Rabu, 22 Maret 2023

Scope of Islamic Religious Education, Read This


A. Education Curriculum
The educational curriculum is one of the most decisive components in an education system, because of that the curriculum is a tool to achieve educational goals as well as a guide in the implementation of teaching at all types and levels of education.
The educational goals of a country are determined by the philosophy and outlook on life of the nation and the country itself. Different philosophies and outlooks on life of a country have different educational goals and will simultaneously affect the country.

The characteristics of the curriculum according to Langgulung (1986):
1. Educational goals to be achieved by the curriculum.
2. Data science knowledge , activities, and experiences from which the curriculum is formed.
3. The methods and ways of teaching and guidance followed by students will push them in the desired direction and the goals that are designed.
4. The methods and methods of assessment used in measuring and assessing the results of the educational process designed in the curriculum.

The details above show the main contents of the curriculum, namely educational goals, materials provided, teaching methods, and assessment methods.
The educational goals to be achieved by the curriculum in Islamic education are in line with the philosophical goals of Islamic education and are also the same as the educational goals; namely to form noble morals in relation to the goal of human creation, namely service to Allah SWT.

B. Education Curriculum Concept
In Arabic, the word curriculum is often expressed by manhaj which means the bright path that humans go through in various fields of life. Meanwhile, the meaning of "manhaj" curriculum in Islamic education as contained in the al-tarbiyah dictionary is a set of media plans that are used as a reference. by educational institutions in realizing educational goals.
Definition of curriculum according to experts:
a. Prof. HMArifin (1991)
He said curriculum as all teaching materials that must be presented in the educational process in an educational institutional system.
b. Zakiah Darajat (1992)
He views the curriculum as a program that is planned in the field of education and implemented to achieve certain goals.
c. Dr. addamardasy sarhan and dr. Munir Kamil cited by al-syaibani (1979)
The curriculum is the number of educational, cultural, social, sports, artistic experiences provided by the school to its students inside and outside of school with the intention of helping them develop holistically in all aspects and changing their behavior in accordance with educational goals.

The meaning of the curriculum according to its function:
1) Curriculum as a study program.
2) Curriculum as content.
3) Curriculum as planned activities.
4) Curriculum as learning outcomes.
5) Curriculum as a cultural reproduction.
6) Curriculum as learning outcomes.
7) Curriculum as production.

From this division, it can be concluded that the meaning of the activity curriculum includes various teaching and learning strategy plans, program arrangements so that they can be implemented and matters that include activities aimed at achieving the desired goals.

Hasan Langgalung views that the curriculum has four main components namely;
a) The goals that education wants to achieve are more assertive, what kind of person do we want to form with the curriculum.
b) Knowledge, information, data, activities, and experiences from which the curriculum is formed, this part is called subjects.
c) Methods and ways of teaching that are used by teachers to teach and motivate students to lead them in the desired direction of the curriculum.
d) The methods and methods of assessment used in measuring and assessing the curriculum and educational outcomes are planned for the curriculum.

C. Basic Islamic Education Curriculum

Herman h. horne provides the basis for the preparation of the curriculum with three kinds, namely:
1. Psychological basis, which is used to fulfill and know the abilities obtained from students' needs of students.
2. Sociological basis, used to find out the legitimate demands of society.
3. Physiological basis, which is used to determine the state of the universe in which we live.

Meanwhile, al-Syaibani offers the basics of the curriculum as follows:
a. Basic religion
In the sense that all existing systems in society, including education, must lay the basic philosophy, goals and curriculum on the basis of the Islamic religion in its aspects.
b. Basic philosophy
This basis provides guidance on the goals of Islamic education philosophically, so that the objectives of the content and organization of the curriculum contain a truth and outlook on life in the form of values ​​that are believed to be the truth, both in terms of ontology, epistemology, and axiology.
c. Psychological basis
This basis provides a foundation in the formulation of a curriculum that is in line with the characteristics of the psychological development of students.
d. Social basis
This basis provides an overview of the Islamic curriculum which is reflected in the social basis which contains the characteristics of Islamic society and its culture.

D. Principles of Islamic Education Curriculum

According to al-Syaibani the principles that must be a reference for the Islamic education curriculum are:
1. Oriented to Islam, including its teachings and values.
2. The overarching principle of curriculum objectives and content.
3. The principle of relative balance between objectives and curriculum contents.
4. The principles and interactions between the needs of students and society.
5. The principle of maintaining individual differences between students.
6. The principle of development and change in accordance with the demands of the father without ignoring absolute values.
7. The principle of linkage between subjects, experiences, and activities contained in the curriculum, as well as the link between curriculum content and student needs as well as community needs.

The principles of the curriculum offered by Zakiah Drajat (1994):
a. The principle of relevance: namely the suitability of education in the student's living environment, relevance to present and future life.
b. The principle of effectiveness: both student learning effectiveness and teacher teaching effectiveness.
c. The principle of flexibility: this means that there is a kind of space that gives a little freedom in action, both oriented in the flexibility of selecting educational programs and in the development of teaching programs.

E. Curriculum and Educational Objectives

The stages that are developed in general education end in national goals as general goals which are also limited by the philosophy of the state itself.
The general characteristics of the educational curriculum are that its use is limited according to place and time besides that it only provides a set of packages for human life in the world. to the almighty god.

F. Basic Framework for Compilation of Islamic Education Curriculum

Muhammad Fadhil al Jamali argued that the Qur'an is the largest book which is a source of educational philosophy and teaching for Muslims.
In the Qur'an and Hadith, a basic framework can be found that can be used as operational guidelines in the preparation of an Islamic education curriculum. These frameworks are monotheism and the command to read.

1. In accordance with the provisions of the Qur'an that the Islamic education curriculum is "monotheism" and must be established as a basic element that cannot be changed.
2. The next core curriculum is an order to read Allah's verses which include three kinds of verses, namely:
a. Allah's verses based on revelation.
b. God's verse that is in human beings.
c. Allah's verses found in the universe.
Reading is a connecting system tool which is an absolute requirement for the realization and sustainability of a social system. Therefore, as the basis of Islamic educational theory, the principles of the Qur'an are an inseparable part that integrates the subjects that make up a curriculum.

G. Classification of Science

Scholars of Islamic thought have provided many views about what humans as servants of Allah must know and learn. As a member of society and as a private creature with noble character.

A. Al Ghazali divided knowledge into various groups.
1. A little or a lot of despicable knowledge. This knowledge is of no benefit to humans either in this world or in the hereafter.
2. Knowledge that is commendable, a lot or a little, for example the science of monotheism or the science of religion.
3. Praiseworthy knowledge at a certain level that should not be studied because it will only shake faith and ihad.

In terms of knowledge groups, Al-Ghazali divides into 2 groups in terms of importance, namely:
a. The mandatory knowledge that all Muslims know is religious knowledge and knowledge that is sourced from God's holy book.
b. Knowledge which is fardu kifayah for every Muslim to learn.

Al Ghazaly proposed some knowledge that must be studied in schools as follows:
a. Knowledge of the Qur'an and religious knowledge such as the science of fiigh, hadith and interpretation.
b. A group of languages, nahwu and makhraj as well as lafads-lafads, because this knowledge works to help religious knowledge.
c. Fardu kifayah knowledge..
d. Cultural studies, such as interpretation, history, and several branches of philosophy.

B. Ibnu brothin divides knowledge into three kinds, namely:
1. Oral science.
2. Naqli science.
3. Aqli knowledge.
From the point of view of the interests of Ibn Brodlin, divide I,mu into:
a. Art of all kinds.
b. Philosophy such as natural sciences and divinity.
c. Knowledge of tools that help religious knowledge such as lughah, nahwu, and so on.
d. The science of tools that divides philosophical knowledge such as natig science.

C. Ibn Sina's opinion divides science into:
a. Nadhor i sciences (theoretical) and amali (practical) sciences which are classified as nadhori sciences are natural sciences, and riyadhi sciences (description or mathematics).
b. Divine knowledge (divine knowledge) is knowledge that contains knowledge about the nature of natural events and their content through clear and honest analysis so that it is known who the creator is.
As for the understanding of amali science (practical) is the science that discusses human behavior in terms of individual behavior. This science concerns the science of morality.

D. Dr. Abdurrahman shaleh Abdullah (1990) categorizes the knowledge that becomes the material for the Islamic education curriculum in three categories:
a. Subject matter associated with the Koran and Hadith, or commonly known as religious subject matter.
b. This second category in the field of science which is included in the contents of the Islamic education curriculum is natural science (al-ulum al-kauniyah), included in this category are physics, biology and astronomy and others.

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