POSITION OF THE QUR'AN IN ISLAMIC STUDY AND SCIENCE
A. Position of the Qur'an in Islamic studies
The Qur'an is the Word of God which was revealed to the Prophet Muhammad SAW gradually in Arabic which explains the laws, aqidah, advice and so on and became a miracle for the Prophet Muhammad SAW and became the guidance of the Ummah of the Prophet Muhammad SAW. So the contents of the Qur'an cover all kinds of issues, and can be discussed from various aspects. Al-Qur'an too can be seen in terms of its content which not only raises issues related to worship, but also includes issues of theology, social issues, issues of human existence and even issues related to meeting the needs of human life such as science and technology. Due to the position of the Al-Qur'an as the first source of Islamic teachings, all discussions regarding Islam, both concerning the teachings and those concerning the elements supporting the implementation of these teachings, all refer to the Al-Qur'an. For people who believe in the miracles of the Al-Qur'an, the Al-Qur'an will truly be a guide for them in the life of religion, society and state.
Al-Qur`an is the source of all sources of Islamic teachings. The holy book occupies a central position not only in the development and development of Islamic sciences, but is also an inspiration and guide the movements of Muslims of all time. The Qur'an is like a very wide ocean, deep and endless, full of wonders and uniqueness that will never disappear and be timeless and timeless. So to know and understand how deep the contents of the Qur'an are, interpretation is needed. Interpretation of the Qur'an has a very large and important role for the progress and development of Muslims. Therefore, the scholars pay great attention to exploring and understanding the meanings contained in this holy book. So that various interpretations were born with various styles and methods of interpretation as well, and in this interpretation it is clearly seen as a mirror of the development of the interpretation of the Qur'an and the style of thought of the interpreters themselves.
There are several methods used to interpret the verses of the Qur'an, among them is the Tafsir Al-Aqli Al-Ijtihadi method or better known as Tafsir bil al-ra'yi (tafsir based on thought). This interpretation is also called tafsir bi al-'aqli, tafsir bi al-dirayah (interpretation based on knowledge) or tafsir bi al-ma'qul. Tafsir bi al-ra'yi is often used by commentators to legitimize their sect according to the verses of the Qur'an and interpret the verses of the Qur'an according to their sect.
According to epistemology and the sociology of knowledge, the perception that a person has is a reflection of that reality, in fact it is a structured experience that is formed through a process that is influenced by a certain frame of mind that can be called "theory". People will see and give meaning to their experiences based on the "theory" in their head. The verses of the Qur'an can also be "data", even though it is in the form of text. So in interpreting the "data" people will also use theory as a frame of reference, if they are a conscious scholar. Those who are not scholars will use their structured experience in reading something. The same is true when reading the Qur'an.
The difficulty that a person experiences in understanding certain verses of the Qur'an is due to the difficulty in relating what he reads with the proven frame of reference from his experience. That is why, the mufasir recommends knowing the asbabun nuzul in reading a certain verse, because the information that will be obtained can help or replace their own experience as a frame of reference needed to understand a verse. However, one's own life experience is still necessary, because that experience, especially one that is broad and has a comparative dimension, will greatly help one understand the verses of the Qur'an. That is why, one's understanding of the verses of the Qur'an tends to deepen in line with increasing life experience. But this experience can also be replaced by theory, which is actually a "concentrate" and a lot of experience or intensive research carried out. If we examine more deeply the content of the Al-Qur'an which informs various aspects of life, such as religious, political, economic, socio-cultural and other aspects, really how complete the Al-Qur'an is as a source of Islamic teachings. Allah said: "Those whom We have given the Bible to him, they read it with the true reading, they believe in him". (Al-Baqarah: 121).
It is true that the Koran, both in pronunciation and meaning, is the word of God, which is a system from the sky for all creatures, especially humans. In addition, it is the main reference for religious matters and legal basis. The laws contained in it were not handed down all at once, but were handed down gradually during the apostolic period; some came down to strengthen and strengthen the stance of the Prophet sallallaahu 'alaihi wasallam, some came down to educate people who had just grown and some were handed down because of the daily events experienced by Muslims in different places and times. Every time there is an event, the corresponding verse of the Koran is revealed and explains Allah's law for that event. Among them are cases and events that occurred in Islamic society, during the legalization period,
Narrated by Imam Ahmad, from Abu Hurairah radhiyallahu 'anhu he said, Rasul shallallahu 'alaihi wasallam came to Madinah and found people drinking liquor, and eating from gambling. Then they asked the Messenger of Allah, may God bless him and grant him peace, about the problem, and Allah said:
"They asked you about drinking and gambling. Say: "In both of them there is a great sin and some benefit for man, but the sin of both is greater than the benefit". (Al-Baqarah: 219)
There is a theological view in Islam that the Qur'an shalihun li kulli Zaman wa Makan. Some Muslims view this belief as a doctrine of truth that is certain. As a result, there is a reactive response to every situation development that has occurred in the course of the history of human civilization. For example, with the statement that all knowledge that exists now and in the future is all contained in the Qur'an. As stated by al-Ghazali in Jawahir al-Qur'an.
This response is certainly not productive. Because if there is a new discovery based on the methodology of contemporary science which is contradictory to the Qur'an, a defensive response arises which often places the information in the text of the Qur'an on a mystical plane. There is a kind of theological coercion in order to save the authenticity of the Qur'an. In fact, this effort will position the Qur'an narrowly. The understanding of the Qur'an is only limited to the time and space when the Qur'an was revealed, or at least until the time of the classical scholars.
Therefore, more productive efforts are needed in order to maintain the theological views above. One of them is the development of contemporary interpretation by using a new methodology that is in accordance with the development of the social, cultural, scientific situation and the development of human civilization. The problem is how to formulate a method of exegesis that is capable of being a tool for interpreting the Qur'an in a good, dialectical, reformative, communicative manner and is able to respond to changes and developments in contemporary problems faced by mankind.
To achieve this goal, it is necessary to trace the history of the various efforts of the clergy in developing the principles of interpretation. The aim is to find out the work procedures of the commentators in interpreting the Qur'an so that these interpretations can be used functionally by the Islamic community in dealing with various life problems. These principles can then be used as a reference for contemporary Islamic thinkers to develop interpretation principles that are in accordance with the times.
But the rules of interpretation here do not act as a right-false justification tool for an interpretation of the Qur'an. These principles function more as methodological guardians so that the resulting interpretations are objective and scientific and can be accounted for. Because the product of interpretation is basically a product of human thought which is limited by space and time.
This knowledge is the basis of what is known as law. Everyone will have their own views and reasons for looking at and responding to something. For this reason, there must be guidelines as a reference when there are differences of opinion so that it does not lead people into divisions and everyone is able to respect the opinions of others who differ from their own (tolerance, tasamuh).
In order to establish a law, a set of knowledge is required that enables a person (mujtahid) to explore the contents of the Qur'an which relate to various legal issues. In this way, fiqh is a scientific discipline that requires separate study.
Some people think that Muslims are experiencing setbacks, because their thoughts are too focused on fiqh. Islam is experiencing setbacks not because it is too oriented towards fiqh, but because the legislators are not moving forward, as if they are still oriented towards the old fiqh which may no longer be in accordance with the needs of the times. If someone thinks that the old fiqh is no longer relevant to the times, this hadith needs to be straightened out. It should be understood that fiqh law is in accordance with the demands of the times (remember, not in accordance with the times).
B. The Qur'an and Science
The Qur'an was revealed by Allah swt. to humans to be a guide and to be a separator between right and wrong in accordance with His words in Surat al-Baqarah verse 185. Al-Qur'an also guides people to live all aspects of life, including demanding and developing knowledge. The Qur'an places knowledge and scientists in a high position in line with the believers (QS: al-Mujadilah: 11). Many texts of the Qur'an encourage people to seek knowledge, even the revelation that was first revealed, is a verse related to knowledge, namely the command to read as found in surat al-'Alaq verses 1-5. Meaning: "Read by (saying) the name of your Lord Who created, He has created man from a clot of blood. Read, and your Lord is Most Merciful, Who teaches (humans) by means of the word. He knows. Besides that, the Qur'an respects the five senses and stipulates that these senses are the doors of knowledge. (Surah Al-Nahl: 78) Sheikh Mahmud Abdul Wahab Fayid said that this verse prioritizes hearing and sight over the heart because these two serve as a source of guidance for various kinds of thoughts and are the key to opening rational knowledge.
According to Imam al-Ghazali as quoted by Quraish Shihab said, that all previous and later branches of knowledge, which have been known and which have not, all originate from the Qur'an.
Dr. M. Quraish Shihab said, discussing the relationship between the Qur'an and science is not judged by the number of branches of science contained in it, nor by showing the truth of scientific theories. But the discussion should be placed on a more accurate proportion in accordance with the purity and sanctity of the Qur'an and also in accordance with the logic of science itself. There is no need to see if the Qur'an contains mathematics, plant science, computer science, etc., but what is more important is to see if the soul of the verses hinders the progress of science or vice versa, and is there a verse of the Qur'an that contradicts the results established scientific discoveries?
Kuntowijoyo saidthat the Qur'an actually provides enormous possibilities to be used as a way of thinking. This way of thinking is called the Al-Qur'an paradigm, the Islamic paradigm. The development of scientific experiments based on the Al-Qur'an paradigm will obviously enrich the body of knowledge. This activity may be the impetus for the emergence of alternative sciences. It is clear that the normative premises of the Qur'an can be formulated into empirical and rational theories. The transcendental structure of the Qur'an is a normative and philosophical idea that can be formulated into a theoretical paradigm. It will provide a framework for the growth of original empirical and rational science, in the sense that it is in accordance with the pragmatic needs of mankind as caliphs on earth.
The knowledge that is studied from the Al-Qur'an and Hadith is considered as Islamic science, while knowledge that originates from nature and society is excluded from the structure of Islamic knowledge. Thus a dichotomy of Islamic science and general emerged. If this is allowed to continue to develop it will have a negative impact, for example nuclear technology can become a weapon of destruction that should be for human welfare. Therefore, Islamic science needs to be reconstructed with a new paradigm, namely that Islamic science describes the integration of all scientific systems in one framework. Islamic science uses a revelation approach, a philosophical approach, and an empirical approach, both in discussing the substance of science, as well as discussion of the function and purpose of science. With the reconstruction of Islamic science, there is no longer any dichotomy between Islamic science (shari'ah) and general science, both of which are functionally related to each other.(fungsional Corelation)
The Koran is the source of all sources of Islamic teachings because the Koran is the mainstay of Islamic teachings, so all studies of Islam should not conflict with this basic source. The holy book occupies a central position not only in the development of Islamic sciences, but also inspires and guides Muslim movements throughout the ages. It is true that there are schools of thought in Islam that arise because of differences in views about the procedures for understanding the verses of the AL-QURAN, the most important thing is to understand together that ALLH in the Al-Quran wants fellow Muslims to love one another. Most Muslims are of the view that the element of reason plays a very important role in understanding the Koran.
The Al-Quran as a source of Islamic teachings cannot be realized in people's lives, if the contents and contents cannot be understood properly, because the contents and contents of the Al-Quran must be implemented in everyday life. So the contents of the Al-Quran cover all kinds of issues, and can be discussed from various aspects. The Qur'an can also be seen in terms of its content, which are not only personal issues, but also include theological issues, social issues, issues related to the fulfillment of human needs, such as science and technology.
Due to the position of the Al-Quran as the first source of Islamic teachings, all discussions regarding Islam, both concerning teachings and those concerning elements supporting the implementation of these teachings, all refer to the Al-Quran. For people who believe in the miracles of the Koran, the Koran will truly be a guide for them in the life of religion, society and state.
The fiqh proposal of
Abul Kalam Azad. 1991. Basic Concepts of the Qur'an. Jakarta: Firdaus Library.
Ali Abdul Hamid Hamudah, MA. 1992. Islam is undermined by destructive currents.
Solo: CV Pustaka Mantiq.
Ali Hasan, M. 2000. Islamic Studies, Al-Qur'an and Sunnah. Jakarta: PT Raja Grafindo
Gibb, HAR. 1992. Modern streams in Islam. New York: Rajawali.
Hanafi, A., MA. 1975. Usul Fiqh. Jakarta: Wijaya.
Hashbi Ash Shiddiqi, M. 1995. Introduction to Islamic Law, Crescent Star, Jakarta.
Ibrahim Madkour, Dr. 1995. Flow and Islamic Philosophy Theory. Jakarta: Earth Script
Inu Kencana Syafiie. 1992. Al-Qur'an Source of All Disciplines. Jakarta: Echo of
Mukhtar Yahya, Prof. and Fathurrahman, Prof. 1993. Fundamentals of Development of
Islamic Law. Bandung: Al-Ma'arif.
Mukti Ali, et al. 1997. Religion in the Struggle of Contemporary Society.
Yogyakarta: PT Tiara Wacana.
Quraysh Syihab, Prof. Dr. 1996. Grounding the Qur'an. Bandung: Mizan.
Syarafuddin al-Musawi, A.. 1992. Dialogue of Sunnah Shia. Bandung: Mizan