Minggu, 19 Maret 2023

Curriculum Administration Paper (Definition, Concept, Activities)

A. Background
The words education, guidance, teaching, learning, learning are often referred to as technical terms whose activities merge into educational activities. Education as an activity means a conscious effort designed to assist a person or group of people in developing knowledge, outlook on life, attitude to life, and life skills both individual and social. [1] The implementation of education requires a management system that is orderly, directed and planned, because education is not a job that can be done haphazardly, or haphazardly, because what is faced is living beings (humans). [2] In the process, education has an impact on the quality obtained, where quality is very difficult to measure as stated by Sagala (2000) that the issue of quality is very complicated and complex, not only is the concept of quality very relative but the factors involved are so complex and not simple. In the process of education, the reciprocal relationship between educators and students is sustainable towards the goals that are to be realized together, namely the goals of education or the goals of the teaching and learning process with quality results.
Therefore, to achieve this, of course there is a need for management to regulate it. The complexity that exists in the educational process is not simple because it relates to learning, curriculum, professional education staff, facilities, budgets and so on. With administration in education, all the components mentioned above can be regulated and managed as well as possible. In this case a school principal who is actually a top leader has an obligation to carry out administration in the institution/school he leads.
One component that really needs attention is the curriculum. Because the curriculum is a very important tool for the success of an education. Without an appropriate and appropriate curriculum it will be difficult to achieve the desired educational goals and objectives. According to Daryanto, at any type and level of school, the principal's main task is to ensure that there is a good teaching program for students. It is the principal's responsibility that is most challenging, while his staff share responsibility for assisting in the implementation and development of effective teaching programs. [3]
In MPR Decree No. II/MPR/1988 concerning the Outlines of State Policy it is stated that "National Education Based on Pancasila, Aims to Improve the Quality of Indonesian Humans, namely human beings who believe and fear God Almighty, have noble character, work hard, tough, responsible, independent, intelligent and skilled, as well as physically and mentally healthy. National education must be able to foster and deepen a sense of love for the motherland, strengthen the spirit of nationalism and a sense of social solidarity. In line with that, a learning and teaching climate is developed that can foster self-confidence as well as innovative and creative attitudes and behavior.
To realize these national education goals, various efforts have been made, including:
» Strengthening the implementation of the applicable curriculum
» Increase the number of facilities and infrastructure to more evenly distribute education services.
» Increasing the type and number of teachers, both quantitatively and qualitatively, as a continuation of efforts to increase and equalize quality through education and training.
Therefore a school principal must know the policies and administrative steps that are currently in effect.

B. Problem Formulation
Based on the description above, several problems can be drawn, namely:
1. What is the meaning and concept of curriculum administration?
2. What are the main activities in the operational curriculum?
3. What should be prioritized in the curriculum?

C. Purpose of Writing
The objectives and benefits that we can take in this paper are:
1. So that students understand how to organize education in accordance with the system, regular, directed and planned management.
2. So that students understand that the curriculum is a very important tool for the success of an education. Without an appropriate and appropriate curriculum it will be difficult to achieve the desired educational goals and objectives.
3. So that students understand and understand what factors are related to the curriculum.

D. Systematic discussion
This thesis consists of three parts, and each part is arranged systematically as follows:
In the first chapter of the introduction, this chapter contains the background of the problem, the formulation of the problem, the purpose of writing and the systematic discussion. Chapter II discussion, in this chapter contains the notion of Curriculum Administration, Basics of Curriculum Administration, Main Activities of Curriculum Operations. curriculum aspect. Chapter III cover, contains conclusions and suggestions.


A. Definition and Concept of Curriculum Administration
Before we discuss the meaning of curriculum administration as a whole, we will briefly discuss the meaning of administration and curriculum when they stand alone.
o Administration 
Etymologically administration comes from the Latin "ad" and "ministro". Ad means "to" and ministro means "to serve". It can be freely interpreted that administration is a service or dedication to a particular subject. Indeed, in ancient times administration was imposed on work related to dedication or service to the king or ministers in the task of managing their government. [4] Another definition that is simply put forward by Murni Yusuf is that administration is directing. [5]The broad understanding of administration according to Syaiful Sagala is: "A series of activities with a group of people systematically to run the wheels of a business or organizational mission so that it can be carried out with a certain purpose that has been set. [6]
So administration is a cooperative relationship to serve each other and direct regularly or systematically within an organization to achieve the desired goals together.

o Curriculum
Initially the term curriculum was not used in the world of education, which was used as a term in the world of sports. In the book Principles of Curriculum, S. Nasution states that in Webster's dictionary the word curriculum appeared for the first time in 1856. The meaning at that time was:
· a race course; a place for running; a chariot. It means "a distance that must be traveled by runners or trains in a race from start to finish".
Curriculum also means "chariot", a kind of old-fashioned runway, which is a tool that carries a person from start to finish. Besides that, the use of the curriculum which was originally in the field of sports, was then used in the field of education, which in Webster's dictionary was called "applied particulary to the course of study in a university" then Nasution added that in 1955 in the Webster's dictionary the curriculum was given the meaning "a number of subjects at school or courses at tertiary institutions, which must be taken to achieve a diploma or level. Also means the whole lesson presented by an educational institution. [7]
With reference to the classic definition above, which suggests that the curriculum is only limited to subjects, it means that there are some student activities and experiences that do not fit into the boundaries of this curriculum. Activities called extracurricular (extra curricular activities) are outside the curriculum, so experiences at school are not included in it. Experiences such as playing in the school yard, walking, taking breaks and other similar things are not included in the curriculum, they are not considered learning experiences.
However, nowadays educational leaders highlight the fact that learning for each child is a process that lasts 24 hours every day. They argue that experiences in arts and sports associations in schools, on field trips, etc., are all educationally rich learning situations. Because the curriculum includes all experiences that are deliberately given by the school to foster children's development by creating teaching and learning situations. [8]

Ø Curriculum administration
After we know at a glance the meaning of each of the administration and curriculum, let's direct the discussion to the understanding of curriculum administration as a whole. Curriculum administration is the whole process of activities that are planned and carried out intentionally and seriously as well as continuous coaching of teaching and learning situations effectively and efficiently in order to help achieve the educational goals that have been set. [9]
As previously mentioned, at any school level, the principal's main task is to ensure that there is a good teaching program for students. Because basically the management/management of education focuses all its efforts on teaching and learning practice (PBM). It seems clear that in essence all efforts and activities carried out within schools/educational institutions are always directed at the success of PBM.
In addition to the above, according to Murni Yusuf, who quoted Nana Syaodih's opinion, that in relation to the curriculum, there are three concepts related to the curriculum:
Ø The curriculum is the main core that becomes the substance of activities in schools. The curriculum contains planning of learning activities and goals to be achieved.
Ø The curriculum is seen as a system that includes the school system, the education system and even the community system. In this case, it includes the management of curriculum planning, implementation and evaluation and improvement of the curriculum.
Ø Curriculum as a study reviewed by experts in the field of curriculum. In this regard, curriculum experts seek to develop and innovate in the field of curriculum.

Thus, activities in curriculum administration are none other than various activities aimed at implementing and developing the curriculum so that the curriculum can be used as an instrument in achieving educational goals and objectives. By applying administrative principles, the curriculum is then developed, so that in practice the curriculum can achieve the expected educational goals. At the very least, curriculum administration activities require that the formulation of the curriculum really departs from the need for a well-planned instrument, so that the implementation can run well too.

B. Fundamentals of Curriculum Administration
The curriculum is a teaching program that must be achieved by students. The curriculum contains the fields of study as well as the material that must be studied, the activities that must be carried out, the teacher's teaching methods, and the evaluation techniques used in the classroom. In practice, the curriculum is flexible. The contents of the curriculum, materials, teaching methods and evaluation techniques used by a teacher are different from other teachers even though the curriculum is the same.
The curriculum administration that must be carried out by the teacher in the classroom must follow the applicable curriculum, because the programs listed in it have been planned and selected by experts in their respective fields. The teacher completes the curriculum with his own ideas and expertise. All teachers have programs, expertise, and experience that can be used to enrich curriculum implementation, especially regarding local content.
A teacher needs to set goals to be achieved and activities to be carried out to set goals. A teacher must plan individual teaching so that direct teaching is given to teach facts, understanding and skills. In order for the learning objectives to be achieved properly, a teacher must carry out teaching techniques by:
Focus on students
· Saving time
· Adjust to the speed of the student
· Seeking a transition period that must be from one field of study to the next field of study
Ask students to make an overview of what has been learne

C. Main Curriculum Operational Activities
As mentioned earlier that a school principal has the responsibility of determining the curriculum that will be implemented in the school he leads. Therefore, the principal must know matters relating to curriculum management which will determine whether or not the expected learning objectives are achieved. According to Imron Fauzi, the implementation and development of the curriculum includes three things, namely:
· Guiding and realizing what is contained in the relevant school curriculum in an effort to achieve the basics and goals of education and teaching.
· Arranging and implementing a curriculum organization along with its materials, resources and methods of implementation, adapted to the renewal of education and teaching as well as the needs of the community and the school environment.
The curriculum is not something that must be followed and obeyed absolutely without the slightest change or deviation. The curriculum is a guide for teachers in carrying out their duties. [10]

In line with Fauzi, Ary Gunawan stated that operationally the administrative/management activities of the curriculum include three main activities, namely:
· Activities related to the task of the teacher
· Activities related to students
· Activities related to the entire academic community or members of the school/educational institution. [11]

1. Activities related to teachers
a. Distribution of teaching hours.
As civil servants, you are generally required to:
» Monday to Thursday
From 07.00 to 14.00 = 4 x 7 hours = 28 hours
" Friday
from 07.00 to 11.00 = 1 x 4 hours = 4 hours
" Saturday
From 07.00 to 12.30 = 1 x 5.5 hours = 5.5 hours
Total = 37.5 hours
The teaching obligation for a teacher is 24 hours of lessons/week, provided that each one hour of lessons lasts 45 minutes. So:
24 x 0.75 hours = 18 hours

b. Tasks in following the lesson schedule
There are three types of lesson schedules for teachers namely; schedule of curricular, co-curricular and extra-curricular lessons.
c. The task of the teacher in PBM activities
This task is a series of teaching / instructional activities to achieve optimal teaching results, namely:
o Make preparation / lesson planning
o Carry out teaching
o Evaluate teaching results

2. Activities related to students
the activities of students for the success of PBM are listed in the schedule of learning activities that have been prepared by the school along with the schedule of tests/tests/examinations, and the schedule of learning activities which are arranged by students themselves in strategies for the success of their study results. A student or student whose study is active and creative usually arranges a schedule for study time, recreation/relax, social assignments, reading newspapers, and so on.

3. Activities related to the entire academic community
This activity is a synchronization of all curricular, extracurricular, academic/non-academic school activities, weekdays, holidays, field trips, religious national holidays and so on.

Those are the three main things related to the operational activities of the curriculum that a school principal should pay attention to. A school principal is responsible for assigning his staff in the field of curriculum to oversee the matters mentioned above for the achievement and success of educational goals. Apart from the three main activities mentioned above, it seems that it is still necessary to highlight PBM supporting activities to be discussed, namely guidance and counseling or guidance and counseling, school health efforts (UKS), and libraries. In an effort to increase the success of PBM, several PBM obstacles need to be overcome, namely the factor of completeness of reading material.
Ø Non-physical / psychological health factors
A learner may be less successful in PBM if his/her soul experiences disturbances/distortions, such as being heartbroken, worried, experiencing household disturbances, social/economic disturbances and other disturbances which can affect the psyche. In conditions like the cases above, students or students should immediately go to the BP or BK officer at the school or university to get a good resolution of the problem, through diagnosis, prognosis, therapy and follow-up as necessary.

Ø Physical health factors
A learner may be less successful or disrupted by his PBM if at school he suddenly has a headache, stomach ache, (slight) injury, fever and so on. Then he can immediately ask to treat his illness so he can return to PBM properly. Thus the UKS service in schools is a support for PBM, so students do not need to miss too many lessons.

Ø Factors completeness of reading material
A learner may be less successful or disrupted by his PMB because his reading material is incomplete, so he can immediately take advantage of the services of the school library, so that he is free from PBM distractions. If viewed from its function, the library is not only a place to store books and as a support for PBM activities. So the library is more appropriate to be included in the curriculum administration together with BP and UKS.

D. Key Aspects of the Curriculum
In outline there are several different responses, namely:
» Because schools were founded by and in the midst of the community, to meet their needs, the teaching program must take into account the circumstances, background and needs of the community.
» Because the educational effort is to educate individuals, the curriculum must be prepared based on the circumstances, characteristics and needs of individuals. [12]

As we have seen above, the first presumption is oriented to community or social interests, while the second presumption is individual or psychologically oriented. Perhaps no one wants to defend either opinion in an extreme form. In reality, every teaching program that is guided by the interests of society, to a certain extent, pays attention to individual needs as well, and vice versa, every psychologically oriented curriculum automatically pays attention to the interests of society as well.
The third position apart from the two above considers that there is no conflict in principle between the two. We don't have to stick to one or the other, because that's really unrealistic. The individual can only realize himself as an individual if he is in the society in which he lives. Therefore the curriculum must be oriented to individuals in society.
This latter opinion seems to be the most suitable or in line with the educational philosophy and goals of national education as stated in the opening of the 1945 Constitution, "To Educate the Life of the Nation".
Another aspect of the problem above is the issue: Should the curriculum be determined by the needs and interests of adults (preparation for adulthood) or should it be determined by the current needs and interests of students. Those who defend the curriculum must be composed solely of subjects based on the needs and interests of the community, usually of the opinion that the task of the function of education is for adult life. Therefore, the curriculum must contain many useful lessons for children in the future. Opinions against the above stance put forward the theory that children should be considered as children with their rights, not as adults in miniature. Therefore, the curriculum must pay attention to issues that concern children only.
From the two opinions above, a third opinion emerged which argued that basically there should be no conflict between the two positions above, because in the curriculum it is sufficient to pay attention to the needs and interests of both parties, both children and adults. The curriculum must contain learning experiences that are at the same time of direct interest in children's lives and prepare them for life in adulthood. It was also stated that: "preparing children for adult life" has implications for a static society where the needs and interests of adults in the future can be predicted in the children who exist today.
The final opinion in providing solutions to the problems children are facing now and concerning the interests of children in the future is to increase the flexible use of intelligence, preparing children to adapt to the rapid changes of today's world diversity. This latter view appears to provide a sound basis for establishing a flexible yet robust framework for curriculum planning.

A. Conclusion
The curriculum is a teaching program to be achieved by students that has been prepared according to standards that apply anywhere throughout Indonesia. When carried out by the teacher, it turns out that there are various variations that are influenced by differences in the skills and philosophy of the teacher. Based on the description above, several conclusions can be drawn:
1. Curriculum administration is the entire process of activities that are planned and carried out intentionally and seriously as well as continuous guidance on teaching and learning situations effectively and efficiently in order to help achieve the educational goals that have been set.
2. Operationally the curriculum administration/management activities include three main activities, namely:
· Activities related to the task of the teacher
· Activities related to students
· Activities related to the entire academic community or members of the school/educational institution.
· In reality, every teaching program that is guided by the interests of the community, to a certain extent also pays attention to individual needs, and vice versa, every psychologically oriented curriculum automatically pays attention to the interests of society as well.
It was also stated that the curriculum must contain learning experiences which simultaneously concern direct interests in the lives of children and prepare them for life in adulthood. The curriculum outlines how the teacher organizes and implements the pursuit program in the classroom. There are several opinions in this regard, namely:
· The curriculum must be planned and implemented by the teacher, including all the implementation steps
· The curriculum should emphasize the structure of the various fields of study.
The curriculum should give students greater freedom. Students must be able to choose what they want to study and be able to manage study time.
· Students must choose what they want to learn and the teacher acts as a facilitator.
· The curriculum must be arranged sequentially and presented in such a way that students can master everything.
· Curriculum planning should pay attention to:
- Goals and objectives
- Student ability
- Teaching method
- Field of study management
- Material management
- Evaluation and recording of learning outcomes
Curriculum can be organized as:
- Teaching units
- Individual teaching
· Both lessons need to manage:
- Goals to be achieved
- Activities to be carried out
- Materials or teaching materials that will be given
- Expansion or follow-up
- Evaluate

B. Suggestion
From our brief paper, hopefully it can be useful for all of us, in general, we personally. The good comes from Allah, and the bad comes from us. And we realize that our paper is far from perfect, there are still many mistakes from various sides, so we expect constructive suggestions and criticism, to improve further papers.


1. Syaiful Sagala, Contemporary Education Administration, Bandung: Alfabeta, 2000.
2. Drs. H. Zainy Chalish Hamdy, M.Ed, et al. Education Administration and Education Supervision. Publishing IAIN Press Medan.
3. HM Daryanto, Curriculum Administration, Jakarta: Rineka Cipta, 2001.
4. Ary H. Gunawan, School Administration "Micro Education Administration", Jakarta: Rineka Cipta, 1996.
5. S. Nasution, Curriculum Principles, (Jakarta: Bumi Aksara, 2006), Pages 1-2.

[1] Syaiful Sagala, Contemporary Education Administration, (Bandung: Alfabeta, 2000). 1st thing
[2] Drs. H. Zainy Chalish Hamdy, M. Ed, et al. Education Administration and Education Supervision. Publisher IAIN Press Medan. 1st thing
[3] HM Daryanto, Curriculum Administration, (Jakarta: Rineka Cipta, 2001). pg 36
[4] HM Daryanto, Curriculum Administration, (Jakarta: Rineka Cipta, 2001). 1st thing
[5] http://www.muniryusuf.com/administration-kurikulum.html.
[6] Syaiful Sagala, Op.Cit., Page 26
[7] S. Nasution, Curriculum Principles, (Jakarta: Bumi Aksara, 2006), Pages 1-2.
[8] HM Daryanto, Op.Cit.,. pg 38.
[9] Ary H. Gunawan, School Administration "Micro Education Administration", (Jakarta: Rineka Cipta, 1996). h. 80.
[10] http://imronfauzi.wordpress.com/2008/06/15/fundamental-administration-education-2.
[11] Ary H. Gunawan, Op.Cit..Pg: 80
[12] HM Daryanto. Pages 41-43.

source: rudy

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