Islamic Perspectives on Empiricism, Nativism, and Convergence
In Developmental Psychology Course
ILPI ZUKDI. M.Pd
FACULTY OF ISLAMIC RELIGION (FAI)
MUHAMMADIYAH UNIVERSITY OF WEST SUMATERA (UMSB)
Islamic Perspectives on Empiricism, Nativism, and Convergence
The starting point for the differences between each school (nativism, empiricism, and convergence) lies in the factors that influence human development. Is human development determined by innate factors (nativism) or by educational and environmental factors (empiricism), or both influence each other (convergence).
In this matter, Islam as a comprehensive religion has a view that is different from nativism, empiricism, and convergence. Islam displays the theory of fitrah (positive potential) as the basis for human development. Basic conceptualization of course refers to the Qur'an and Hadith.
Allah SWT says in Surat Ar-Rum: 30,
"Turn your face straight to the religion of God. Set it on the nature of God who has created man according to his nature. There is no change in God's nature. That is the straight religion, but most people do not know" (QS. Ar-Rum: 30).
While in one of the hadiths of the Prophet it is stated that every child is born in a state of fitrah (potential to believe - monotheism in Allah and in good). It was his parents who made the child a Jew, Christian or Zoroastrian.
The meaning contained in the verses and hadiths above is that every human being is basically good, has nature, and also his soul from birth is not empty like a white paper (which is likened by John Locke in his tabularasa theory) but contains purity and basic good qualities. . Word of Allah SWT in the letter Al-A'raf: 172,
"And (remember), when your Lord brought out the children of Adam from their sulbi, and Allah SWT took witness against their souls (while saying):" Am I not your Lord? bear witness (we do so ) so that on the Day of Resurrection you will not say: verily, we (Bani Adam) are the ones who are heedless of this (oneness of God)".
Thus the Islamic view of child development is totally different from the concept of child development according to nativism, empiricism, and convergence.
Fitrah is a virtue given by God to humans who become educable human potential.
This potential is complex which consists of: spirit (spirit), qalb (heart), 'aql (mind), and nafs (soul). These potentials are spiritual or mental - psychic. In addition, humans are also equipped with physical-sensual potential in the form of a set of sensory organs that function as instruments to understand the external world and various events that occur in their environment. Thus fitrah is a basic human concept that plays a role in shaping the development of students in addition to the environment (education).
This potential nature must be developed factually and actually. To carry out these efforts, Islam provides its basic principles in the form of Islamic values so that the growth of human potential is guided and directed. It is in this process that the educational factor plays a very large role and even determines the shape of a person's personality. It seems that this is what made the Prophet Muhammad oblige his people to seek knowledge.
Based on this conceptualization, education is expected to function as a vehicle for developing the potential of students according to their nature. Thus it is clear that Islam recognizes the role of basic human factors (nature) and educational factors in child development. It's just that the Islamic concept of human nature and the educational process required is different from the views of the schools above. The nature or potential (monotheism, goodness, truth, and humanity) of students with the help of educators will develop dynamically. If his personality and paradigm have been formed then he will carry out an independent process towards perfection himself towards the pleasure of Allah, a position that is always sought by all Muslims.
II. Islamic Perspective Against Nativism
The nature mentioned in Surah Ar-Rum : 30, and Surah Al-A'raf : 172, contains educational implications that in humans there is a basic potential for true and straight religion (al-din al-qayyim), namely Islam. This basic potential cannot be changed by anyone or any environment, because nature is a creation of Allah which will not experience changes in both content and form in every human person.
Based on this interpretation, Islamic education "can be conditioned" to understand nativism, namely an ideology which states that human development in life is absolutely determined by its basic potential.
A saying of the Prophet SAW which can be used as a source of views of nativism as mentioned above is as follows:
Meaning: "Every person is born to his mother on the basis of fitrah (basic potential for religion), then after that his parents educate him to be a Jew, and Christian, and Zoroastrian; if both parents are Muslim, then the child will become a Muslim (too)”. (Muslim HR in the book Sahih, Juz. II, p. 459).
III. Islamic Perspective Against Empiricism
The Word of Allah in Surah An-Nahl 78,
"And Allah brought you out of the wombs of your mothers without you knowing anything and He made for you hearing, sight, and hearts . " (An-Nahl 78).
God's Word above is an indication that we must make educational efforts, because with the potential of hearing, sight, and heart, humans can be educated.
In Surah Al-'Alaq: 3 – 4 stated by Allah as follows:
Meaning: “Read, and your Lord is the Most Glorious who teaches you with a pen; he teaches man with something that he does not know.
The verse also shows that without going through learning, humans will surely not know everything he needs for his survival in this world and the hereafter. Human knowledge will develop if it is obtained through a teaching and learning process that begins with the ability to write with a pen and read in a broad sense, that is, not only by reading the text but also by reading everything that is implied in God's creation. Nature as a carrier factor since human birth can be influenced by the external environment, in fact it will not be able to develop at all if there is no influence from that environment. While the environment itself can also be changed if it is not favorable (unpleasant because it is not in accordance with human ideals). From the interpretation of nature above, it can be concluded that even though nature can be influenced by the environment, the condition of nature is not neutral towards outside influences. The potential contained therein dynamically holds a reaction or response (answer) to that influence.
If we believe in John Lock's notion as the postulate that a child's soul from birth is in a pure state like a table of candles (tabula rasa) which passively accepts influences from the external environment, it means that we do not appreciate the potential human seeds that can be developed through influence. education. Such an attitude will lead our minds towards the notion of empiricism in education, namely the understanding that views the influence of the external environment, including education, as the only shaper and determinant of the development of human life.
IV. Islamic Perspective on Convergence Flow
The conception of the Qur'an which shows that every human being is given a tendency to desire to make him a disbeliever who denies His Lord, is the word of Allah in Surah Asy-Shams, 7 – 10 as follows:
Meaning: “By the soul and what perfects it; then inspired to him by Allah the wrong way and the right way. Truly lucky is the one who cleanses his soul, and indeed loses the one who pollutes it . "
This word can be used as a source of view that efforts to influence the human soul through education can play a positive role in directing its development towards the path of truth, namely Islam. Without going through educational efforts, humans will fall into the wrong path or go astray, namely becoming infidels.
On the basis of the verse above, we can interpret that in His nature, humans are given the ability to choose the right path. This ability to choose, gets direction in the educational process that influences it.
It is clear that the factor of the ability to choose which is contained in human nature (nature) is centered on the ability to think rationally (common sense), because common sense is able to distinguish between right and wrong things. Meanwhile, someone who makes the right choice is only a person who is well educated. Thus thinking right and healthy is a natural ability that can be developed through education and training.
In line with this interpretation, we can say that the intentional influence of environmental factors, namely education and training, processes interactively with human natural abilities. In this sense, Islamic education processes convergence, which can lead to the understanding of convergence in Islamic education.