Rabu, 22 Maret 2023


A. Background
It doesn't feel like it's been a long time since we became Muslims. We should be grateful for this great blessing, because it is this pleasure that will determine our happiness and misery on the last day. In this paper, we as speakers do not want to ask "since when did we convert to Islam" because the answer to this question is not the most basic. But the most important question we have to ponder is "to what extent have we understood and practiced our teachings?" This is the most important question that must be contemplated and answered, because the answer to this question will determine the quality of our Islam and piety.

B. Problem Formulation
From the description of the background of the problem above, in this paper we can formulate the problem formulation as follows:
1. What is the meaning of the creed?
2. What are the main beliefs and branch beliefs in Islam?

C. Purpose of Writing
From the description of the background of the problem above, in this paper we can conclude the purpose of the problem as follows:
1. To fulfill the task of the Islamic faith course.
2. To increase knowledge and understanding of the subject of theology of theology .
3. To understand the principal and branch aqidahs.


A. Definition of Aqidah
Etymologically, belief comes from the word 'aqada- ya'qidu- 'uqdatan- 'aqidatan. It means knot, bond or agreement. So aqeedah is a strong belief in the heart that is binding and contains an agreement. Scholars define aqeedah as " something to which the heart and conscience are bound." In the Al-Qur'an, the word "Aqidah " ​​is interpreted as: "O you who believe, fulfill those covenants" While in terms of terminology, Aqidah is a principle or basis of belief that must be firmly held by those who believe in it. and in this regard Allah SWT has explained through His Word in Surah Al-Ikhas verses one and two. Which means" Say He is Allah, the One and Only. Allah is the Lord on whom everything depends.” QS Al-Ikhlas ([112]: 1-2)
In surah Al-Ikhlas verses one and two above it has been announced or explained that, we are commanded to believe that there is no God but Allah SWT, and that there is only one God who should be worshiped by all mankind and for the people of the Prophet Muhammad in particular. And Allah is also a god who stands alone, who does not depend on anything. He is the Almighty God, who created the heavens and the earth, there is no God other than Allah SWT, that we have ever known, such as the God of the sun, the god of statues or idols, the god of wood on a big tree that is revered for its sanctity.
The Islamic creed is faith in Allah, His angels, His books, His messengers and the last day also on making up the good and bad decisions from Allah SWT. And this is what is called the main aqida-aqida in Islamic religious teachings. This faith itself means a certain justification, which is in accordance with the facts that arise from the arguments and evidence. It must mean one hundred percent truth or legitimacy without the slightest doubt. In accordance with the facts, it means that what is believed is true, not fabricated (eg the existence of Allah, the truth of the Qur'an, etc.). Emerging from a proposition means that the faith has certain arguments/arguments. Without evidence, there is no definite justification.
An argument for matters of faith, is sometimes 'aqli and or naqli , depending on the matter in which one believes. If the matter is still within the reach of the five senses, then the argument for faith is 'aqli , but if it is beyond the reach of the five senses then it is based on the argument naqli . It's just that it needs to be remembered that determining the source of an naqli argument is also determined by the 'aqli way. That is, the determination of sources of naqli arguments is carried out through investigations to determine which ones may and may not be used as sources of naqli arguments. Therefore, all the arguments about faith are basically based on the 'aqliyah method.
And in this case , according to Hasan Al-Banna, aqa'id (jama' aqidah) are some matters whose truth must be believed by the heart, bringing peace to the soul, being a belief that is not mixed with doubt in the slightest. And according to Abu Bakr Jabir Al-Jazairy , aqidah is a number of truths that can be generally accepted by humans, both intellectually and fitroh. The truth is engraved by humans in the heart and is believed to be authentic and its existence is certain.

v According to Imam Safi'I said:
Know that the first obligation for a mukallaf is to think and find arguments for enlightenment to Allah SWT. It means to think is to do reasoning and contemplation of the heart in the condition that the thinking person is asked to enlighten God. In such a way, he tends to reach the knowledge of unseen things from his observation with the senses and this is a necessity. This is an obligation in the field of ushuluddin. [1]

B. Core Beliefs
The creeds at the time of the Prophet could still be maintained, that is, there were main creeds and branch creeds, and in discussing the main creeds, namely the Pillars of Faith, they included:
a. Faith in God
When we claim to be Muslims and have said two sentences of shahadat or we are Muslims of Islamic descent. We must believe in God our Lord. He is the real God, who created all things and He is the one who is certain. He is the first without beginning and the last without end. There is nothing like Him. The One about His divinity, His attributes and His actions. The one who lives and definitely exists and creates everything that exists. Who Hears And Sees. And He has power over all things. It's about when He wants something He says: "be"! then be that thing. And He knows everything they do. Who speaks and has all the qualities of perfection. The pure from the nature of impossibility and all deficiencies. It is He who made everything according to His will and will. Everything is in His hands and to Him will return. But need tonote that God does not tell us to talk about things that reason cannot reach in matters of belief.
Because the human mind cannot reach the understanding of God's Essence and its relationship with the attributes that exist in Him. So don't talk about it. There is no doubt about it. " Do people doubt about Allah.? Who created the heavens and the earth”? (QS Ibrahim: 10). Indeed, the Qur'an has closed the door of thought in talking about things that cannot be reached by reason with its signature that reads: "there is nothing similar to Him". (QS Shura: 11). He has also explained that the power of reason is limited and that he covers all humans, in His Word " He knows everything that is in front of them and behind them while their knowledge cannot fathom it". (QS Thaha: 110).For believers, it is sufficient if they think of all His creatures, in order to prove His existence, power and wisdom.

a. Faith in God's Angels
We must believe that God has angels with wings, some are two, some are three and some are four. And they are glorified servants who never oppose God's command and they always do what is commanded. They do not eat or drink. Unmarried and sleeping, and all the time without ceasing they sanctify God. And each of them has a specific position or task. There are those who carry the Throne of God, there are those who are messengers like Jibreel and Michael, and there are those who observe and record (human deeds), as God has confirmed in the Qur'an.. "Indeed, the Al-Qur'an is truly the word of God brought by a noble messenger (Jibril), who has power, who has a high position in the sight of God, the owner of the throne, who is obeyed there (angelic realm) and believed (QS at-Takwir: 19-21)" We cannot describe angels except with what is applied by syar'a'/stipulations. But it should also be noted that by God we are not required to know the nature of angels, we are only commanded to believe in their existence. As for the prophets, they have seen him in human form or others. About this the news has been mutawatir (convincing) but we cannot describe about angels, except with the level of evidence from the Prophet SAW. Which reaches us with convincing news."And no one knows the nature of your Lord's army (angels) except Him" ​​(QS muddtstsir: 31)

b. Faith in the books of God
We must believe that Allah has revealed several books to His Messengers to improve people about their worldly and religious affairs. As has been shown in the words of Allah SWT. " this book of the Qur'an there is no doubt about it; guidance for those who fear (QSal-Baqarah: 2)" Among those books, are the Psalms to Prophet David, the Torah to Prophet Moses, the Injil to Prophet Jesus and the Qur'an to Prophet Muhammad which is the closing of all the Prophets hello And that the Qur'an is the word of God and the last book that was revealed, which contains what is not contained in the others, regarding the Shari'a, noble character and the perfection of the law. We must believe in the things brought by the Prophet, may God bless him and grant him peace. And what we must believe is only what is firm, without adding to the evidence that is firm. With evidence based on consideration, (estimate), because the word of God : "Indeed, that estimate is not useful in the least to reach the truth" (QS. Yunus: 36).As for the true condition of belief, in this case there should be nothing that diminishes God's Majesty and Perfection, by equating him with creatures. So that if there are sentences that have the first impression, leading to such a meaning, even if it is based on mutawir (convincing) news, then it is obligatory for people to ignore the written meaning and leave the interpretation of the true meaning to God with the belief that the first impression on the mind is not the intended, or with representations based on acceptable reasons. And as Muslims, we should be grateful because of the other books of God, only the Qur'an is guarded or preserved by Allah SWT. as has been explained in the Qur'an itself which means“Verily, it is we who sent down the Qur'an and indeed, we really care for it. (QS al-Hijr: 9)”

c. Faith in the Messengers of God
We must believe that Allah, the All-Wise, has sent the Apostles to guide mankind to the straight path. They are heralds of glad tidings and warnings, so that for mankind there is nothing. Reason or argue against Allah after the sending of the Apostles. The Apostles were humans like us: eating, drinking and going to the market, who had been chosen by God, to be his messengers and made them special by being given revelations. They are people who are honest, trusted in conveying their duties and intelligent, can understand and understand. They are human beings who experience what other people usually experience while not reducing their honor in their noble dignity. Among the Apostles whose names are mentioned in the Quran are: Adam, Idris, Nuh, Hud, Salih, Ibrahim, Isma'il, Ishaq, Ya'qub, Yusuf, Luth, Ayyub, Syu'aib, Musa, Harun, Dzulkifli, Daud, Sulaiman, Ilyas, Ilyasa, Yunus, Zakariyah, Yahya, Isa and Muhammad 'alaihimus-salatu wassalam. As Allah SWT has explained in His word,"Muhammad is nothing but a messenger; Indeed, several messengers have passed before (QS Ali Imran: 144)" And there are messengers who did not and there are messengers whom God did not announce to us. There is no ummah before the arrival of the prophet. A Muslim is a believer and believes that Allah SWT has chosen among mankind. Allah SWT has sent prophets and messengers to bring good news to mankind about the eternal enjoyment that has been prepared for those who believe and who has warned those who have committed polytheism (disbelief). They also set good and noble examples and behavior for people, among others in the form of true worship, commendable morals and istiqomah (holding fast) to the teachings of Allah SWT.
And Allah has strengthened them with several proofs and all kinds of miracles which are . assigning and subduing their opponents and the sign of their truth against those who deny for example what is mentioned in the Qur'an: who did not burn the prophet Abraham, the staff of the prophet Moses who turned into a snake. Prophet Isa revived the dead. And the Qur'an was sent down to the prophet Muhammad SAW and so on in several verses and all of that must be believed.

d. Faith In Doomsday
"If the earth is shaken with its (terrible) shaking and the earth has released its heavy burdens (which it contains), and people ask, 'why is the earth like this.? On that day the earth told its news, because indeed your Lord had commanded (such a thing) to it. (QS al-Zalzalah: 1-5)”
As a pious Muslim, it is obligatory for us to believe and believe in the coming of the Day of Judgment, which is the day when the end of this world, because this is one of the important points to strengthen our faith in Allah SWT. As in the hadith of Rasulullah SAW, said in sahih Muslim , "when Gabriel asked Rasulullah SAW about faith, Rasulullah SAW replied, "You should believe in Allah, His Angels, His Books, His Apostles, also the Day of Resurrection. You should believe in good and bad Qadar (from Allah)” (HR Muslim) was told by Rasulullah SAW with the story of mutawatir about the resurrection from the grave, the gathering in the mahsyar field, the inspection and the day of retribution. So God decides about people's actions and then there are those who enter hell forever and never come out of it, namely the infidels and polytheists and there are those who enter and then come out of hell, namely the believers who commit sins. And there are those who enter heaven and are eternal, namely the true believers. As for the time and signs, only Allah SWT knows when the last day will occur. As Allah SWT has said in the Qur'an. Which means:"They ask you about the Day of Resurrection, "When will it happen?" say, "indeed the knowledge of the end is with my Lord. No one can explain the time of his arrival except Him. The apocalypse is very heavy (chaos for the creatures) in the heavens and on the earth. The apocalypse will not come to you except suddenly" they asked you as if you really knew it. Say, "indeed the knowledge of the Day of Judgment is with God but most people do not know it." (QS al-A'raf: 187)"

e. Faith in Qada and Qadar
"When Jibril asked the Messenger of Allah about faith, the Messenger of Allah replied, "You should believe in Allah, His Angels, His Books, His Messengers, as well as the Day of Judgment. You should believe in good and bad Qadar (from Allah)” (HR Muslim)”
As Muslims, it is our duty to believe that God is the one who created everything and He is the one who commands and forbids, and God's command is a predetermined certainty. And that God has determined everything before He created all events and arranged everything that exists with His knowledge, provisions, wisdom and will. As for everything that humans do, it is all based on their Qadla' and Qadar. While humans themselves can only strive. As the word of God has been revealed in the Qur'an which means: "Indeed God will not change the fate of a people until the people themselves change what is in them. (QS ar-Ra'du: 11)"Thus, all provisions are from God and effort is part of man. Human actions viewed from the side of their power are called the results of their own efforts. But judging from the perspective of God's power, human actions are God's creation. Humans can only process the part that God bestowed on him in the form of sustenance and others.

B. Aqidah Branch
After the end of the leadership of the caliph Umar bin Khattab, the Muslim community began to split. Then a problem arose which led to the assassination of the caliph Ustman bin Affan (345-656 AD) by rebels who were mostly from Egypt who were dissatisfied with his political policies.
Initially this event was only a political issue which eventually developed into a theological issue giving birth to various schools with different theologies and views. At this time, Muslims were no longer able to maintain the unity and integrity of their creed, because each tried to open creed issues that were previously locked.
Then the branches of aqidah were born whose understanding varies from each aspect of the pillars of faith, including:

a. God problem
In the matter of God's substance, there is an opinion that describes God with the characteristics of a physical or physical form. Meanwhile, in the matter of the nature of God, the question also arises, whether God has attributes or not. In this case, there are 2 groups with different opinions:
· First : the Mu'tazilah think that God has no attributes. He is One, clean of things that make him not One. They monopolize God by emptying God of various attributes.
· Second: The Ahlussunnah Wal Jama'ah group represented by the Ay'ariyah and Maturidiyah groups believe that God has perfect attributes and there is no one equal to Him. Describing God with the attributes of perfection will not diminish His Oneness.

b. The Problem of the Books
The problem that is disputed among Muslims is whether the Qur'an is Qadim (eternal) or Hadith (new). The Ash'ariyah and Maturidiyah groups argue that the Qur'an is ancient, not created. While other opinions say that the Qur'an is not ancient because the Qur'an is a creature (created).
c. The problem of Prophets and Messengers
The issue that is still disputed in relation to faith in the Prophets and Messengers is regarding the number. Only Allah knows the number. Some scholars' say that the total number is 124,000 people. Of that number, 313 people were appointed as Apostles.

d. The Doomsday Problem
The scholars' have agreed on the issue of the Day of Judgment and the things that happen therein, it's just that they are indifferent about what will be resurrected. Some argue that those who will be resurrected include the body and spirit, and the second opinion says that only the spirit will be resurrected.

e. Fate Matters
In the matter of destiny, Muslims agree on the need to believe in the existence of God's provisions that apply to all creatures in this universe. But different in understanding and practicing it.
First : Qadariyah argues that all human actions, both good and bad, are all determined by the man himself. God has nothing to do with this because God has surrendered his nature to man. Allah will reward those who have done good, because he has used the nature that Allah has given him in a good way. And for those who do evil, Allah will punish them because the nature given is used for bad ways.
· Second : the Jabariyyah have an I'tigod that is the opposite of the Qodariya's I'tigod. Jabariyyah believes that humans have no power because everything has been determined by God. Humans have no business, no efforts because everything is determined by God. Jabariyyah's opinion is considered deviant by the Ahlussunnah Waljama'ah group. It is true that all of this is determined by God, but God has also created human efforts and efforts. Therefore, humans have the obligation to strive.
· Third : actually I'tiqod Ahlussunnah Waljama'ah is a combination of I'tiqod Jabriyyah and Qodariyah, meaning that everything in nature has been determined by Allah, but humans are given the authority to make an endeavor first. As the word of God which has been described in the Qur'an which means: "Verily, Allah will not change the fate of a people until the people themselves change what is in themselves. (QS ar-Ra'du: 11)”.

A. Conclusion
From the presentation of the paper above, we can conclude as follows:
1. Aqidah is a principal or basic belief that must be firmly held by those who believe in it. According to Hasan al-Banna aqa'id (jama' aqidah) are some things that must be believed to be true by the heart, bring peace to the soul, become a belief that is not mixed with doubt in the slightest.
2. The main creed is the creed of Muslims that is still preserved and still pure as taught by the Prophet SAW which is included in the Arkanul Iman.
3. The division of the Muslim community began to occur after the end of the leadership of the caliph Umar bin Khattab. Then a problem arose which led to the assassination of the caliph Ustman bin Affan (345-656 AD) by rebels who were mostly from Egypt who were dissatisfied with his political policies. Initially this event was only a political issue which eventually developed into a theological issue giving birth to various schools with different theologies and views. At this time, Muslims were no longer able to maintain the unity and integrity of their creed, because each tried to open creed issues that were previously locked. Thus, the branches of aqidah were born whose understanding varies from each aspect of the pillars of faith.

B. Suggestion
We are fully aware that in the preparation of this paper there are still far from perfection and there are many shortcomings, both in terms of grammar and in terms of consolidating lecturers and friends who sometimes only follow personal egoism, for that we really hope that there is criticism and constructive suggestions to further refine our papers at a later time.

1 . The science of Ushuluddin "Usul": principal, foundation, principle, creed, regulations. "Aiddiin": Usuluddin religion is the principles or foundations of religion. The science of monotheism can also be said to be the science of ushuluddin because it outlines the main points of belief in the Islamic religion.
2. Mukallaf is a person who is sane and has reached puberty / is fifteen years old or has secreted white blood (semen) even though he is dreaming for men. And for women when they are nine years old, they have had menstrual blood or have passed water semen, either by way of sexual intercourse between husband and wife or by way of dreaming. That person is affected by Allah's commands and stays away from His prohibitions.


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Fishdar, Arief B. (ed.) . 2012 . Basic Matei Islam, Islam starts from the roots. Bogor: Al Azhar Press
Muhammadiyah, Central Executive. ISBN. 2009 . Tarjih Decision Association, Muhammadiyah Central Executive. Djogjakarta: Gramasurya

source: iandora

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