first time
– Find the weight and measure system
– In 2500 BC the decimal system was no longer used and the stick was replaced by a wedge-shaped notation
2. Babylonian mathematics
– Uses the decimal system and p=3.125
– Inventor of the first calculator
– Recognizes geometry as a basis for astronomical calculations
– Uses the approximation to square roots
– The geometry is algebraic
– Arithmetic grows and develops well into a thriving rhetorical algebra
– Already familiar with the Pythagorean theorem
3.Mathematics of Ancient Egypt
– Already familiar with the formula for calculating area and content
– ​​Recognizing the number and symbol system in 3100 BC - Recognizing
Pythagorean triples
– Additive patterned number system and arithmetic
– In 300 BC using a number system based on 10
4. Ancient Greek mathematics
– Pythagoras proved the Pythagorean theorem mathematically (the best)
– The originator of the initial concept [zero] was Al Khwarizmi
– Archimedes coined the name parabola, which means the right corner of the cone
– Hipassus the inventor of irrational numbers
– Diophantus the inventor of arithmetic (discussion of number theories whose content is the development algebra which is done by making an equation)
– Archimedes made plane geometry
– Recognizes prime numbers
5. Indian mathematics
– Brahmagyupta was born in 598-660 Ad
– Aryabtha (4018 BC) discovered the circumference relationship of a circle
– Introduced the use of zero and decimal
– Brahmagyupta discovered negative numbers
– The formula a2+b2+c2 already existed in the “Sulbasutra”
– The geometry already knew Pythagorean triples, Pythagorean theorem, transformation and Pascal's triangle
6. Chinese mathematics
– Get to know the properties of right-angled triangles in 3000 BC
– Develop negative numbers, decimal numbers, the decimal system, binary system, algebra, geometry, trigonometry and calculus
– Have found methods to solve several types of equations, namely quadratic, cubic and qualytic equations
– Algebra use the horner system to solve quadratic equations

source : http://ilyasbiyu.blogspot.co.id/

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