Approaches and Methods of Da'wah Planning
All problems can be seen or understood from a certain point of view. This point of view is called approach. An approach gives birth to a strategy that is all the ways to achieve the goals set, each strategy uses several methods and each method requires techniques, namely ways that are more specific and more operational. Furthermore, each technique requires tactics, namely a more specific method of technique and each of these terms must move according to the stipulated provisions, there are general provisions that are followed by all terms and there are also special provisions that apply to a particular term, these provisions called principle.
Nowadays there are many da'i / preachers who preach without knowing what approach they are using, so that the purpose of the da'wah itself is less specific and effective
Therefore, as da'wah students who are certain to become preachers / preachers, we should know from which approach we preach.
B. Problem Formulation
What is the meaning and types of approaches?
What is the definition of da'wah strategy?
What are the methods and techniques of preaching?
What is the nature of the propaganda technique?
To find out the meaning and types of approaches in da'wah.
A. Definition and Types of Approaches
The da'wah approach is our starting point or perspective on the da'wah process
v According to Toto Tasmara: the da'wah approach is the methods used by a preacher (communicator) to achieve a certain goal on the basis of wisdom and compassion.
v According to Sjahudi there are 3 types of approaches:
· Cultural Approach
· Educational Approach
· Psychological Approach
And these approaches look more at the conditions of the da'wah partners, therefore preachers, da'wah methods, da'wah messages, and da'wah media must adapt to the conditions of the da'wah partners.
Meanwhile, an approach focused on other da'wah partners is to use the fields of social life.
This model da'wah approach includes:
§ Socio-political approach
§ Socio-Cultural Approach
§ Socio-Economic Approach
§ Socio-Psychological Approach
All of the above approaches can be simplified with 2 approaches, namely:
- Structural preaching approach
- Cultural da'wah approach
To build a prosperous and religious life for the nation and state, da'wah can use a structural approach or a political approach. There must be politicians in the legislature fighting to make laws that guarantee a more Islamic life. Politicians in the executive are also needed who run the government based on these legal products, they can also use a cultural or socio-cultural approach by building public morals through cultural or socio-cultural
In addition, there are other approaches that involve all elements of da'wah, and not just da'wah partners, namely:
F An approach centered on the preacher: demanding that other elements of preaching adapt or work according to the ability of the preacher. Which da'wah message can the preacher master, which da'wah method can the preacher use, and which da'wah media can the preacher use.
F An approach centered on da'wah partners: focusing elements of da'wah on efforts to accept da'wah partners, who are the preachers that are suitable for da'wah partners with a particular typology, which da'wah messages are most needed by da'wah partners, as well as methods and media of da'wah that can inspire hearts missionary partner.
B. Da'wah Strategy
Strategy is a plan that contains a series of activities designed to achieve certain da'wah objectives.
Al-Bayanuni divides the da'wah strategy into 3 parts, namely:
1. Sentimental Strategy
2. Rational Strategy
3. Sensory Strategy
And the Qur'an itself suggests 3 da'wah strategies, namely:
1. Recitation Strategy
2. Tazkiyah strategy
3. Ta'lim strategy
C. Da'wah Methods and Techniques
The da'wah method is the way that the preacher takes in preaching or how to apply the da'wah strategy, while the technique is the way that someone does in order to implement a method.
To realize the strategy that has been set, we need a method. Strategy refers to a plan to achieve a goal, while the method is the method used to carry out the strategy, in each application of the method, several techniques are needed.
Broadly speaking, there are 3 forms of da'wah, namely:
a. Oral Da'wah (da'wah bil al-lisan)
b. Da'wah Writing (da'wah bil al-qolam)
c. Da'wah Action (da'wah bil al-hal)
Based on these three forms of da'wah, the methods and techniques of da'wah can be classified as follows:
v Lecture Method
§ Lecture preparation techniques
§ Lecture delivery techniques
§ The technique of closing the lecture
v Discussion Method
§ Benefits and various kinds of discussion
§ Discussion techniques
v Counseling Methods
§ Non directive techniques
§ Directive techniques
§ Electrical engineering
v Writing Method
§ Writing techniques
§ Letter writing techniques (correspondence)
§ Drawing techniques
v Community Empowerment Methods
§ Non-participation techniques
§ Teconism techniques
§ Community participation / power techniques
v Institutional Method
§ HR management of da'wah institutions (man)
§ Financial management of da'wah institutions (money)
§ Strategic management of da'wah institutions (method)
§ Management of da'wah institutions (machines)
§ Product management of da'wah institutions (materials)
§ Marketing management of da'wah institutions (markets)
D. Da'wah tactics
Tactics are a person's style of carrying out a particular technique or method.
Tactics are individual in nature, each preacher has tactics that use the same technique, each preacher who carries out da'wah activities has different approaches, strategies, methods, techniques and tactics. This difference also applies when dealing with different missionary partners. Thus the success of da'wah is more casuistic. The success of da'wah with one method and technique is not necessarily successful in other da'wah.
Da'wah tactics can become individual identities, each person tends to a certain tactic, although he can do other tactics. There is a dominant tactic within us, so this is what often emerges from us, both consciously and unconsciously, the tactic is almost in line with our character.
1. The da'wah approach is our starting point or perspective on the da'wah process. The types of approaches are:
a) Cultural approach
b) Educational approach
c) Psychological approach
2. Da'wah strategy is a plan that contains a series of activities designed for specific da'wah purposes.
3. The da'wah method is the way that the preacher takes or how to apply the da'wah strategy, among the da'wah strategies are:
a) Lecture method
b) Discussion method
c) Counseling methods
d) Writing method
e) Methods of community empowerment
f) Institutional method
4. Da'wah techniques are individual, each preacher has different tactics in using the same technique.