"The Skill of Making Variations and Providing Strengthening"
Supporting lecturer :
Afdal Divine, S.Pd., M.Pd
Arranged by :
Syarifah Rohana Harahap 22140280
Dewi Sartika 22140257
Siti Kholijah 22140278
ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER STUDY PROGRAM
FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND LANGUAGES
SOUTH TAPANULI INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION
Alhamdulillah, thanks to God Almighty, because with His mercy and grace, we were able to finish the paper entitled "Basic Teaching Skills" on time.
This paper was prepared in order to complete the assignment from lecturer Afdal Divine, S.Pd., M.Pd in the Learning Strategy course. In addition, this paper also aims to add insight about Basic Teaching Skills for readers and writers.
We also thank all parties who have supported and assisted in the process of completing this paper. We realize that the paper we are writing is still far from being perfect. Therefore, we look forward to constructive criticism and suggestions for the perfection of this paper.
Padangsidimpuan March 2023
LIST OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS ii
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1
Problem Formulation 2
CHAPTER II DISCUSSION 4
Skills for Making Variations 4
Principles of Using Variations 8
Skills Give Reinforcement 9
Components contained in the provision of reinforcement. 10
Principles of Using Reinforcement 13
CHAPTER III CLOSING 16
Boredom is a problem that always occurs everywhere and people always try to get rid of it, boredom occurs if someone always sees, feels, experiences the same events over and over again, encounters things that are "that-that" too and nothing is expected.
School is one of the educational institutions whose role is to create a learning environment for students to achieve a good education. Schools need to develop an appropriate program which of course must be supported by a team of educators who meet the characteristics of educators that have been determined in an education, so as to enable students to carry out learning activities efficiently and achieve the expected goals.
The teacher is a figure to be admired and imitated. The class program will be meaningless if it is not translated into activities. For this reason, the role of the teacher is very decisive because of his position as an educational leader among students in a class.
All efforts made by the teacher in learning refer to how to facilitate students to achieve the competencies that have been determined. Competency achievement is not possible without being directly involved in learning. Therefore the teacher should make learning that encourages students to participate actively in the learning process.
And to avoid student boredom, the teacher must be skilled in making variations in the learning process so that the learning process becomes fun and not boring. And when students participate in learning, feedback should be given by the teacher so that students are motivated to repeat these activities with better quality. The response given by the teacher immediately after students participate is called reinforcement. Various forms of reinforcement can be combined by the teacher, so that it does not seem far-fetched, unnatural or spontaneous.
The basic skills of giving reinforcement need to be owned by a teacher, because sometimes teachers like to be cold towards the responses given by students when in class. It seems the thought is not appreciated. Of course this can result in a weakening of motivation in learning. Without motivation, conducive learning may not be created.
Thus, a teacher must be able to maintain the learning motivation of his students in order to achieve an optimal result when carrying out a learning process.
Based on some of the reviews above, skills are needed to carry out variations and provide reinforcement in the teaching and learning process. Therefore, we have prepared a paper entitled Skills for Making Variations and Providing Strengthening to Improve Learning in Schools.
Formulation of the problem
what is the meaning of variation skills in the learning process?
What variation skills are used in the learning process?
What is the meaning of strengthening skills in the learning process?
What kind of reinforcement skills are used in the learning process?
To find out what is meant by the skill of giving variation in the learning process
To find out what variation skills are carried out in the learning process
To find out what is meant by giving reinforcement in learning
To find out what kind of reinforcement is done in the learning process
UNDERSTANDING OF VARIATION IN TEACHING LEARNING
Variation is diversity that makes something not monotonous. Variations in learning activities can eliminate boredom, increase student interest and curiosity, cater for diverse student learning styles, and increase student activity levels. Using variations is defined as the teacher's actions in the context of the teaching and learning process which aims to overcome student boredom, so that in the learning process students always show perseverance, enthusiasm, and play an active role (Hasibuan, 1986:64).
According to Uzer Usman, variation is an activity of the teacher in the context of a teaching and learning interaction process aimed at overcoming student boredom, resulting in a teaching and learning situation. Students always show persistence, enthusiasm and full participation.
From the definition above, it can be concluded that variations in teaching styles are changes in behavior, attitudes and actions of teachers in the context of teaching and learning which aims to overcome student boredom, so that students have a high learning interest in their lesson. And this can be proven through their perseverance, enthusiasm, activeness in learning and following the lessons in class. Children cannot be forced to continuously focus their attention in following their lessons, especially if the teacher is teaching without using variations, aka monotony, which makes students less attentive, sleepy, and bored.
Aspects of the Skills of Making Variations in the Teaching and Learning Process
Basically everyone does not want boredom in doing all activities. So that people will always try to get a life that is full of positive variations (changes or changes). Can not be separated from
With that goal, the teaching and learning process also has the same goal, so educators are required to develop variations in their teaching.
In the skills of carrying out variations in the teaching and learning process will include three aspects, namely variations in teaching styles, variations in using media and teaching materials and variations in interactions between teachers and students.
With the combination of the three components or aspects in their use or integration, it will increase the attention of students, arouse the desire and willingness to learn. Because of that, it is hoped that the educational goals will be achieved. The aspects or components referred to in this discussion can be deepened with the following explanation:
These variations include sound variations, limb movement variations and variations in the teacher's position in the class. The teacher's behavior in carrying out these variations in the teaching and learning process will be dynamic and enhance communication between the teacher and students, attract the attention of students, help receive teaching materials and provide stimulation (encouragement or encouragement). Variations in this teaching style are:
Giving time (pausing)
Movement of limbs (gesturing)
Variety of media and teaching materials
Each student has different sensory abilities, both hearing and sight, as well as speaking abilities. There are those who prefer or prefer to read, there are those who prefer to hear first and then read, and there are those who do the opposite. With variations in the use of media - the media is a vehicle for channeling learning information or channeling messages.
Weaknesses in the senses that each student has, for example, the teacher can start by speaking first, then writing on the blackboard, followed by looking at concrete examples. With such variations can provide a stimulus to students. Where the media has an important role in the teaching and learning process that cannot be abandoned, because the media can: save learning time, facilitate understanding, increase student attention, increase student activity, enhance student memory.
There are three components in the variation of media use, namely visual media, listening media and tactical media
What is meant by variation of interaction is the frequency or number of changes in action between teacher and student, and student and student appropriately. Which interaction in a teaching and learning activity is something that cannot be abandoned, so if there is no interaction in a teaching and learning activity then it is an abnormality that must be updated quickly and properly.
The Benefits of Teaching Variations
Teaching requires teachers to work for the success of their students, so that student progress becomes the teacher's point of attention. Rasulullah SAW. apply teaching that pays close attention to the development of its students (friends), so they don't feel bored in learning, implied in the hadith: Meaning: Narrated from Ibn Mas'ud said: The Prophet SAW. intermittently in giving lessons to avoid boredom. (HR. Bukhari).
If seen from the hadith above, variations in teaching styles have existed since the time of the Prophet SAW. while the benefits of these variations according to Uzer Usman are:
To raise and increase student attention to relevant learning aspects.
To provide opportunities for the development of inquisitive talents and want to investigate students about new things.
To foster and shape a positive attitude towards teachers and schools with a variety of more lively teaching styles and a good learning environment.
In order to provide opportunities for students to get a way of receiving lessons that they like.
The benefits of variation according to JJ Hasibuan are:
Maintain and improve students related to learning aspects
Increases the possibility of the functioning of curiosity motivation through investigative and exploitative activities.
Form a positive attitude towards teachers and schools.
The possibility of serving students individually so as to give the beauty of learning.
Encouraging learning activities by involving students with various interesting learning activities or experiences and various cognitive levels.
Actually, from the opinion above, namely regarding the benefits of variations in teaching styles, they are the same. It's just that the language is different. So, if you take the essence of the benefits of variations in teaching styles are:
Improving, generating and maintaining students' attention to relevant learning aspects.
Providing opportunities to increase and develop inquisitive talents and the functioning of motivation to learn.
Cultivate and form a positive attitude towards teachers and schools with a variety of teaching styles that are more lively.
Providing good service to students individually in receiving lessons so that learning is easy and fun.
Encouraging learning activities by involving students with various interesting learning activities or experiences at various cognitive levels.
Principles of Using Variations
All teachers certainly expect their students to remain enthusiastic and happy with the lessons given by the teacher. To achieve these expectations it is necessary to create a conducive learning environment. One effort to create in that direction is by paying attention to several principles of using variations in teaching. Several principles of using teaching variations are very important to note and really internalize in order to support the implementation of teaching assignments in class. The principles of using teaching variations are as follows.
In using variation skills, all types of variations should be used, besides that there must also be variations in the use of components for each type of variation. All of that to achieve learning goals.
Using variations smoothly and continuously, so that the whole teaching and learning process is not damaged, the attention of students and the learning process are not disturbed.
The use of the variation component must be really structured and planned by the teacher. Because it requires flexible, spontaneous use according to the feedback received from students. Usually there are two forms of feedback, namely:
Behavioral feedback concerning the attention and involvement of students.
Feedback information about knowledge and lessons.
Definition of Strengthening
Reinforcement is a response to a behavior that increases the likelihood of the behavior recurring. In the context of classroom management, positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement are known. Positive reinforcement is reinforcement that aims to maintain and maintain positive behavior, while negative reinforcement is strengthening behavior by stopping or removing unpleasant stimuli. For example, in negative reinforcement, the teacher gives satire to students who do not pay attention when the teacher is explaining a subject matter.
The benefits of reinforcement for students, among others.
Increased attention in learning.
Generating and maintaining behavior.
Maintain a conducive learning atmosphere.
The skill of providing reinforcement is a skill that must be mastered by the teacher because the reinforcement given to students will inspire enthusiasm in carrying out learning activities. High student enthusiasm will increase the comprehension of knowledge so that later the goals to be achieved by the teacher can be achieved properly.
Strengthening should be done evenly to students who have good or bad behavior. Teachers should not discriminate in providing reinforcement.
Components contained in the provision of reinforcement.
One form of reinforcement that can be given by the teacher to motivate students to participate in learning is through speech. All expressions of words that the teacher utters to respond back to student activities are included in verbal reinforcement.
Non Verbal Reinforcement
Provide feedback that aims to encourage students to achieve more, not limited to speech. Many forms of giving reinforcement can be chosen by the teacher, so that it is not boring for students. These forms of action can be distinguished in the following categories.
Mimics and gestures
Communication will work well if two or more people who interact face each other. During the interaction process is maintained in order
facial expressions or faces that are not sullen, cold, expressionless, and other views that give the impression of being unsympathetic. During the learning process, the interaction between students and teachers takes place continuously for 2 x 40 minutes or 2 x 45 minutes.
During this relatively long interval, students are expected to participate actively and to maintain this positive condition the teacher continuously provides various reinforcements. One form of reinforcement is expression. Smiles, nods, shakes that indicate amazement with student responses, raised eyebrows, thumbs up, and so on. These variations can be selected and varied by the teacher during the learning process.
Each student has a tendency that is very likely to be different from his friends. There are students who like to be praised and encouraged by sweet and sympathetic words, there are students who are satisfied with just a smile or a moment's proud look from their teacher. But there are students who expect more than that. They prefer when the teacher is beside them when giving reinforcement.
The type of student who prefers to be approached. The teacher should try to meet these expectations. Because it is not difficult for the teacher to move from the front to where the student has just given a response or answer to the question given, or giving an explanation. Approaching here is not just physically close, but combined with other forms of reinforcement, so it doesn't seem bland or cold.
Physical contact or touch given by the teacher is a matter of pride for a group of students. For students who have answered questions, complemented their friends' answers or provided explanations, responded to even criticized or corrected their friends' arguments, the teacher can provide reinforcement by shaking hands, patting students on the shoulders, stroking students' heads or other touches that make students proud and want to appear more good again.
Fun activities for students
Professional teachers try to get to know the tendencies and characters of all their students. The teacher tries to find out what kind of things students like more. So when given a task, they feel happy doing it.
In connection with giving reinforcement in learning, teachers can also choose activities that make students happy. For example, asking questions that are competitive in answering, demonstrating something in front of the class, doing exercises in the form of crossword puzzles, doing study tours, or giving project assignments and many other activities that can be selected and varied.
The form of activity chosen by the teacher is adjusted to the students' enjoyment in learning physics. For example, if the class is nominated by students who like to exercise. When studying in-plane motion, the teacher takes students to the field to demonstrate various forms of parabolic motion, circular motion, or motion on an inclined plane.
Symbols or objects
Another form of non-verbal reinforcement is symbols or giving gifts in the form of objects. For example the teacher prepares small and cute toys or stationery, or maybe just candy to be distributed to students who participate actively in learning.
For students who get prizes, these gifts will encourage them to perform better than before. While the other students became more excited, also wanted to get a prize. Because the prize symbolizes their achievements in learning. Prizes can give pride and encourage them to do even better the next time.
In this reinforcement, students who express opinions that are incorrect or incorrect are not directly blamed harshly but by providing reinforcement but not full, for example "Your answer is good, but still not quite right". Then the teacher asks other students to complete or add
so that the student knows that the answer is not entirely correct, but also not wrong.
Principles of Using Reinforcement
So that the reinforcement given by the teacher is right on target. Giving reinforcement in learning must pay attention to several principles of giving reinforcement, as follows.
Warm and Enthusiastic
The teacher is the giver of encouragement for his students. Enthusiasm, of course, cannot be given by people who are lacking or not enthusiastic. Activities that aim to provide enthusiasm will also not reach the target, if the giving is carried out without warm support. The warmth displayed by the teacher psychologically has a positive impact on students. This warmth can melt a stiff, silent, crowded, and tense atmosphere to become conducive.
Enthusiasm within reasonable limits or not excessive has its own meaning in the hearts of students. Seeing the teacher's enthusiasm, students who were previously lazy, sleepy, tired, or doing other activities became interested in participating in learning. So if previously only some students were active in learning, the enthusiastic attitude shown by the teacher can attract those who have not been active to become active.
The reinforcement given by the teacher is very meaningful or meaningful for students. They feel more confident, feel appreciated, feel cared for, feel successful in learning, feel praised and flattered. This feeling has an impact on their mentality. Students become more courageous in expressing their opinions, increase their curiosity, and have more self-confidence. Thus it is hoped that their participation will be better in the next opportunity.
If the teacher does reinforcement properly and continuously, students' curiosity is fulfilled, as a result they feel that learning makes them know many things. What they know helps them answer questions about events that may have previously intrigued or confused them.
Avoid negative responses
Sometimes students are not good at expressing their thoughts in class or it could even be that the opinion is wrong. A professional teacher tries to encourage students with a positive response. Do not directly blame or judge students in front of their friends
Reinforcement should be given immediately after the student's behavior or response appears. Reinforcement that is delayed in giving, tends to cause it to be less effective. So that the expected positive impact does not decrease or even disappear, reinforcement must be given as soon as the student shows the expected response. In other words, there is no waiting time between the response shown and the reinforcement given.
Variations in forms of reinforcement
Many activities and assignments can be given by the teacher in the learning process. Of course, there are also various kinds of participation that can be given by students. Every student's thought contribution deserves an award, all students deserve reinforcement. In order not to be boring and always lively, the teacher must be good at varying various forms of reinforcement. Sometimes he says good, on other occasions he gives a thumbs up, then smiles while nodding his head, then approaches students, and so on. So that the same remark or response does not come out repeatedly in a limited time.
Variations in teaching styles are changes in behavior, attitudes and actions of teachers in the context of teaching and learning which aims to overcome student boredom, so that students have a high interest in learning about their lesson. And this can be proven through their perseverance, enthusiasm, activeness in learning and following the lessons in class. Children cannot be forced to continuously focus their attention in following their lessons, especially if the teacher is teaching without using variations, aka monotony, which makes students less attentive, sleepy, and bored.
Reinforcement is a response to a behavior that increases the likelihood of the behavior recurring. The components contained in the provision of reinforcement, including verbal reinforcement and non-verbal reinforcement.
Giving reinforcement in learning must pay attention to several principles of giving reinforcement, including providing warmth, enthusiasm, meaningfulness, avoiding negative responses, giving immediate reinforcement, and varying various forms of reinforcement.
Dr. Wartono. 2003. Basic Teaching Skills. Canjuran University. Malang Blog of Young Teachers of Islamic Religious Education. 2010. Variations in Learning (online),
Aini, Nur. 2010. Strengthening Giving Skills, (Online), (http://zanuraini.blogspot.com, accessed on March 28, 2017).
Wartono. 2003. Basic Teaching Skills. Malang: Kanjuruhan University.