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Metal and Iron Culture in Indonesia
Metal and Iron Culture in Indonesia (Copper, Bronze and Iron Culture) - Metal culture consists of copper culture, bronze culture, and iron culture.
1. Copper Culture
The metal culture in Indonesia is called the Bronze Age because the Copper Age is unknown in Indonesia. The metal culture in Southeast Asia is called the Dongson culture, the name of the area in Indochina whose population spread to the archipelago in 500 BC.
2. Bronze Culture
Bronze is a mixture of copper and tin. There are two ways to make tools from bronze.
a. The bivalve method, is done by using a stone mold consisting of two parts, then tied together, melted metal is poured, and wait for it to solidify. Once frozen, the mold can be opened. This tool can be used several times.
b. The a cire perdue method or the method of pouring wax, namely by making a model of an object from wax, then wrapping it in clay and making a hole at the top, then burning it so that the wax layer melts and comes out through the hole. From that part of the hole also poured molten metal to the brim. After the molten metal solidifies, the clay model is broken and the metal cast remains to be trimmed.
Some important bronze tools.
Nekara is a sounding instrument that is hung horizontally and struck from above. There is a drum that is large in size, with a height of 186 cm and a width of 160 cm, namely the Pejeng Moon kettle in Bali. Nekara which is small in size is called moko, commonly found in Alor, East Nusa Tenggara. Other nekara finding areas are Sumatra, Java, Sumbawa, Roti, Selayar, and Kei.
b. Funnel ax
Funnel ax is an ax that looks like a funnel. There is a hole at the top and in it is used to insert the ax handle. Therefore it is called a shoe axe, its function is as an ordinary axe. The long funnel ax is called candrasa. Funnel axes for ceremonies are decorated with various decorative patterns. Large funnel axes are found in Makassar, Roti, Sentani (Papua), Tuban (East Java), and West Java.
c. Bronze statue
There are various forms, some are in the form of humans and animals that are simple in shape. Small bronze statues were found in the Bangkinang (Riau) and Limbangan (Bogor) areas.
d. Bronze jewelry
Among other things, bracelets, rings and necklace pendants that can be found throughout the archipelago.
e. Bronze vessel
A kind of pot found in Kerinci, Sumatra.
3. Iron culture
After the bronze culture came the iron culture. Based on research, pre-literate humans used iron tools. Various tools made of iron, for example, ax heads, knives, sickles, and swords. Areas of discovery in Tuban, Pacitan, and Madiun. In addition, metal grave provisions were found in stone graves in Wonogiri (Central Java) and Besuki (East Java).