Management Introductory Papers (Basic Concepts of Organization, Management in Organizations)
When we talk about the concept of organization, then what appears in our perception? If we pay attention to the conditions around us, then we can say that our lives as modern humans are always influenced by various kinds of organizations. Organizations are dynamic processes, which in their structure include various sub-processes. The organization is also a place for people who share the same vision, mission and goals.
In addition to discussing the concept of organization, the author also discusses the basic concepts of management, both regarding the meaning of management, the role of management, the function of management, the relationship between management and the organization and others.
The development of management science is so rapid in the current era. This is because management knowledge is not only studied by academics, businessmen, and bureaucrats, but various non-profit institutions have also participated in making and placing management science as study material that must be fully understood and understood.
1.2 Problem Formulation
A. What are the basic concepts of organization?
B. What is the role of management in the organization?
C. How is the management viewpoint from a functional and operational perspective?
A. Organizational Basic Concepts
Humans are social creatures (al-insanu madaniyyun bi at-thab'i or zoon politicon).Therefore, every human being will need each other to meet their needs. Between fellow human beings are also required to cooperate with each other, appreciate and respect each other to maintain his life on this earth.
From these reasons, it is one of the driving forces for humans to form an association which is commonly called an "organization". This organization is needed to realize every ideal that is agreed upon by the members of the organization together. Organization is an indispensable element in human life. Organizations help us in carrying out things or activities that cannot be carried out properly as individuals. Besides that, it can be said again that organizations help people; support the continuity of knowledge and knowledge. It is also an important source of various kinds of careers in society.
a. Definition of Organization
Various literature on organization and management has provided definitions of organization, in various ways, depending on the viewpoint or approach. Basically the notion of organization can be divided into two kinds, namely the organization in the static sense and the organization in the dynamic sense.
a) Organization in a Static Sense
Organization in a static sense means seeing the organization as something that is not moving or standing still. To see the organization as inanimate means to see it as it is represented in the various organograms. There are various views about the organization in a static sense, including the following:
1. The organization is seen as a vessel or as a meaningful tool:
a. Organization as a means of achieving predetermined goals,
b. An organization is a container rather than a group of people (group of people) who collaborate to achieve common goals.
c. Organization as a container or place where administration and management are carried out which allows administration and management to move so as to give shape to administration and management.
2. The organization is seen as a network of formal working relationships as depicted in a chart using various boxes. The boxes provide an overview of the positions or positions that must be filled by people who meet the requirements in accordance with their respective functions.
3. The organization is seen as a channel of existing hierarchical positions or positions that clearly describe lines of authority, lines of command and lines of responsibility. In short, it can be said that an organization in a static sense is a place or place for administrative and management activities to take place with a clear description of the hierarchical channel of position, position of authority, line of command and responsibility.
b) Organization in a Dynamic Sense
Organization in a dynamic sense means viewing the organization as a living organ, a dynamic organism. Viewing the organization as a dynamic organism means viewing the organization not only in terms of form and form, but also viewing the organization in terms of its content. The contents of the organization are a group of people who carry out activities to achieve a common goal. In other words, organization in a dynamic sense means highlighting activities or activities that exist within the organization, as well as all kinds of aspects related to efforts to achieve the goals to be achieved. Thus there are various kinds of views about organizations in a dynamic sense, as follows:
1. Organization in a dynamic sense means that the organization is always moving to carry out the division of tasks or work according to a predetermined system and in accordance with the scope of the organization.
2. Organization in a dynamic sense means looking at the organization in terms of its contents, namely a group of people working together to achieve a common goal. So the organization in a dynamic sense highlights the human element in it. Humans are the most important element of all elements of the organization because only humans have dynamism. Organizations in a dynamic sense are always expected to have two kinds of possibilities, namely:
3. Possibility to grow and develop, which means that the organization is always moving to grow and develop according to the demands of the times. Organizational growth and development can be both quantitative and qualitative. What is more important is the qualitative growth and development of the organization.
4. It is likely that the organization will die. This is a threat and a challenge that inevitably must be overcome.
Organizational death is a challenge in the sense that people who are members of the organization are expected to face various problems or problems at different levels or levels of problems. Every problem must be overcome, because if it cannot be overcome it will become an obstacle to the running of the organization. The death of the organization is a threat, which means that all aspirations that are accommodated in the organization will fall apart. Threats to the death of an organization can come from within or from outside. Threats that come from within are threats that come from the members themselves, for example: members are static, do not want to accept new changes (methods), there is no sense of belonging from members and so on.
Threats that come from outside are threats that come from various other organizations in the form of competition, both fairly (fair competition) and unfair (unfair) competition, whether the competition is carried out openly (openly) or covertly (covert). .
Thus the organization in a dynamic sense means that the organization is always moving, growing and developing to maintain its existence. moving, growing and developing an organization is basically a fact of life.
From the description above, we can say that organization in a dynamic sense is a process of cooperation between people who are members of a forum to achieve common goals as stated together. The process is the steps that must be passed. The steps that must be taken in an effort to achieve common goals start from the planning process, organizing process, motivating, controlling process and decision making process. This process is often referred to as a management function so that an organization in a dynamic sense is also called an organization as a function, namely an organization that gives management the possibility to move.
The organization as a process also views the organization in terms of interaction between the people in the organization. Interactions that occur within the organization can take place both formally (formal relations) and informally (informal relations).
Formal relationships are relationships that follow a pattern as stipulated in the legal basis for the establishment of the organization, according to the organizational structure, as officially determined by the leadership.
Informal relationships are relationships that occur within an organization that are not bound by the legal basis of the organization's founding, are not bound by the organizational structure, are not bound by the hierarchy, are not bound by the rules officially determined by the leadership of the organization. Therefore, informal relationships do not appear in the organizational structure or are not reflected in the organizational chart.
Informal relationships are based on personal relationships or personal relations, and on the basis of shared interests within the organization. Interactions that occur within the organization can occur between superiors and subordinates, between subordinates and superiors, subordinates with subordinates, superiors and superiors. In other words, the interactions that occur within the organization can occur vertically, horizontally or diagonally. The good or bad of an organization is largely determined by the harmony of interactions, abilities and working relationships that occur within the organization. Therefore the organization in a dynamic sense or in a process sense emphasizes more on the human factor in the organization.
The conclusion that we can take further is that the organization is not just a container, but also a system of cooperation, a system of working relationships and a process of dividing tasks.
Organization as a cooperative system can be interpreted in various ways, namely as follows:
1. Organization as a system of cooperation, is a system of well-defined jobs, and each job contains certain authorities, duties and responsibilities that enable people from an organization to work together effectively in an effort to achieve common goals.
2. Organization as a work system is a system of job assignments to people who enter into partnerships specializing in a particular field of a common task.
3. Organization as cooperation is a system rather than cooperative activities of a group of people who cooperate to achieve common goals.
4. Organization as a cooperation system is a system that is planned rather than a cooperative effort by giving each person a role to carry out, authority, duties and responsibilities to carry out.
Organization as a system of working relations can be understood in various ways, namely as follows:
1. Organization as a system of work relations, is a system of work relations which is very complicated but systematic so that it can give rise to a good and harmonious form of cooperation among members or between existing work units as an effort to achieve common goals.
2. The organization as a system of working relations is a network that creates a form of good and harmonious cooperation between members or between existing work units so that common goals can be achieved quickly, precisely, efficiently and effectively.
Organization as a process of dividing tasks can be understood in various ways, namely as follows:
1. Organization as a process of division of tasks, is a process of determining and grouping the types of work to be carried out as well as formulating a delegation of authority and responsibility that enables the people entrusted with the task to work together efficiently and effectively in an effort to achieve the goals set.
2. Organization as a process of division of tasks, is a process of regularly gathering activities of parts that are interdependent on one another so that as a whole it forms a unified whole, united in an effort to achieve the goals that have been set.
3. Organization as a process of division of tasks, is a process of dividing tasks or work as well as organizing and determining the parts or people entrusted with carrying out the duties and responsibilities of a form of business.
4. Organization as a process of division of tasks, is a process of compiling, developing, maintaining the pattern of working relations of the parts or people in a business form.
From this understanding it can be said that the organization as a process of division of tasks looks at the organization in terms of the task distribution system so that each official or each work unit holds a specific task.
Besides that, there are several definitions of the organization put forward by experts, namely
· "Organizations are entities that enable society to achieve certain results, which are not possible by individuals acting alone." (James L. Gibson)
· “Organizations are more than just tools for creating goods and providing services. Organizations create the framework (setting), in which many of us carry out life processes. In this connection it can be said that organizations exert a great influence on our behavior. (LF Urwick)
· "Organization is the form of every human association for the attainment of common purposes." This means that the Organization is a form of every human association to achieve a common goal. (James D. Mooney)
· "Organization is people working together, and so it takes on the characteristics of human relationships which are involved in group detivity." This means that organizations are people who work together by containing the characteristics of human relations that arise in group activities. (John D. Millet)
· "Organization is the structure of authoritative and habitual personal interrelations in an administrative system." This means that the organization is a structure rather than relationships based on authority and are permanent in an administrative system. (Dwight Waldo)
· "Organization is a system of cooperation activities of two or more persons something intangible and impersonal, largely a matter of relationships." This means that the organization is a system of joint venture between two or more people, something that is intangible and impersonal, which is mostly about human relations. (Chester I. Barnard)
· "The organization is the structure of the division of labor and the structure of the work relationship between a group of position holders who work together in a certain way to jointly achieve a certain goal. (S. Prajudi Atmosudirdjo)
· "Organization is any form of alliance between two or more people who work together to achieve common goals and are bound formally in a hierarchical bond where there is always a relationship between a person or group of people who are called leaders and a person or group of people who are called subordinates." (Sondand P. Siagian)
The definition is based on a number of facts that are common to all organizations.
1. All organizations always include a number of people
2. The people are involved with one another in one way or another—that is, they all interact
3. The interaction can always be regulated or explained by a certain type of structure
4. Each person in an organization has personal goals; some of them are reasons for his actions. He
expects that his involvement in the organization will help him achieve his goals
b. Organizations Classified Based on Main Targets
Every organization is formed with the aim of achieving certain goals or suggestions. Broadly speaking, goals can be formulated as: satisfying the needs, wants, or goals of its members.
We can classify an organization according to the specific goals its members try to fulfill.
As an example, the following can be stated.
· Service organizations that are ready to help people without demanding full payment from each party receiving the service concerned (charity organizations of parks and wildlife parks abroad).
· Economic organizations, namely organizations that provide goods and services in return for payment in a certain form (apartment tenant corporations).
· Religious organizations (religious organizations), which meet the spiritual needs of its members (mosques, churches)
· Protection organizations (protective organizations), which provide protection to people from harm (departments of the police-ABRI, fire department).
· Government organizations, which fulfill the need for order and continuity (central government-local government).
Social organizations, namely organizations that meet the social needs of people to achieve contact with others, the need for mutual identification and assistance (organizations called fraternities, clubs, teams for certain purposes).
c. General View of Organizations
When people interact to achieve individual goals as well as shared goals, then there is an organization. An organization can be structured based on roles-relations-activities and targets-targets.
There are simple organizations, there are also complex organizations. Sometimes we see organizations where there are interactions between two people, up to giant groupings that are complex. It also involved thousands of members of the organization concerned.
Each member of an organization has two kinds of concepts, namely:
1. His own concept of personal goals in the organization where he works; And
2. Organizational effectiveness.
Both kinds of concepts need to be integrated. Besides that, organizational effectiveness requires an integration of all individual concepts, from the goals of the organization concerned to become an overall shared concept of existing organizational goals. The overall organizational goals provide direction for the activities of each member in the organization concerned.
The core element of an organization is the people (humans) who interact. Such interaction is a necessary condition as well as a sufficient condition, in order to determine the existence of an existing organization.
Besides that, every organization also has elements that work, namely the resources that determine the effectiveness of the organization. Work elements include nonhuman resources, and people capabilities. People's abilities include the ability to act—the ability to influence other people and the ability to apply concepts:
· Communicating and supervising.
Management needs to determine what tasks need to be performed—who should perform them, and who will make the decisions about those tasks.
In the real world, many conditions influence how organizing will be carried out. Organized human activity arises because of a:
1. A logical division of labor and a
2. Coordination system
Three kinds of organizational dimensions
1. The organization itself has a form, a configuration that describes the management hierarchy and formal communication channels
2. Through the process of organizing tasks are formulated/defined and individual jobs are structured
3. An organizational philosophy influences the efforts by which coordination is achieved.
Why Organizing Is So Important (David H. Holt, 1993: 264)
Organizing effectively can generate the following benefits/advantages.
1. Clarity regarding individual performance expectations and specialized tasks
2. Division of work, which avoids duplication, conflict and misuse of resources, both material resources and human resources
3. The formation of a logical flow of work activities, which can be carried out properly by individuals or as groups
4. Well-established communication channels that aid decision-making and oversight
5. Mechanisms that coordinate, enable the achievement of harmony between members of the organization, who are involved in various activities
6. Focused efforts related to goals logically and efficiently
7. Appropriate authority structures, which enable smooth planning and supervision of the entire organization concerned
As previously stated, management effectiveness means doing the right things (doing the right things). Meanwhile, efficiency implies: doing certain things right (doing the right things). Organizing can achieve both things.
e. Organizing Process
According to Louis A. Allen (1960) the definition of Organizing is the process of organizing and linking the work that must be done, so that it can be completed effectively and efficiently by the people who are members of the organization.
Organizing consists of 3 types of action, namely:
1. Designing an organizational structure that includes the work of identifying the tasks that must be carried out and classifying them into well-balanced organizational groups.
2. Defining and delegating (delegating) authority and responsibility.
3. Establish relationships.
Samuel C. Certo, quoting Saul W. Gellerman, expressed the view that there are five main steps in the organizing process. The steps referred to are as follows:
1. Carry out reflection on plans and goals.
2. Establish main tasks.
3. Dividing main tasks into subtasks
4. allocate resources and instructions for the tasks of the section
5. Evaluate the results of the implemented organizing strategy.
Elements of an Organization
2. Specific goals;
3. Distribution of tasks;
4. A system for coordinating tasks;
5. A defined boundary, indicating the parties that are beyond it.
General Characteristics of an Organization
Edgar H. Schein, a well-known organizational psychologist, argues that all organizations have four kinds of traits or characteristics as follows.
v Coordination of efforts
Often we hear the statement that two "heads" are better than one "head". Individuals who work together and coordinate their mental or physical efforts can achieve many great and wonderful things. Coordination of efforts to amplify individual contributions.
v Common goals
Coordination of efforts is not possible unless the parties that have united reach an agreement to try to achieve something that is in the common interest. A shared common goal gives organizational members an incentive to act
v Division of labor
By dividing complex tasks into specialized jobs, an organization can utilize its human resources efficiently. The division of labor allows the members of organizations to become more skilled and capable because specialized tasks are carried out repeatedly.
v Hierarchy of authority
Organizational theorists have formulated authority as the right to direct and lead the activities of others. Without a clear hierarchy of authority, coordination of efforts will be difficult, if not impossible. Accountability is also aided when people work in the chain of command.
B. Management in the organization
The word management seems to be heard so often. Management is closely related to the concept of organization. According to Griffin (2002), an organization is a group of people who work together in a certain structure and coordination in achieving a certain set. Different organizations have different goals depending on the type of organization.
· Political organization
That is, having the goal of channeling people's aspirations through certain political institutional rules or it could also be political organizations aiming to gain as many seats of power as possible so that their role as carriers of people's aspirations can be realized optimally.
· Social organization
This organization has a different purpose with political organizations. Ordinary social organizations do not aim to channel the aspirations of the people through power struggle activities. However, social organizations may aim to answer people's aspirations through donations, training, and so on. In contrast to political and social organizations, a university is an organization. Inside there is a group of people from lecturers, employees, students, and there are goals that the university wants to achieve, for example, to produce graduates who have certain competitions so that they can become useful people in society.
· Business Organization
Business organizations aim to make a profit, even though not all business organizations aim to make a profit, but profit is one of the goals that every business organization wants to achieve. A business organization is a group of people or groups of people who have the goal of making a profit in their business activities, so they try to realize that goal through cooperation within the organization. In addition to different organizations, organizations also consist of various resources at their disposal, for example, equipment, supplies, and others. Griffin argues that at least organizations have various informational resources.
a. Definition of Management
The word management comes from the Italian language (1561) manggiare which means "to control" the meaning of management according to Mary Parker Follet (1997) management is the art of getting things done through people, management is the art of getting things done through other people. For example something in art is everything that needs to be done in order to achieve a certain goal. Management comes from the word to manage (English) which means to manage or manage. If we study the management literature, it will appear that the term management contains three meanings, namely:
1) Management as a process
2) Management as a management collectivity
3) And management as an art and science
Here are some definitions of management put forward by experts:
· Ensiclopedia of the Social Sciences
In the Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences management is defined as the process of implementing a certain goal that is organized and supervised.
· Mary Parker Follett
According to Mary Parker Follet management is the art of getting things done through other people.
· Thomas H. Nelson
According to Thomas H. Nelson management is the science and art of combining ideas, facilities, processes, materials and people to produce useful goods/services and sell them profitably.
· GR. Terry
According to GR. Terry management is defined as a distinctive process consisting of planning, organizing, implementing efforts to achieve goals by utilizing human resources and other resources.
· James A.F. Stoner
According to James AF Stoner management is defined as the process of planning, organizing, leadership and monitoring the efforts (efforts) of members of the organization and using all organizational resources to achieve the goals set.
· Prof. Drs. Oei Liang Lie
According to Prof. Drs. Oei Liang Lie management is the science and art of planning, organizing, directing, coordinating and supervising human and natural resources, especially human resources to achieve predetermined goals.
The process of solving something requires stages. For a business organization, these stages can range from planning, organizing, implementing, to monitoring and controlling. Based on these stages, another understanding of management is known, namely as stated by Nickless, Mchugh (1997) The Process Used To Accomplish Organizational Goals Through Planning, Organizing, Directing, and Controlling People And Other Organizational Resources. Management is a process carried out to realize organizational goals through a series of activities in the form of planning, organizing, directing, and controlling people or other organizational resources.
b. The Role of Management in an Effective and Efficient Organization
Management is needed so that the goals of the organization can be achieved effectively and efficiently. According to Pater F. Drucker is "doing the right job" (Doing Righ Thing). While efficient according to him is "doing the right job" (Doing Right Things).
C. Functional and Operational Management
a. Management Functions
Management functions are a series of activities carried out in management based on their respective functions in following certain stages in their implementation. Management functions, as explained by Nickels McHugh (1997), consists of four functions, namely:
· Planning or planning
Namely the process that involves efforts made to anticipate future trends and develop fixed strategies and techniques to realize targets or organizations. That is, how to plan an environmentally friendly business, how to design a business organization that is able to compete in global competition, and so on.
· Organizing or Organizing
That is the process that concerns how the strategies and techniques that have been formulated in the planning are designed in an organizational structure that is fast and tough, a system and a conducive organizational environment, and can ensure that all parties in the organization can work effectively and efficiently to achieve organizational goals.
· Implementing or Directing
Namely the process of implementing the program so that it can be run by all parties in the organization as well as the process of motivating so that all parties can carry out their responsibilities with full awareness with high productivity.
· Control and Supervision or Controlling
Namely the process carried out to ensure that all series of activities that have been planned, organized, implemented can run according to the expected targets even as changes occur in the existing business environment.
Griffin argued that management functions are planning (planning), organizing (organizing), leadership (leading), and supervision (controlling). Griffin's opinion is in line with James AF Stoner who places the leading function instead of directing. The following is the opinion of management experts in presenting management functions;
Some views on management functions
Even though these management experts have different views in viewing management functions, the essence remains the same, that:
· Management consists of certain stages that function to achieve organizational goals.
· Each stage is related to one another in achieving organizational goals.
b. Activities in the Management Function
Function Planning (Planing)
· Setting goals in business targets
· Formulate strategies to achieve these business goals and targets
· Determine the resources needed
· Setting standards or indicators of success in achieving business goals and targets
Organizing Function (Organizing)
· Allocating resources, formulating and assigning tasks and procedures needed
· Establish an organizational structure that shows the lines of authority and responsibility
· HR recruitment, selection, training and development activities
· HR determination activities at the fastest position
Implementation Function (Directing)
· Implementing the process of leadership, mentoring and providing motivation to the workforce so that they can work effectively and efficiently in achieving goals
· Assign tasks and routine explanations about work
· Explain the policies that have been set
Supervision Function (Controlling)
· Evaluate success in achieving goals in business targets in accordance with indicators that have been set
· Take steps to clarify and correct deviations that may be found
· Carry out various alternative solutions to various problems related to achieving business goals and targets
c. Operational Function of Management
Human Resource Management
According to Mary Parker Follet management is the art of getting things done through other people. The word management seems to be heard so often, management is closely related to the concept of organization. An organization is a group of people who work together in a certain structure and coordination in achieving a certain set of things. Different organizations have different goals depending on the type of organization. The elements of an organization are people, certain goals, division of tasks, a system for coordinating tasks, and a defined boundary, which shows those who are outside it. Every organization is formed with the aim of achieving certain goals or suggestions. Broadly speaking, goals can be formulated as: satisfying the needs, wants, or goals of its members.
a. Management must be filled by people who are competent in their fields and have responsibilities so that the management process can run according to its function.
b. The organization must run according to the vision and mission of the organization's goals, because there are many cases where organizations act arbitrarily and are not in accordance with the norms prevailing in society.
c. A manager must have a good understanding of management systems and organizations so that they can carry out the manager's duties properly.
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