Kamis, 16 Maret 2023




Supporting Lecturer: Afdhal Divine, S.Pd.I., M.Pd

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Ema Hopipah Siregar : 20140015

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Praise be to the presence of Allah SWT for all His mercy and guidance so that we can complete the paper "Types, systems, principles and procedures of assessment" on time. The purpose of preparing this paper is so that readers can broaden knowledge and knowledge about "Types, systems, principles and procedures of assessment". Our thanks go out to the lecturers in the Educational Evaluation course, friends and all parties who have helped finish this paper, especially the help of ALLAH SWT who gave us health so that this paper can be completed on time.

With all humility, we really hope for constructive criticism and suggestions, so that we can prepare more papers. Hopefully this paper can be useful for readers.

Padangsidempuan, 20 February 2023






A. Background 1

B. Problem Formulation 2

C. Purpose 2


A. Types of Assessment 3

B. System in Assessment 9

C. Principles and Procedures in Assessment 10

D. Author's Analysis 12


A. Conclusion 14

B. Suggestion 14





Assessment of learning outcomes is a very important activity in the educational process. All processes in formal educational institutions will ultimately lead to learning outcomes that are realized quantitatively in the form of values. As is known, learning objectives include cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains. The domains of knowledge (cognitive) and attitudes (affective) are relatively difficult to observe, although they can be measured. Therefore, in the process of assessing learning outcomes, the first step must start from the formulation of observable and measurable learning objectives.

Departing from the formulated learning objectives, instruments were developed to observe and measure learning outcomes. By using the instrument, data is obtained that reflects the achievement of learning objectives in a learner. This data must then be processed and interpreted so that it becomes meaningful information. In addition, based on this data, the assessor can make decisions regarding the position or status of a student, for example, going to a class or not, passing or not and so on. The entire process of assessing learning outcomes must of course be carried out carefully, starting from the preparation of the instrument, the implementation of the test, the processing, to the determination of the final result.

Assessment (Assessment) is an important component in the implementation of education. Efforts to improve the quality of education can be achieved through improving the quality of learning and the quality of the assessment system. Based on this, the assessment must be carried out in accordance with the actual assessment principles so that the assessment carried out by the teacher or lecturer is in accordance with the actual assessment principles.

Formulation of the problem

What are the types of assessment?

How is the system in the assessment?

What are the principles and procedures in the assessment?


Know the types of assessment

Knowing how the system in the assessment

Know the principles and procedures in the assessment process




Assessment is a process or activity that is systematic and continuous to collect information about the process and learning outcomes of students in order to make decisions based on certain criteria and considerations. Assessment is a process of collecting data to determine to what extent, in what ways, and how educational goals have been achieved.

According to Griffin and Nix, an assessment is a statement based on a number of facts to explain the characteristics of someone or something. Haryati argued differently, she revealed that assessment (assessment) is a term that includes all the methods commonly used to determine the success of student learning by assessing the performance of individual students or groups.

The types of assessment are as follows:

1. Formative Assessment

Formative tests (formative tests) referred to as coaching tests, are tests that are held during the teaching and learning process, held periodically, the contents cover all teaching units that have been taught. This test can also be done at the end of each discussion of a subject/topic. Intended to monitor student learning progress during the learning process takes place, to provide feedback (feed back) for improving learning programs and to find out weaknesses that require improvement so that student learning outcomes and teacher learning processes become better.

-Formative Assessment Objectives

The following are some of the objectives of holding formative tests, namely:

To find out the success and failure of the teaching and learning process, thus it can be used to improve and perfect it.

To find out the problems and obstacles to teaching and learning activities including the learning and learning methods used by the teacher, the weaknesses and strengths of a student.

To improve the learning process in a better and more efficient direction or improve learning units or plans.

- Formative Assessment Steps

To ensure that the formative assessment runs effectively, it is necessary to carry out the following procedures:

Determining Teaching Materials

Teachers need to determine teaching materials that must be completed in one academic year. It is best to arrange instructional materials according to level of complexity. Before moving on to other material, the teacher needs to hold a formative test to assess the subject's mastery of the material that has been taught.

Determining Aspects and Stages of Mastery

Teachers need to determine certain aspects for each teaching material that students need to master. After the aspects are determined, the teacher also needs to determine the level of student mastery of the specified aspects. For example, if 75% to 85% of students master a material, it can be concluded that most students have mastered that material.

Associating the Components of Teaching Materials

The teacher needs to arrange the components contained in each teaching material based on the teaching objective classification.

Compile Exam Questions

Preparation of exam question scripts based on the material that has been taught.

Setting Up Follow-Up Steps

When students are still weak in a material, as a follow-up action, the teacher needs to repeat all the material, or change the teaching approach so that students can master the material.

2. Summative Assessment

Summative assessment is an assessment that is carried out at the end of one unit of time which includes more than one subject matter, and is intended to determine the extent to which students have been able to move from one unit to the next.

-There are several benefits of summative tests, and the 3 most important of them are:

a. To determine value.

To determine whether or not a child can join the group in receiving the next program. In this interest, the summative test functions as a predictive test.

b. To fill in notes on student learning progress that will be useful for parents, guidance and counseling at schools and other parties if the student will move to another school, will continue studying or will enter the workforce.

- Summative Assessment Steps

How to make/steps of a summative assessment are as follows:

a. Establish a schedule for determining exams.

b. Make questions related to the content and treatment to be tested. Each item must test the lesson objectives that have been set.

c. Gather items systematically, for example grouping items according to the same shape. Objective items are separated from items to fill in the blanks, essays and so on.

d. Provide clear directions on what students should do in answering each question raised.

e. Test the item first through a pilot test on a sample of students to ensure that the test to be carried out is truly valid and can be trusted and can correct weaknesses in the item in question.

f. Analyze items and ensure the answer choices provided (distractors) can play a good role.

3. Diagnostic assessment

Diagnostic assessment is an assessment that aims to determine student weaknesses and the factors that cause them. Implementation of this kind of assessment usually aims for the purposes of tutoring, remedial teaching, finding cases and others.

- Function and Purpose of Diagnostic Assessment

The function of the diagnostic assessment is to find out the problems suffered or disturbed by students, so that students experience difficulties, obstacles or distractions when participating in a learning program in a field of study. The difficulties of these students are attempted to solve.

The purpose of the diagnostic assessment is to help with difficulties or overcome obstacles experienced by students when participating in learning activities in a field of study or the entire learning program.

- Diagnostic Assessment Steps

The steps for developing a diagnostic test are as follows:

a. Identify Basic Competencies that have not yet achieved completeness

In a diagnostic test, it refers to difficulties in achieving basic competencies, therefore, before compiling a diagnostic test, it must be identified in advance which basic competencies have not been achieved.

b. Determine Possible Sources of Problems

After the basic competencies or problematic indicators are identified, the possible source of the problem begins to be found (localized).

c. Determine the appropriate form and number of questions

In determining the difficulties experienced by students, it is necessary to choose the right diagnostic tool in the form of appropriate diagnostic test items. The test items can be in the form of a choice test, essay (description), or performance according to the suspected source of the problem and in which dimension the problem occurs.

d. Compile a Question Grid

As when developing other types of tests, before writing the items in the diagnostic test, the grid must first be prepared. The grid contains at least: a) basic competencies along with indicators that are suspected of having problems; b) related subject matter; c) the alleged source of the problem; d) form and number of questions; and e) question indicators.

e. Write Questions

In accordance with the questions that have been prepared, then the items are written down. Diagnostic test questions certainly have different characteristics from other test items.

f. Reviewing questions

Good test items certainly fulfill content validity, for that the questions that have been written must be validated by an expert in the field. If the questions written by the teacher are not possible to be validated by an expert, the questions can be reviewed at least by teachers of allied subjects in one school.

g. Develop assessment criteria

The answers or responses given by students to the diagnostic test questions certainly vary, therefore in order to provide a fair assessment and an accurate interpretation of the diagnosis an assessment criterion must be developed, especially if the same test is carried out by different teachers or carried out by more than one teacher. .

4.Selective Assessment

Selective assessment is an assessment carried out in order to select or filter. Selecting students to represent schools in certain competitions is a type of selective assessment. For broader purposes, selective assessments, for example the selection of new student admissions or selections made in workforce recruitment.

-Purpose of Selective Assessment

By conducting selective assessments, the teacher has a way of conducting selection or assessment of his students. The assessment itself has various purposes, including:

a). To select students who can be accepted in certain schools.

b). To select students who can go up to the next class or level.

c).To select students who should get scholarships.

d). To select students who have the right to leave school, and so on.

5. Placement Assessment

Placement assessment is an assessment aimed at determining the prerequisite skills needed for a study program and learning mastery as programmed before starting learning activities for that program.

-Placement Rating Function

The function of the placement assessment is to find out the condition of the student at a glance, including the situation of the entire individual student being placed in his position. For example, students with small stature should not be placed at the back, but preferably at the front so they don't experience difficulties in the teaching and learning process.


1. Criterion Referenced Evaluation

Measurement of learning success is based on the interpretation of behavior (performance) based on specific criteria or standards, meaning that the degree of mastery that exists is based on a certain level that must be achieved.

The criterion reference assumes that almost everyone can learn anything but at different times. The consequence of the reference criteria is that there are remedial programs, enrichment programs, and accelerated programs. The interpretation of test results is always compared with the standards or criteria that have been set beforehand.

Characteristics of the criteria reference assessment:

a. There is a minimum cognitive ability that must be possessed by students

b. The existence of psychomotor abilities and mental attitude is a minimum as a prerequisite

c. Placing differences in student backgrounds as individual elements

d. As a tool for diagnosing student difficulties

e. Can be used as a standard test embryo

f. Not comparative to the group so that it can weaken the spirit of competition

2. Norm Referenced Evaluation.

This measurement places individuals in their groups, comparing individual mastery to the average group mastery.

Characteristics of norm reference assessment:

a. There is a competitive element

b. Excellent for affective and cognitive assessment

c. Unable to assess the ability of certain skills or materials

d. Cannot give direct interpretation on a scale

e. Grades do not reflect detailed capabilities.


1). Principles of Assessment in Learning

Some of the principles in the assessment are:

a. The assessment process must be an integral part of the learning process, not a separate part of the learning process (part of, not a part of instruction);

b. Assessment must reflect real world problems, not school work-kind problems;

c. Assessment must use various measures, methods, and criteria according to the characteristics and essence of the learning experience; And

d. Assessment must be holistic which includes all aspects of learning objectives (cognitive, affective, and sensory-motor).

2). Basic Principles of Learning Outcomes Test

There are several basic principles that need to be observed in preparing learning outcomes tests.

a). Learning outcomes tests must be able to clearly measure learning outcomes (learning outcomes) that have been determined in accordance with instructional objectives.

b). The items on the learning outcomes test must be a representative sample of the population of the subject matter that has been taught, so that it can be considered to represent all the performance that has been obtained while students have attended a teaching unit.

c). The form of questions issued in the learning outcomes test must be varied, so that it is truly suitable for measuring the desired learning outcomes in accordance with the objectives of the test and the ability of the learning outcomes themselves.

d). Learning outcomes tests must be designed according to their use to obtain the desired results.

3). Procedure in Assessment

a. Assessment should be based on comprehensive measurement results.

b. There must be a distinction between scoring and grading.

c. In the process of giving a value, two kinds of orientation should be considered, namely norms-referenced and criterion-referenced assessments.

d. Grading activities should be an integral part of the teaching and learning process. This means as feedback (feedback), both to the students themselves and to the teacher or teacher.

e. Ratings must be comparable. This means that after the measurement phase that produces the numbers is carried out, the achievements that occupy the same score must also receive the same value.

f. The assessment system used should be clear to students and to the teacher himself.

-Various assessment procedures:

a). Procedures that do not clearly distinguish between two phases, namely the measurement and assessment phases. This procedure contains more disadvantages than good. In practice it is often confused between scoring and assessment, or more commonly the numbers or scores which are actually 'points', are immediately considered as grades, which are then used as a tool to determine the verdict for the student or students who obtain the 'points'.

b). Procedures that have separated the measurement phase and the assessment phase, with various variations ranging from relatively simple to more complex. The first is the assessment procedure by ranking the scores in the form of distribution tables. This needs to be considered, with the use of norm-oriented assessments in the form of intra-group competition and criterion-oriented assessments, namely in terms of the expected minimum mastery in accordance with the achievement capacity of each group or class.

c). The valuation procedure using a percentage (%) is widely used because it is considered simpler and more practical. Assessment with this percentage is generally associated with a rating scale of 0-10 or 0-100, by directly transforming the percentage in question into a value.

d). Procedures that use more complex statistical techniques, namely what are called standardization and normalization procedures, namely the average deviation calculated from the group midpoint value which is called the mean or arithmetic average.


Assessment activities are part of the process to determine student competency achievement during and after participating in the learning process. Assessment is carried out in an integrated manner to reveal all aspects of student abilities both in terms of knowledge, skills and attitudes/values.

Basically, how to measure student achievement is done in three ways, namely diagnostic tests, summative tests and formative tests. Meanwhile, the form of tests given can be in the form of written tests, oral tests and practical tests. Evaluation of learning is very important to do to determine the effectiveness or not of a learning system implemented by educators. Because if an educator does not carry out an evaluation, it is the same as that the educator has no progress in designing a learning system.

Assessment in education also aims to find out how much success is based on competency standards which are then expanded into basic competencies, assessment is also carried out in a structured manner, has a period of time to observe student success and achievements.




Assessment is an activity of measuring, quantifying, and determining the quality of student knowledge as a whole. In this sense, it is implied that assessment must be integrated into learning and has various forms. The types of assessment are divided into 5, namely: 1. formative assessment, 2. summative assessment, 3. diagnostic assessment, 4. selective assessment, 5. placement assessment.

The principle of assessing results and students is based on open principles. The assessment system, both procedures, criteria and the basis for making decisions can be known transparently by all parties concerned with the assessment of student learning outcomes. The learning outcomes assessment system consists of class assessments conducted by teachers, assessments by schools, assessments by the government through the National Examination, and external assessments. In addition, the assessment system is also carried out through student participation in international studies.


We, the authors, realize that there are still many shortcomings in this paper. For that we ask for criticism and suggestions for the formation of better papers and materials. Hopefully this paper can add insight to every reader and can be useful for all of us.


Anonymous. 2016. Definition of Diagnostic Assessment. (online), (http://www.eurekadinding.com/2016/06/pengertian-pejian-daignostik.html, accessed on 29 September 2016)

Arifin, Zainal. 2013. Learning Evaluation of Principles, Techniques, Procedures. Bandung: PT Juvenile Rosdakarya.

Endang, Listiani. Types of Assessment in Educational Evaluation. (online).

Nasution, Noehi and Adi Suryanto. 2008. Teaching Evaluation. Jakarta: The Open University.

Purwanto, Ngalim. 2006. Principles and Techniques of Teaching Evaluation. Bandung: PT Juvenile Rosdakarya.


1. Pearl Tapsel Siregar

What is the difference between the criterion reference assessment and the norm assessment reference?

Norm references are used to describe student achievement tests by emphasizing the sharpness level of a student's relative understanding. While the reference criteria are used to measure tests that identify the completeness or not of students' knowledge of specific behaviors.

Additional Answers:

- Nurisa Hutabarat

Norm reference. In other words, PAN is an assessment system based on the value of a group of students in a learning process according to the level of mastery in that group. This means that giving grades refers to the acquisition of scores in that group. Meanwhile, the reference criteria is an assessment made to find out the ability of students compared to the criteria that have been made in advance.

- Nasrul Halim

So in my opinion the criterion reference assessment is an assessment carried out to determine student abilities compared to the criteria that have been made beforehand.

And the norm reference assessment is a value that refers to group assessment by comparing the scores of students in that group which includes one class.

2. Novita Sari Siagian

In principle it is said that assessment must reflect real world problems, not the school world. So why should assessments reflect real-world problems and not the school world?

Because assessment exposes students to real-world challenges that require them to be able to apply the various skills and knowledge they have. Assessments provide students with a set of tasks that reflect the priorities and challenges found in teaching activities, conducting research, writing, revising and discussing articles. Through assessment, students are more involved in assignments and teachers can be more confident that the assessment they give is meaningful and relevant.

Additional Answers

-Mira Yanti Siregar

Because, authentic assessment must reflect real world problems, not the school world. Using various methods and holistic criteria (whole competency reflects knowledge, skills and attitudes). Authentic assessment does not only measure what students know, but places more emphasis on measuring what students can do.

3. Nuraisyah Siregar

Why do teachers have to carry out formative assessments and what are the benefits?

1. Knowing the extent to which the material being taught is acceptable to students.

2. Knowing which parts of the lesson material do not belong to students.

3. Can predict the success or failure of all programs that will be given.

Improving teaching programs or lesson units in the future, especially in formulating instructional objectives and organization of teaching and learning activity materials.

Reviewing and improving his teaching actions in selecting and using teaching methods.

Repeating teaching material that students have not mastered before continuing with new material or giving assignments to students to deepen material that they have not mastered.

Additional Answers

- Listi Aulia Siregar

The benefits of formative assessment are assessments carried out with the aim of monitoring and improving the learning process, as well as evaluating the achievement of learning objectives. In accordance with its purpose, formative assessment can be carried out at the beginning of the learning process. To improve the learning process, not just to determine the level of student ability.

- Nela Afriza

Formative assessment is an assessment carried out with the aim of monitoring and improving the learning process, as well as evaluating the achievement of learning objectives. In accordance with its purpose, formative assessment can be carried out at the beginning and throughout the learning process.

4. Muti Ela Nurma

A teacher in the teaching and learning process will definitely conduct tests to measure student abilities. Can the presenter explain the steps that can be taken in preparing the test?

The steps taken in preparing the test are:

1. Determine the purpose of holding the test

2. Hold restrictions on the month being tested

3. Formulate specific instructional objectives of each part of the material.

4. Line up all ICTs in the preparation table which also includes the behavioral aspects contained in the ICTs.

Additional Answers

-Neka Fatmala Sari

1. Establish assessment goals or test objectives. Everyone who will carry out assessment activities must be aware of the purpose of the assessment.

2. Describe the test material and competence. In describing the contents of the test, you must ensure that the written test does not go beyond the scope of the material determined by the limits of the measuring area but also ensures that no important content is overlooked and not included in the test.

3.Develop grids. The grid is a matrix or format that contains information that can be used as a guide by the question writer to write questions into tests

4. Selection of the form of the test. This choice is based on several factors such as: the purpose of the test, the number of test takers, the time available to check the test answer sheets, the scope of the test material, and the characteristics of the subjects tested.

5. Length of test. What is meant in this case is the number of questions that will be tested in an exam.

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