Definition and Principles of Counseling Guidance

Definition and Principles of Counseling Guidance


Understanding and Principles of Counseling Guidance - Humans are philosophical creatures, meaning that humans have knowledge and thinking, humans also have unique characteristics, different from other creatures in their development. The implication of this diversity is that individuals have the freedom and independence to choose and develop themselves according to their uniqueness or each potential without causing conflict with their environment. In terms of individual uniqueness and diversity, guidance is needed to help each individual achieve healthy development in their environment (Nur Ihsan, 2006: 1)

Basically guidance and counseling is also an effort to help show optimal human development both as a group and individually according to their human nature with various potentials, strengths and weaknesses, weaknesses and problems.
As for the world of education, guidance and counseling is also very much needed because guidance and counseling can lead students to achieve professional and academic standards and abilities, as well as healthy and productive early development and in guidance and counseling besides services there are also principles. .

B. PROBLEM FORMULATION
1. What do the principles of guidance and counseling mean?
2. What kinds of principles of guidance and counseling?

C. OBJECTIVES AND BENEFITS
1. To know the meaning of the principles of guidance and counseling.
2. To know the kinds of principles of guidance and counseling.

CHAPTER II DISCUSSION
OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING PRINCIPLES

A. Understanding Guidance and Counseling Principles


The principle comes from the origin of the word "PRINCIPRA" which means beginning in a certain way to give birth to other things, whose existence depends on the beginner, this principle is the result of a combination of theoretical studies and directed field theory which is used as a guide in the intended implementation. .(Halaen, 2002,: 63 )

The Guidance and Counseling Principles describe the basic points of thought that serve as guidelines for implementing programs or rules of the game that must be followed in the implementation of guidance service programs and can also be used as a set of practical foundations or rules of the game that must be followed in implementing guidance and counseling service programs in school.

Prayitno said: "That the principles are the results of theoretical studies and field studies that are used as guidelines for the implementation of something intended" so from the above opinion it can be concluded that the principles of guidance and counseling are the integration of the results - the results of theory and practice which are formulated and used as guidelines as well as the basis for service delivery.

B. Kinds of guidance and counseling principles


In guidance and counseling services, the principles used are sourced from philosophical studies as a result of research and practical experience about human nature, development and human life in their socio-cultural context, understanding, goals, functions and processes, the implementation of guidance and counseling.
There are several principles of implementing guidance and counseling including:
a. Guidance is a process of helping individuals so that they can help themselves in solving the problems they face.
b. Guidance should start (focus) on the individual being guided
c. Guidance is directed at individuals and each individual has its own characteristics.
d. Problems that can be solved by the advisory team in the institutional environment should be submitted to experts or institutions authorized to solve them.
e. Guidance begins with identifying the needs felt by the individual who will be mentored.
f. Guidance should be flexible and flexible according to individual and community needs.
g. Guidance programs in certain educational institutions must be in accordance with the educational programs of the institutions concerned.
h. The implementation of the guidance program should be managed by people who have expertise in the field of guidance, can work together and use relevant sources that are inside or outside educational institutions.
i. The implementation of the guidance program should be evaluated to find out the results and implementation of the program (Nur Ihsan, 2006: 9)
The formulation of the principles of guidance and counseling in general is related to service objectives, client problems, goals and problem handling processes, service programs, service delivery.
Among these principles are:
1. Principles relating to service objectives
The targets of guidance and counseling services are individuals, both individually and in groups, who are the targets of services in general, the development and life of individuals, but in a more real and direct way, attitudes and behavior are influenced by aspects of their own personality and conditions, as well as conditions environment, attitudes and behavior in development and life that encourage the formulation of the principles of guidance and counseling as follows:

a. BK serves all individuals regardless of age, gender, ethnicity, religion and socioeconomic status.
b. BK deals with the personality and behavior of individuals who are unique and dynamic.
c. BK pays full attention to the stages and various aspects of individual development.
d. BK gives primary attention to individual differences which are the main orientation of its services.

2. Principles relating to individual problems
Various factors that affect the development and life of individuals are not always positive, but there are definitely negative factors that influence and can cause obstacles to the continuity of development and individual life in the form of problems. BK services are only able to handle limited client problems related to:
a. BK deals with matters relating to the influence of an individual's mental or physical condition on his adjustment at home, at school and in relation to social and work contacts, and conversely the influence of the environment on an individual's mental and physical condition.
b. Social, economic and cultural disparities are a factor in the emergence of problems in individuals, all of which are the main concern of counseling services.

3. Principles relating to service programs
. The principles relating to BK services are as follows:

a. BK is an integrated part of the education and development process, therefore BK must be harmonized and integrated with educational programs and student development.
b. The counseling program must be flexible according to the needs of individuals, society and institutional conditions.
c. Guidance and counseling programs are arranged on an ongoing basis from the lowest to the highest level of education.
4. The principles relating to the implementation of services
The implementation of counseling services, both incidental and programmed, begins with an understanding of the purpose of the service, and this goal will be realized through a certain process carried out by experts in their fields, namely professional counselors.
The principles relating to this matter are:
a. BK should be directed to the development of individuals who are ultimately able to guide themselves in dealing with their problems.
b. In the BK process decisions taken and will be carried out by individuals should be at the will of the individual itself not because of the will or pressure from other parties.
c. Individual problems must be handled by experts in the field relevant to the problem at hand.
d. Cooperation between the supervising teacher, other teachers and the child's parents determines the outcome of the guidance service.
e. The development of counseling service programs is carried out through the maximum utilization of the results of measurements and assessments of the individuals involved in the service process and the guidance and counseling program itself (Hanen, 2002).
5. The principles of guidance and counseling in schools in the operational field of guidance and counseling.
School is an institution whose face and figure are very clear. In schools, guidance and counseling services are expected to grow and develop very well, considering that schools are potentially very fertile land, schools have basic conditions that actually demand this service at a high level. Counseling services officially exist in schools, but their existence is not as desired. In this regard, Belkin (in Prayitno 1994) emphasizes six principles for developing counseling services in schools.

Meanwhile, according to Hikmat, there are 5 principles in management management, namely (1) the principles of efficiency and effectiveness, in which management functions are carried out by considering infrastructure, circumstances and organizational capabilities so that they are relevant to the goals achieved; (2) management principles, where a management is carried out systematically from planning, organizing, directing and supervising; (3) the principle of prioritizing management tasks, where a manager is responsible for carrying out management activities, both internal and external services; (4) the principle of effective leadership, where a manager must have a wise nature in making a decision and be able to relate well with all personnel in the organization; (5) the principle of cooperation, cooperation is based on organizing. Organizing management related to carrying out tasks in accordance with the expertise and duties of each personnel.

Sugiyo stated that the principles of management include: (a) efficiency is an activity carried out with a minimum capital that can provide optimal results; (b) effectiveness is when there is compatibility between the results achieved and the goals; (c) management, in management activities a manager must manage existing resources, both human and non-human resources; (d) prioritizing management tasks means that a manager must prioritize his managerial duties over other tasks; (e) cooperation means that a manager must be able to create an atmosphere of cooperation with various parties; and (f) effective leadership.
From the two opinions above, it can be concluded that the principles of guidance and counseling management are
a. Efficient and effective, meaning the suitability of service results with the objectives to be achieved from guidance and counseling services by optimally utilizing existing facilities.
b. Effective leadership, meaning that the principal needs to be wise in making decisions and able to coordinate well with school personnel.
c. Collaboration, meaning that there is a good cooperative relationship between school personnel.
d. Management management, management systematics from planning, organizing, directing, and evaluating

CHAPTER III
CLOSING
CONCLUSIONS
BK principles are guiding the results of theory and practice which are formulated and used as guidelines and basis for the delivery of services.
a. Principles relating to service objectives:
1) Guidance and counseling serve all individuals regardless of age, sex, ethnicity, religion and socioeconomic status.
2) Guidance and counseling deal with personality and individual behavior and pay attention to the stages or various aspects of individual development, as well as giving primary attention to individual differences which are the main service orientation.
b. Principles relating to individual problems
Guidance and counseling deals with matters relating to the influence of an individual's mental or physical condition on his adjustment at home or at school, and what causes problems to arise in individuals is social, economic and cultural inequalities.
c. Principles relating to service programs
1) Guidance and counseling is an integral part of education and individual development efforts;
2) Guidance and counseling programs must be flexible according to the needs of individuals, society and institutional conditions and must be prepared in a sustainable manner from the lowest to the highest educational levels.
d. Principles relating to the purpose of implementing services
1) Guidance and counseling must be directed to develop individuals so that decisions taken and will be carried out by individuals should be of the individual's own volition.
2) Individual problems must be handled by experts in the field relevant to the problem at hand.
e. Principles of guidance and counseling in schools
The principle of BK in schools emphasizes that the enforcement and development of guidance and counseling services in schools is only possible by professional counselors who are aware of their profession, and are able to translate into programs and relationships with colleagues and other school personnel, have the commitment and skills to help students with all their abilities. variations in school, and able to work together and foster a harmonious-dynamic relationship with the principal.

REFERENCES

Hallen, 2002. Guidance and Counseling. Press coverage: Jakarta
Nurihsan Juntika. 2006. Guidance and Counseling in Various Life Settings. PT RFIKA ADITAMA: Bandung
Prayitno and Erman Amfi. 1995. Fundamentals of Counseling Guidance. Copyright Plan: Jakarta
http://digilib.uin-suka.ac.id/17475/2/1320410030_bab-ii_ Sampai_prior-bab-terakhir.pdf accessed at 19.00 WIB on 1 October 2017

source:kingilmu