Rabu, 22 Maret 2023

Definition of Intelligence, Types, Factors Affecting Intelligence


1.1 Background Problem
Humans are the most perfect creatures among Allah's creatures on this earth. He gave creativity, taste and intention that allows humans to do more than their small brains. The power of thinking is what is often referred to as intelligence. Humans who have high intelligence, of course they are superior to humans who have low intelligence. Intelligence is an innate ability, not a sudden appearance. That allows someone to do something in a certain way. Intelligence can also be understood as a general ability to make adjustments to a situation or problem.
1.2 Problem Formulation
So that the discussion in this paper does not run away from the subtitles, it is better if the author formulates the problems to be discussed, including:
a. The definition of intelligence
b. All kinds of intelligence
c. Factors that affect intelligence
d. Intelligence matters.

1.3 Purpose of Writing
The purpose of the authors of writing this paper include:
a. To complete the assignment of general psychology papers;
b. Students understand the meaning of intelligence;
c. Students understand various intelligences;
d. Students are able to classify the factors that influence intelligence;
e. Students are able to classify things related to intelligence;

2.1 Definition of Intelligence
The concept of intelligence generates controversy and heated debate, often as a reaction against the idea that everyone has a general mental capacity that can be measured and quantified in numbers. [1]Intelligence is a popular term. Almost everyone is familiar with the term, even put forward it. Often we hear someone say that person A is classified as smart or intelligent (intelligent) and person B is classified as stupid or less intelligent (not intelligent). The term intelligence has long existed and developed in society since the time of Cicero, which was about two thousand years ago and is one of the natural aspects of a person. Intelligence is not an original word that comes from Indonesian. The word intelligence is a word that comes from the Latin word "intelligence". While the word "intelligence" itself comes from the words inter and lego, inter which means between, while lego means to choose.
According to W. Stem in Abu Ahmadidan Widodo Supriyono, intelligence is a mental power to be able to adapt quickly and precisely in a new situation. [2] According to David Wechsler, intelligence is the ability to act purposefully, think rationally, and deal with the environment effectively. Broadly speaking, it can be concluded that intelligence is a mental ability that involves a process of thinking rationally. Therefore, intelligence cannot be observed directly, but must be inferred from various concrete actions which are manifestations of that rational thinking process.
According to Wangmuba intelligence is a concept regarding the general ability of individuals to adapt to their environment. Within this general ability, there are very specific abilities. These specific abilities provide individuals with a condition that allows them to achieve certain knowledge, skills or skills after going through a training. This is what is called Talent or Aptitude. Because an intelligence test is not designed to reveal these special abilities, aptitude cannot be immediately identified by an intelligence test. K. Buhler said that intelligence is an act accompanied by understanding or understanding. David Wechster (1986). His definition of early intelligence is the capacity to understand expression and the will of the mind to overcome its challenges. But on another occasion he said that intelligence is the ability to act in a directed manner, think rationally and deal effectively with the environment.[3] Some experts say that intelligence is a skill to solve problems. [4]
Intelligence is an innate potential that is often associated with the success or failure of children learning at school. In other words, intelligence is considered a factor that determines the success or failure of a child at school. [5] Intelligence (Intelligence) is generally understood at two levels namely: intelligence as an ability to understand information that forms knowledge and awareness. Intelligence as the ability to process information so that the problems we face can be solved (problem solved) and thus knowledge will increase. Sternberg in Santrock says that in general intelligence is divided into 3 of them:
· Analytical Intelligence
Namely intelligence that is more likely to be in the process of objective assessment in a lesson in every lesson, always getting good grades in every test result. For example: an individual in the exam in each lesson always gets a score above the average.
· Creative Intelligence
Namely intelligence that is more inclined to unique traits, designing new things. For example: a student is instructed to write the word "TREE" by his teacher, but a creative individual's answer is to describe a tree.
· Practical Intelligence
Namely intelligence that focuses on the ability to use, apply, implement, and practice. For example: an individual gets a low score on a traditional IQ test, but quickly understands problems in real life, for example in practical learning in a laboratory, he will quickly understand because he is assisted by various equipment and media.
2.2 Types of Intelligence
There are several kinds of intelligence, including:
· Intelligence verbal skills
That is the ability to think in words and use language to express meaning. For example: a child has to think logically and abstractly to answer a number of questions about how things can be similar. An example of the question "What are the similarities between a lion and a tiger"? The direction of his profession tends to be: (writer, journalist, speaker).
· Mathematical skill intelligence
Namely the ability to carry out mathematical operations. Students with high logical mathematical intelligence show great interest in exploratory activities. They often ask about the various phenomena they see. They demand a logical explanation of every question. In addition, they also like to classify objects and like to count. The profession tends to be: (scientist, engineer, accountant)
Space Intelligence
That is the ability to think in three dimensions. Tend to think visually. They are rich in internal imagery, so they tend to be imaginative and creative. For example, a child has to arrange a series of blocks and color them to match the design shown by the examiner. Visual-motor coordination, perceptual organization and ability to visualize are assessed separately. Tend to be the profession of architects, artists, sailors.
· Musical ability intelligence
That is sensitivity to patterns of scales, songs, rhythms, and remember the notes. He can also transform words into songs, and create various musical games. They are good at singing the beat of the song properly and correctly. They are good at using musical vocabulary, and are sensitive to rhythm, beat, melody or sound color in a musical composition.

· Intelligence body kinesthetic skills
Namely the ability to manipulate objects and adept as physical exertion. Loves to move and touch. They have control of movement, balance, agility, and grace in movement. They explore the world with their muscles. Tend to be a surgeon, skilled artist, dancer by profession.
· Intelligence Intrapersonal Skills
That is the ability to understand oneself to effectively direct one's life. Have sensitivity to feelings in ongoing situations, understand yourself, and be able to control yourself in conflict. He also knows what can be done and what cannot be done in a social environment. They know who to turn to for help when they need it. Inclined by profession to be theologian, psychologist.
· Intelligence interpersonal skills
It is the ability to understand and effectively interact with other people. Smart in establishing social relationships, and able to know and use various ways when interacting. They are also able to feel the feelings, thoughts, behavior and expectations of others, and are able to cooperate with others.
· Intelligence naturalist skills
Namely the ability to observe patterns in nature and understand man-made and natural systems. Prominent great interest in the natural surroundings, including animals, at a very early age. They enjoy objects and stories related to natural phenomena, such as the formation of clouds and rain, the origin of animals, plant growth, and the solar system.
· Emotional intelligence
That is the ability to feel and express emotions accurately and adaptively (such as understanding the perspective of others).
The person who is credited with discovering the first intelligence test was a French doctor Alfred Binet and his assistant Simon. The test is known as the Binet-Simon test. This test series from Binet-Simon, was first announced between 1908-1911 which was given the name: "Chelle Matrique de l'inteligence" or intelligence measuring scale. The Binet-Simon test consists of a set of questions that have been grouped according to age (for children aged 3-15 years). The questions were deliberately made about everything that was not related to lessons at school. Like repeating a sentence, it is with this kind of test that a person's age is measured or determined. From the test results it turns out that it is not certain that the intelligence age is the same as the actual age (calendar age).
Today the development of the test is so advanced that now there are hundreds of kinds of tests, both in the form of verbal and nonverbal tests. Also in our country it has begun to be used a lot, in the field of education as well as in selecting certain positions. IQ classifications include:
· Genius 140 and above
· Very Smart 130-139
· Bristles (top) 120-129
· Above average 110-119
· Average 90-109
· Below average 80-89
· Boundary 70-79
· Moron 50-69
· Imbisil, Idiot 49 and below
2.3 Factors Affecting Intelligence
As we know that every individual has a different level of intelligence. The difference in intelligence is influenced by the following factors:
a. The influence of hereditary factors
Many studies have shown that individuals who come from a family, or are related, scores on their IQ tests are highly correlated (+ 0.50 ) to twins (+ 0.90 ) who are not related (+ 0.20 ) , the correlation between adopted children and their adoptive parents (+ 0.10 – +0.20 ). [6]
b. Influence of environmental factors
Child development is strongly influenced by the nutrition consumed. Therefore there is a relationship between providing nutritious food with one's intelligence. Providing nutritious food is one of the most important environmental influences besides the teacher, cognitive-emotional stimuli from the environment also play a very important role, such as education, training in various skills, and others (especially during sensitive times). . There are several environments that influence intelligence, including:
· Family environment;
· Educational experience;
c. Stability of intelligence and IQ
Intelligence is not IQ. Intelligence is a general concept of individual ability, while IQ is only the result of an intelligence test (which incidentally only measures intelligence as a group). Intelligence stability depends on the organic development of the brain.
d. Effect of maturity factor
Every organ in the human body experiences growth and development. Each organ (physical and psychological) can be said to be mature if it has achieved the ability to carry out its functions (closely related to age).
e. Effect of forming factors
Formation is all circumstances outside of a person that affect the development of intelligence. We can distinguish intentional formation (such as at school) and accidental formation (the influence of the natural environment).
f. Distinctive interests and traits
Interest directs action towards a goal and is the impetus for that action. In humans there are impulses (motives) that encourage humans to interact with the outside world. What interests a person pushes him to do more and better.
g. Freedom
Freedom means that humans can choose certain methods in solving problems. Humans have the freedom to choose methods, also free to choose problems according to their needs.
All of the above factors are related to one another. To determine whether someone is intelligent or not, we cannot only be guided by one of these factors, because intelligence is a total factor. The whole person participates in determining the actions of one's intelligence.

2.4 Some things related to Intelligence
There are several things that need to be considered in intelligence problems, including:
a. Intelligence With Talent
Intelligence is a concept regarding the general ability of individuals to adapt to the environment. Within this general ability are very specific abilities. This ability provides the individual with a condition that allows the achievement of certain knowledge, skills or skills after going through a training. This is what is called talent or aptitude. Because an intelligence test is not specifically designed to reveal these special abilities, aptitude is not immediately recognized by an intelligence test. Likewise, because environmental stimuli are unconsciously always directed at these special abilities, talents do not always manifest themselves.
The tool used to reveal this special ability is called an aptitude test or aptitude test. Because of its special nature, this test is specifically designed to reveal very specific abilities.
b. Intelligence and Creativity
Creativity is one of the characteristics of intelligent behavior because creativity is also a manifestation of a cognitive process, however, the relationship between creativity and intelligence does not always show harmony. Although there is an assumption that creativity has a linear curve relationship with intelligence, the evidence obtained from various studies does not support this opinion. A low IQ score is indeed followed by a low level of creativity, but a higher IQ score is not always followed by a high level of creativity. Up to a certain IQ score, there can still be a significant correlation.
The above problems raise many questions why this happens. One of the answers was given by JP Guilfrod. He explained that creativity is a thought process that is divergent, namely the ability to provide alternative answers based on the information provided. In contrast, intelligence tests are only designed to measure convergent thinking processes, namely the ability to provide a logical answer or conclusion based on the information provided.

c. Intelligence relationship with life
Indeed intelligence / intelligence of a person plays an important role in his life. However, life is very complex, intelligence is not the only factor that determines the success or failure of one's life. There are many other factors, such as health factors and the presence or absence of opportunities. People who are sickly even though their intelligence is high can fail in their efforts to develop themselves in their life. Likewise, even if you are smart, if you don't have the opportunity to develop yourself, you can fail too.
Also the character (personal) of a person is very influential and determines. Many of the people who actually have a fairly high intelligence, but do not get progress in life. This is caused/because of, for example, the lack of ability to get along with other people in society, or the lack of high ideals, so there is no/lack of effort to achieve them.
On the other hand, there is also someone who actually has moderate intelligence, can be more advanced and get a more decent life thanks to his perseverance and tenacity and there are not many factors that interfere or hinder him. However, low intelligence also hinders a person's efforts to progress and develop, even though the person is tenacious and persistent in his efforts. As a conclusion we can say: Intelligence or intelligence of a person gives the possibility to move and develop in certain areas of his life. How far this possibility can be realized depends also on personal will and opportunities. It is clear now that there is no consistent correlation between the level of intelligence and the level of one's life.


3.1 Conclusion
In the discussion of intelligence, it must really be understood carefully so that we can all know what intelligence is. What's more important is that we must understand in detail the division of intelligence/level of intelligence, by understanding the level of intelligence we can know that there is intelligence within us that we never realize even though in schools we never get a rank, people always assume that an intelligent person is a person who can rank in class and who can answer exam questions, but a person who is able to decorate or play music is not considered intelligent. From that, it is very necessary for us to understand intelligence and levels of intelligence so that there is no misunderstanding in interpreting intelligence itself.
Intelligence also has a relationship and difference with talent and creativity, but what we need to know, talent and creativity are the results obtained from intelligence itself.

3.2 Criticism & Suggestions
Based on the reality on the ground, we can find some teachers who still pay little attention to developing the intelligence of their students, therefore we as prospective future educators must prepare early on teaching plans that refer to intelligence development so that the creativity of students experiences future progress.
From the results of our short paper, hopefully it can be useful for all of us, in general, we personally. And all that is good comes from Allah, and all that is bad comes from me. The authors are aware that this paper is far from perfect, there are still many errors from various sides, so we expect constructive suggestions and criticisms, for the improvement of further scientific work.

John, W. Santrock, Educational Psychology, Jakarta: Kencana, 2011
Abu Ahmadi & Widodo Supriyono, Learning Psychology, Jakarta: Rineka Cipta, 1991
Syaiful Bahri Djamarah, Learning Psychology, Jakarta: Rineka Cipta, 2011
Fauziah Nasution, General Psychology, Tarbiyah Faculty: IAIN SU, 2011
http://yogieaffandi.blogspot.com/2011/09/pengertian-intelegensi.html, 11-17-2012

[1] John, W. Santrock, Educational Psychology, Jakarta: Kencana, 2011, print-4, page: 134
[2] Abu Ahmadi & Widodo Supriyono, Learning Psychology, Jakarta: Rineka Cipta, 1991, page: 32
[4] John, W. Santrock, Educational Psychology, Jakarta: Kencana, 2011, print-4, page: 134
[5] Syaiful Bahri Djamarah, Learning Psychology, Jakarta: Rineka Cipta, 2011, page: 135
[6] Fauziah Nasution, General Psychology, Tarbiyah Faculty: IAIN SU, 2011, page: 47-48

source; Rudi

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