CONCEPTION OF ISLAMIC LAW, SCOPE OF ISLAMIC LAW, PURPOSES OF ISLAMIC LAW, SOURCES OF ISLAMIC LAW.
Supporting lecturers: Afdal divine, S,P,d ,M,P,d
Arranged by :
divine revelation anwar siregar 22090002
Evander rerezky Amanda 22090001
FACULTY OF MATHEMATICS AND NATURAL SCIENCES EDUCATION
SOUTH TAPANULI INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION (IPTS)
ACADEMIC YEAR 2023 / 2024
Peace be upon you, and Allah mercy and blessings.
In the name of Allah SWT, the most merciful and the most merciful, we would like to extend our praise and gratitude to His presence, who has bestowed tahmad and guidance on us so that we can finish this paper properly and without any obstacles.
This paper was created solely to fulfill group assignments in Islamic religious education courses. In addition, this paper also aims to add insight into the understanding of the influence and role of faith and piety and facing the problems and challenges of life for readers and writers.
We realize that the paper we are writing is still far from being perfect. Because perfection belongs only to Allah SWT, therefore constructive criticism and suggestions from friends will really help us in improving this paper.
Wassalamu alaikum warahmatullahi wabarakatuh
LIST OF CONTENTS
Sheet Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS iii
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1
PROBLEM FORMULATION 1
PURPOSE OF WRITING 1
CHAPTER II DISCUSSION 2
DEFINITION OF FAITH & TAQWA 2
DEFINITION OF THE MEANING OF THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE GOD 3
WEST VIEWS ABOUT GOD 5
THE ISLAMIC VIEW OF GOD 6
EXAMPLE OF GOD'S PROOF 8
EXAMPLE OF FAITHFUL & devout PEOPLE 9
CHAPTER III CLOSING 13
God is understood by humans as the Supreme and Almighty Substance, and is the basis of a belief in religion. God has many definitions so that there is no agreement on the definition of God, this is due to the different conceptualization of God.
Therefore, ideas arose about the figure of God with the attributes that He possesses, as well as the essence of God which has been debated until now. It is human nature as a servant to seek the whereabouts of a God and how.
Because humans are weak and limited creatures, they seek shelter and places that can lead them to the right path.
Thus, a religion emerged which was considered as a place of guidance in finding God's truth. Religion is a belief in the existence of a supernatural governing power, which creates and controls the universe. Which can then be concluded, that religion is a belief in the existence of 1 god.
FORMULATION OF THE PROBLEM
1. What is the meaning of faith & piety?
2. What is the meaning of the definition of philosophy of divinity?
3. What is the Western view of God?
4. What is the Islamic view of God?
5. What are some examples of proving God?
6. What are some examples of people of faith & piety?
3. PURPOSE OF THE MATERIALS
Based on the background and the formulation of the problem, the purpose of making this paper is:
1, explain the meaning of faith and piety to God
2. define the meaning of the philosophy of God
3.explain western thought
4.Explain some examples of Islamic thought
5. Mention some examples regarding the proof of God's existence
6. Mention some examples of the signs of a believer.
EXPLAINING THE UNDERSTANDING OF FAITH & TAQWA
Faith is a belief in the heart that is pledged verbally and manifested by deeds, while Taqwa is carrying out commands and avoiding the prohibitions of Allah SWT.
What we do on this earth is to do good deeds in society to establish intimacy. God's prohibitions: Approaching adultery Gambling Drinking alcoholic beverages Criminal acts etc... The concept of faith in the Qur'an and Al-hadith Tauhid uhudiyah The Human Concept in Islam
Basyar: human biological characteristics Human psychological or spiritual nature of human Annas: social creature or collectively Characteristics of a believer: When he hears recitation his heart will vibrate Pray on time When he promises he does not break Like to help The Purpose of Human Creation "And I did not create jinn and humans, but so that they worship me (Adz-jariat: 56) Humans according to Murtadhu Mutahhari: Humans just like other creatures need to eat, drink, live, have a partner and develop
Humans have a number of emotions such as wanting to gain and not wanting to lose. Humans like beauty. Humans have the urge to worship their God. Humans have multiple strengths than other creatures. Humans are able to know themselves, so they will find out who created them, how they were created and what was he created for. Privileges and Weaknesses of Humans Created in the best form and condition (At-tin (95): 5) Exalted compared to most other creatures. (al-Isra (17):70)
Mandate of persecution and denial of favors (Ibrahim (14): 34) Complaints and stinginess (al Maarij) (70): 19) Humans very much argue (al kahfi (18): 54) Human responsibility As a servant: to worship Allah As caliph : managing the universeFunctions and Roles of HumansLearning (an-naml: 15-16, almukmin:54). functions, and uses of all kinds of objects. (al-baqarah(2):31)
He subdued the earth, the sky and everything in it. Animals (al jaatsiyah (45):12-1Gives reason and five senses (al mulid (67):23)
DEFINITION OF THE PHILOSOPHY OF GOD
God is understood by humans as the Supreme and Almighty Substance, and is the basis of a belief in religion. God has many definitions so that there is no agreement on the definition of God, this is due to the different conceptualization of God.
Therefore, ideas arose about the figure of God with the attributes that He possesses, as well as the essence of God which has been debated until now. It is human nature as a servant to seek the whereabouts of a God like what and how. Because humans are weak and limited creatures, they seek shelter and places that can lead them to the right path.
Thus, a religion emerged which was considered as a place of guidance in finding God's truth. Religion is a belief in the existence of a supernatural governing power, which creates and controls the universe. Which can then be concluded, that religion is a belief in the existence of God
Divine philosophy is a thought about God using reason, using an approach called philosophical. So that it can be said that divine philosophy is the thinking of humans about God by using human reason.
As for this effort, it is not an attempt to find God absolutely, but an attempt to seek the truth of God with various human considerations to arrive at the truth of God.
1 Muhammad Noor, “Philosophy of God”, Journal of Humanities Technology, 3 (October 2017) In Islam, the human effort to know God or Allah is called ma'rifatullah. This Ma'rifatullah requires a gradual educational process in order to be able to distinguish between what is right (true) and what is false (wrong), the process is:
First, we know God through His names and attributes. From this we can understand and understand God's names and attributes, so that we can know how to draw closer to God and arrive at God's truth.
Second, with Tauhidullah which means to unite Allah, which means to believe that Allah SWT is One and there is nothing equal to Him and only one who has the right to be worshiped.
The existence of Allah SWT can no longer be doubted, there is a lot of evidence that we can find in the environment around us as proof of the existence of Allah SWT. For example, rain, with rain we can see and compare dry land to wet, originally plants that dead because of drought comes alive because exposed to rain.
From this we can judge that there is someone who regulates everything in the life of this world, this is in accordance with the nature of Allah named Al-Waali which means the Most Regulating and Protecting, from here we can judge that the existence of Allah SWT is not in doubt.
From this we can understand that the philosophy of divinity provides instructions and lessons for humanity to know their god by using their mind and the truth that can be proven scientifically and in accordance with religious scriptures. From this we can conclude that “God exists and God
That is One and Only” (*)
EXPLAINING THE WESTERN VIEW OF GOD
What is meant by the concept of Divinity according to human thought is a concept that is based on the results of thought through both external and spiritual experiences, both rational research and inner experience. In the literature on the history of religion, the theory of evolutionism is known , which is a theory which states that there was a process from a very simple belief which gradually increased to perfection. The theory was first put forward by Max Muller, then put forward by EB Taylor, Robertson Smith, Lubbock and Javens. The process of developing thoughts about God according to the theory of evolutionism is as follows:
According to this view, humans since primitive times have recognized the existence of influential forces in life. At first, something that had an effect was directed at objects. Every object has an influence on humans, some have a positive effect and some have a negative effect. The power that exists in objects is called by different names, such as mana (Melanesia), lucky (Malay) and syakti (India). Mana is a magical power that cannot be seen or sensed by the senses. Therefore, it is considered as something mysterious. Although the name cannot be perceived by the senses, its influence can be felt.
Primitive society also believes in the role of the spirit in their life. Every object that is considered a good object has a spirit. By primitive society, the spirit is believed to be something that is active even though the object has died. Therefore, the spirit is considered as something that is always alive, has a sense of pleasure. , the feeling of displeasure when their needs are met. According to this belief, so that humans are not affected by the negative effects of these spirits, humans must provide for the needs of the spirits. Servings that are in accordance with the advice of a shaman are one of the efforts to meet the needs of the spirits.
The belief in dynamism and animism does not give satisfaction for a long time, because there are too many things that become praise and worship. The spirit that is more than the others is then called a god. Gods have certain duties and powers according to their fields. There are gods who are responsible for light, there are those who are in charge of water matters, there are those who are in charge of wind and so on.
Polytheism does not give satisfaction especially to intellectuals. Therefore, from the gods that are recognized, a selection is made, because it is impossible to have the same power. Gradually, human beliefs increased to become more definitive (certain). One nation only recognizes one god, which is called God. However, sometimes humans still recognize the God (god) of other nations. Belief in one God for one nation is called henotheism (national level God).
Belief in the form of henotheism has stepped into monotheism. In monotheism only recognizes one God for all nations and is international in nature. The form of monotheism in terms of the philosophy of God is divided into three ideologies, namely deism, pantheism, and theism.
Evolutionism in belief in God as stated by Max Muller and EB.
THE ISLAMIC VIEW OF GOD
The idea of God which gave birth to the Science of Tawheed, the Science of Kalam, or the Science of Ushuluddin among Muslims, arose since the death of the Prophet Muhammad Shallallahu'alaihi Wa Sallam. Broadly speaking, there are streams that are liberal, traditional, and some are in between. This is because the emergence of these schools is due to differences in methodology in understanding the Qur'an and Hadith with a contextual approach so that traditional schools are born. While some other Muslims understand the approach between contextual and textual so that a flow that is between liberal and traditional is born. These three styles of thought have colored the history of divinity thought in Islam. These streams include:
a. Mu'tazilah, who are rationalists among Muslims, and emphasize the use of reason in understanding all the teachings and faith in Islam. Muslims who commit major sins, are not infidels and are not believers. He is in the position between a believer and an infidel (manzilah bainal manzilatain).
In analyzing divinity, they used the help of Greek logic, a theological system to defend their position of faith. The result of the rationalist Mu'tazilah understanding was that a century of scientific progress appeared in Islam. orthodox Muslims. The Mu'tazilah were born as a splinter from the Qadariah group, while the Qadariah were a splinter from the Khawarij.
b. Qodariah, who argues that humans have freedom of will and action. Humans themselves want whether they will believe in Allah or not, and this is what makes humans responsible for their actions.
c. Jabariah, which is a fragment of Murji'ah, theorizes that humans do not have freedom of will and action. All human behavior is determined and forced by God.
d. Asy'ariyah and Maturidiyah, whose opinions are between Qadariah and Jabariyah. All of these streams colored the life of divine thought among Muslims in the past period. In principle, the streams mentioned above did not conflict with the basic teachings of Islam. Therefore, Muslims who choose any of these schools as the theology they adhere to, will not cause them to leave Islam. Facing the current situation and development of science, Muslims need to make scientific corrections based on the Qur'an and Sunnah of the Prophet, without being influenced by certain political interests. Qadariah.
3. God According to Revelation Religions
Man's study of God, which is only based on human observation and experience and thoughts, will never be correct. Because God is something supernatural. Any information about God that comes only from humans, even if it is stated as the result of reflection or rational thinking, will not be true. Information about the origin of belief in God is stated in QS. Al-Anbiyaa: 92.
Meaning, "Verily, the religion that Allah revealed is one, namely the religion of monotheism. Therefore, humans should adhere to one religion, but they have split. They will return to Allah and Allah will judge them."
(QS. Al-Anbiya: 92)
The verse above gives instructions to humans that there is actually no difference in the concept of divinity from ancient times to the present. Through His Messengers, Allah introduced himself through His teachings, which were brought by the Apostles, Adam as the first Messenger and Muhammad as the the latter.
If there are differences in teachings about divinity between religions it is because of human actions. Teachings that are not the same as the concept of the original teachings, are human manipulation and lies that are very big. (QS. Al-Maidah: 72)
That is, Al-Masih said, "O Children of Israel, worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord. Indeed, those who associate (something with) Allah, then surely heaven is forbidden to them, and their place is hell."
(QS. Al-Maidah: 72)
(Surah 21, al-Anbiya: 92)
QS. Al-Ikhlas: 1-4,
That is, say, "He is Allah, the Almighty. Allah is God who depends on Him for everything. He is neither begotten nor begotten and no one is equal to Him."
(QS. Al-Ikhlas: 1-4)
From the expression of these verses, it is clear that God is Allah. The word Allah is the name of isim jumid or personal name. It is an erroneous opinion, if the name Allah is translated with the word "God", because it is considered as isim musytaq.
Empirical proof of the existence of God would be useless because it does not depart from the character of being: matter. Is it true that God exists? This is the question of some people who doubt the existence of God because God's existence cannot be observed nor can his presence be detected through a series of modern tools. Searching for God with such an empirical method will not produce results because God is indeed unseen, his form cannot be accessed or sensed at all. Therefore, to prove the existence of God is not by carrying out a series of sensory tests but by drawing rational conclusions. When we look at this universe,
we see that everything has the same red line, that is, everything is changing. Nothing in the universe remains unchanged, and even things that we think will never change change with time. Everything experiences a before, is, and after. Everything changes from one state to another. If so, then surely we know that everything in the universe had a beginning. Just as we don't know when our neighbor was born, but we know for sure that he has a date of birth. We also don't know for sure when this planet and everything on it was created, but we do know for sure that it had a beginning. Likewise all stars, planets, galaxies, or whatever they are called, however they are, we know for sure that
everything starts from a point that changes it from non-existence to existence. In addition, we see that everything in this world also has a special nature and character; Large objects in the universe have a force of attraction which we call gravity, fire has the character of burning, ice has the character of being cold, rock has the character of being hard with a certain shape, waves have the character of propagating and penetrating, water has the character of being liquid, and so do trees. air, and all living things have their own character. All of these characters complement each other and form a life system that supports one another. Although we do not know in detail how it all formed,
When we see a brick wall in the middle of a forest, we can conclude with certainty that it was designed and built by a sentient being, not by wind, water, sun heat, trees or an earthquake. , but our reason refuses when someone says that the wall was created by itself. So how can we possibly say that this universe exists by itself? If so, then we have arrived at the most important question, who is the actor who made everything come into existence from nothing? Who designed and shaped all the characters that we see in everything in this universe?
the answer is none other than God. Even though we have never seen him, we know for certain that God is the ultimate cause of all existence in the universe. His existence is certain and cannot be disputed anymore. The existence of God is what the scholars call "mandatory existence", existence that is certain, must, and cannot be denied. As for existences other than God is only "possible in being", that is, something whose existence is relative in the sense that it may exist or may not exist. There is no reason that ensures that we must exist, this planet must exist, and everything in the universe must exist. But God must exist because his existence is a necessity of all the existence of other things that already exist. This is what distinguishes the existence of God and existences other than God. Even though all of them exist, in essence the existence of the two is very different. Then who created God and gave character lordship over Him? It's a ridiculous question that will only create an endless loop that is definitely impossible. When we see another person, we know that he has a father, his father has a father and so on, but there must be an end to all the fatherly chains where the end of the chain has no father anymore. The oldest father, through leaked revelations, we know as Adam. Likewise everything else must have a first end where that first end comes from nothing. At the very end of all creation is God and it is certain that God himself was not created, was not designed, was not arranged, was not formed, and indeed has existed without a beginning.
SIGNS OF FAITHFUL PEOPLE
As Allah SWT says in surah Al-Baqarah verse 25:
وَبَشِّرِ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ وَعَمِلُوا۟ ٱلصَّٰلِحَٰتِ أَنَّ لَهُمْ جَنَّٰتٍ تَجْرِى مِن تَحْتِهَا ٱلْأَنْهَٰرُ ۖ كُلَّمَا رُزِقُوا۟ مِنْهَا مِن ثَمَرَةٍ رِّزْقًا ۙ قَالُوا۟ هَٰذَا ٱلَّذِى رُزِقْنَا مِن قَبْلُ ۖ وَأُتُوا۟ بِهِۦ مُتَشَٰبِهًا ۖ وَلَهُمْ فِيهَآ أَزْوَٰجٌ مُّطَهَّرَةٌ ۖ وَهُمْ فِيهَا خَٰلِدُونَ
Meaning: “And give good tidings to those who believe and do good, that they will have gardens in which rivers flow. Every time they are given fruit sustenance in those heavens, they say: "This is what was given to us before". They are given similar fruits and for them in them are holy wives and they are eternal in them." (QS. Al-Baqarah: 25)
The verse above explains the virtue of being a believer, that is, belonging to the people of heaven. Believers will be able to enjoy the various pleasures of heaven.
After knowing the meaning of a believer and the virtues of being a believer, that is, the people of heaven. So what are the characteristics of a believer, here are the characteristics:
1. When the name of Allah is mentioned, his heart trembles
The characteristics of a believer in Surah Al-Anfal verse 2 explain that when the name Allah SWT is mentioned, his heart trembles. Allah SWT says:
إِنَّمَا ٱلْمُؤْمِنُونَ ٱلَّذِينَ إِذَا ذُكِرَ ٱللَّهُ وَجِلَتْ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَإِذَا تُلِيَتْ عَلَيْهِمْ ءَايَٰتُهُۥ زَادَتْهُمْ إِيمَٰنًا وَعَلَىٰ رَبِّهِمْ يَتَوَكَّلُونَ
Meaning: "Indeed, those who believe are those who, when the name of Allah is mentioned, their hearts tremble, and when His verses are recited, their faith increases (therefore), and only in Allah do they put their trust."
2. Always repent
In fact, everyone has mistakes that are not known, there are mistakes that are known. Of course, in this case the best way for those who are guilty or sinful is to return to Allah by means of repentance.
As Allah SWT says in surah An-Nur verse 31:
وَتُوبُوٓا۟ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ جَمِيعًا أَيُّهَ ٱلْمُؤْمِنُونَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ
Meaning: "And repent to Allah all of you, O you who believe that you may be successful." (QS. An-Nur: 31)
3. Always worship
Truly Allah SWT has given many favors to his servant, therefore he should always devote himself and worship Allah SWT. Allah SWT says:
يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ master امَنُوا۟ ٱرْكَعُوا۟ وَٱسْجُدُوا۟ وَٱعْبُدُوا۟ رَبَّكُمْ وَٱفْعَلُوا۟
Meaning: "O you who believe, bow down to you, prostrate yourself, worship your Lord and do good, so that you may win." (QS. Al-Hajj: 77)
4. Dhikr or praise Allah SWT
Allah SWT says in surah Al-Ahzab verse 41:
يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ ٱذْكُرُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ ذِكْرًا كَثِيرًا
Meaning: "O you who believe, remember (by mentioning the name of) Allah, remember as much as possible." (QS. Al-Ahzab: 41).
5. Be patient
Patience is one of the characteristics of a believer, Allah SWT says in surah Al-Baqarah verse 153:
يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ ٱسْتَعِينُوا۟ بِٱلصَّبْرِ وَٱلصَّلَوٰةِ ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ مَرََِ
Meaning: "O you who believe, make patience and prayer as your helpers, verily Allah is with those who are patient." (QS. Al-Baqarah: 153).
6. Be grateful
After being patient, the believer is always grateful, this is as Allah SWT says in Surah Al-Baqarah verse 152:
فَٱذْكُرُونِىٓ أَذْكُرْكُمْ وَٱشْكُرُوا۟ لِى وَلَا تَكْفُرُونِ
Meaning: "Therefore, remember Me, I will surely remember (also) you, and be grateful to Me, and do not deny (favor) Me." (QS. Al-Baqarah: 152)
7. Glorify orphans
Allah SWT says in surah An-Nisaa verse 36:
وَاعْبُدُوا اللّٰهَ وَلَا تُشْرِكُوْا بِهٖ شَيْـًٔا وَّبِالْوَالِدَيْنِ اِحْسَانًا وَّبِذِى الْقُرْبٰى وَالْيَتٰمٰى وَالْمَسٰكِيْنِ وَالْجَارِ ذِى الْقُرْبٰى وَالْجَارِ الْجُنُبِ وَالصَّاحِبِ بِالْجَنْۢبِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيْلِۙ وَمَا مَلَكَتْ اَيْمَانُكُمْ ۗ اِنَّ اللّٰهَ لَا يُحِبُّ مَنْ كَانَ مُخْتَالًا فَخُوْرًاۙ
Meaning: "And worship Allah and do not associate anything with Him. And do good to your parents, close relatives, orphans, poor people, close neighbors and distant neighbors, colleagues, Ibn Sabil and the slaves that you have. Truly, Allah does not like people who are arrogant and arrogant." (QS. An-Nisaa: 36).
8. Keep away from useless things
Allah SWT says:
وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ عَنِ Allah, مُعْرِضُونَ
Meaning: "and those who distance themselves from (deeds and words) that are in vain." (QS. Al-Mukminun 23: 3)
9. Read the Koran
Listening to and reciting the Koran is one of the characteristics of a believer. Because the primacy of listening to the recitation of the Koran will increase faith in Allah SWT. Allah SWT says:
وَإِذَا تُلِيَتْ عَلَيْهِمْ ءَايَٰتُهُۥ زَادَتْهُمْ إِيمَٰنًا
Meaning: "and when His verses are recited, their faith increases (therefore)." (QS. Al-Anfal: 2)
10. Do good deeds
This is explained in the word of Allah Quran surah Al-Maidah verse 9:
Meaning: "Allah has promised those who believe and do righteous deeds, (that) for them forgiveness and a great reward." (QS. Al-Maidah: 9).
Allah SWT says:
إِلَّا ٱلَّذِينَ تَابُوا۟ وَأَصْلَحُوا۟ وَٱعْتَصَمُوا۟ بِٱللَّهِ وَأَخْلَصُوا۟ دِينَهُمْ لِلَّهِ فَأُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ مَعَ ٱلْمُؤْمِنِينَ ۖ وَسَوْفَ يُؤْتِ ٱللَّهُ ٱلْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا
Meaning: "Except for those who repent and make corrections and hold fast to Allah's (religion) and sincerely (work on) their religion for Allah's sake. So they are with the believers and later Allah will give the believers a great reward." (QS. An-Nisa: 146)
Allah SWT says in surah Al-Ahzab verse 72:
إِنَّا عَرَضْنَا ٱلْأَمَانَةَ عَلَى ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضِ وَٱلْجِبَالِ فَأَبَيْنَ أَن يَحْمِلْنَهَا وَأَشْفَقْنَ مِنْهَا وَحَمَلَهَا ٱلْإِنسَٰنُ ۖ إِنَّهُۥ كَانَ ظَلُومًا جَهُولًا
Meaning: "Indeed, We have conveyed the mandate to the heavens, the earth and the mountains, so all of them are reluctant to carry out the mandate and they are afraid of betraying it, and the mandate is carried by humans. Verily man is very unjust and very stupid." (QS. Al-Ahzab: 72)
These are the characteristics of a believer complete with evidence. May we be among the believers.
The influence of faith in human life will lead to good things. Faith will lead people to commendable deeds and draw closer to the creator. One of the influences of faith in Allah is to keep a person away from immoral acts, because when there is a strong fortress and foundation (faith) in his heart, nothing can get rid of him, be it from the temptations of Satan or the influence of lust. Taqwa is fear of Allah based on awareness by doing all His commandments and not violating by staying away from all His prohibitions and fear of falling into sinful acts. Meanwhile, the influence of taqwa on humans is easy to face all existing problems, selective in acting, and easy to apologize.
As creatures of Allah SWT, humans are ordered to have faith and be pious in order to avoid immorality, because if humans do not have faith and are pious, they will easily fall into committing sins. Qur'an as a way of life, and caring for others.