Selasa, 14 Maret 2023



Effective Lecturer: Afdhal Divine ,S.Pd.,M.Pd









Desri Yunita 22090010



ACADEMIC YEAR 2023 / 2024


Peace be upon you, and Allah mercy and blessings.

Praise be expressed to the presence of Allah SWT. for all His grace so that this paper can be compiled to completion. We really hope that this paper can add knowledge and experience to readers. In fact, we hope even further that this paper can be practiced by readers in everyday life.

For me, as a writer, I feel that there are still many shortcomings in the preparation of this paper due to limited knowledge and experience. For this reason, we really hope for constructive criticism and suggestions from readers for the perfection of this paper.


Table of contents Sheet









CONCEPTS Ethics, morals, and morals 5

Sufism relationship with morals 11

Indicators of human character 12

Morals and their actualization in life 13








In this global era that is increasingly developing and advancing, the behavior of a Muslim is increasingly diverse. Humans tend to imitate lifestyles that are stylish and luxurious so that they forget the existence of ethics, morals and morals that are ignored or used as guidelines in life. This is because in reality humans now lack knowledge of ethics, morals and morality, even though the history of religion shows that the happiness that one wants to get by carrying out religious sharia can only be carried out with good morals.

As the next generation of the Indonesian nation, it is highly commendable if the next generation lacks or even does not have ethics, morals and morals. Therefore this paper is structured so that it becomes a reference in improving the ethics, morals and morals of Indonesia's next generation, especially students.


1. What is meant by ethics, morals, and morals?

2. What is the relationship between Sufism and morality?

3. What are the indicators of a human being with morals?

4. What are the morals and their actualization in life?

C. Purpose of writing

1. To know what ethics, morals, and morals are.

2. To find out how the relationship between Sufism and morality.

3. To find out what are the indicators of human morality.

4. To know the morals and their actualization in life.

Chapter II


1. the concept of ethics, morals, and morals

a. Ethics

Etymologically, according to Endang Syaifuddin Anshari, ethics means action, and has something to do with the words Khuliq (creator) and Makhluq (created). However, it is also found that the meaning of ethics comes from the plural word in Arabic "Akhlaq". The Mufrad word is khulqu, which means sahiyyah temperament, mur'iiah: mind, thab'in: character, and adab: adab (politeness).

Ethics is generally identified with morals (morality). Even though they are related to the good and bad of human actions, ethics and morals have different meanings. In short, if morals are more inclined to understand "the good and bad values ​​of every human action, ethics studies good and bad". ethics functions as a theory and good and bad actions (ethics or „ilm al-akhlaq) and morals (akhlaq) are the practices. Often what is meant by ethics is all actions that are born out of encouragement of the soul in the form of good or bad deeds.

Ethics is a branch of philosophy that studies human behavior, the word ethics comes from the Greek word Ethos which means custom. Ethics is the behavior of a person or group of people that is composed of a system of values ​​or norms taken from the natural phenomena of that group of people.

The term ethics is defined as a standard of conduct that leads individuals, ethics is a study of lawful and right and moral actions that a person does. Aristotle defines ethics as a set of rules that must be obeyed by humans. Here are some hadiths about daily life that can be a guide for Muslims, including:

1.Hadith about ethics and morals

In a hadith, Rasulullah SAW said:

God bless you

Meaning: "Indeed, the thing that is heavier on the scales of charity for a believer is good character. And Allah does not like those who speak vile and dirty words. (HR At-Tirmidhi)

2. Hadith on the Ethics of Eating and Drinking

Firstly, it is forbidden to reproach food.

If you don't like it, then let it be left rather than being eaten but reproached. From Abu Hurairah RA:

مَا عَابَ رَسُوْلُ اللهِ صَلَّى Almighty Allah

Meaning: "Rasulullah SAW never denounced food, if he had an appetite, (liked the food that was served) he ate it, whereas if he didn't like it (didn't have an appetite), then he left it."

Second, always read bismillah.

إِذَا أَكَلَ أَحَدُكُمْ فَلْيَذْكُرِ اسْمَ اللهِ تَعَالَى، فَإِذَا نَسِيَ أَنْ يَذْكُرَ اسْمَ اللهِ فِيْ أَوَّلِهِ فَلْيَقُلْ: بِسْمِ اللهِ أَوَّلَهُ وَآخِرَهُ

Meaning: "When one of you wants to eat, then say: 'Bismillaah', and if he forgets to say bismillaah at the start of the meal, then he should say: 'Bismillaah awwaalahu wa aakhirahu' (by mentioning Allah's name at the beginning and at the end) ).” (Narrated by Abu Dawud)

Third, eat from the side of the plate.


Meaning: "The blessing descends in the middle of the meal, so eat from the edge of the plate and don't start from the center." (Reported by Muslim, Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah)

3. Hadith About Visiting Ethics

مَنْ دُعِىَ فَلْيُجِبْ

Meaning: "Whoever is invited then come!" (Reported by Abu Dawud and Ahmad)

وَمَنْ تَرَكَ الدَّعْـوَةَ فَقَدْ عَصَى اللهَ وَرَسُوْلَهُ

Meaning: "Whoever does not fulfill the invitation then he has disobeyed Allah and His Messenger." (HR Bukhari)

4. Hadith about the ethics of defecating

First, defecating in a closed place as a form of shame that must be owned by a Muslim. From Jabir bin 'Abdillah RA he said:

خَرَجْنَا مَعَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ -صلى الله عليه وسلم- فِى سَفَرٍ وَكَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ -صلى الله عليه وسلم- لاَ يَأْتِى الْبَرَازَ حَتَّى يَتَغَيَّبَ فَلاَ يُرَى.

Meaning: "We once went out with Rasulullah SAW when traveling, he did not fulfill his needs in an open area, but he went to a place far away until he was not visible and invisible."

Second, read a prayer before entering the place of defecation to get protection from invisible jinn disturbances. From Anas bin Malik, he said:

كَانَ النَّبِىُّ - صلى الله عليه وسلم - إِذَا دَخَلَ الْخَلاَ/201

Meaning: "Rasulullah SAW when entering the toilet, he said: Allahumma inni a'udzu bika minal khubutsi wal khobaits (O Allah, I seek refuge in You from male devils and female devils)."

5. Hadith on Sleep Ethics

First, do not sleep before performing the Isya prayer. From Abu Barza RA:

أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى Allah

Meaning: "That Rasulullah SAW hates sleeping the night before (Isya prayer ') and talking (which is not useful) afterwards." (HR Bukhari and Muslim)

Second, perform ablution before going to bed.

إِذَا أَتَيْتَ مَضْجَعَكَ فَتَوَضَّأْ وُضُوْءَكَ لِلصَّلاَةِ

Meaning: "If you want to go to bed (sleep), then you should perform ablution' first as ablution'mu to perform prayer." (HR Bukhari and Muslim)

Third, read a prayer before going to bed. From 'Aisyah RA, he said:

كَانَ إِذَا أَوَى إِلَى فِرَاشِهِ كُلَّ لَيْلَةٍ جَمَعَ كَفَّيْهِ ثُمَّ نَفَثَ فِيهِمَا فَقَرَأَ فِيهِمَا ( قُلْ هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ ) وَ ( قُلْ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ الْفَلَقِ ) وَ ( قُلْ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ النَّاسِ ) ثُمَّ يَمْسَحُ بِهِمَا مَا اسْتَطَاعَ مِنْ جَسَدِهِ يَبْدَأُ بِهِمَا عَلَى رَأْسِهِ وَوَجْهِهِ وَمَا أَقْبَلَ مِنْ جَسَدِهِ يَفْعَلُ ذَلِكَ ثَلاَثَ مَرَّاتٍ

Meaning: "The Prophet SAW when he was in bed every night, he gathered his palms together then both palms were blown and recited 'Qul huwallahu ahad' (Surah Al Ikhlash), 'Qul a'udzu birobbil falaq' (Surah Al Falaq) ) and 'Qul a'udzu birobbin naas' (An Naas letter).

Then he rubbed his palms on the limbs that could be reached starting from the head, face and front of the body. He did this three times." (HR Bukhari)

b. Moral

Etymologically, moral comes from the Dutch word moural, which means decency, character. Meanwhile, according to WJS Poerwadarminto, moral means teachings about good and bad deeds and behavior. In Islam, morals are known as morals. Al-Ghazali in Ihya Ulumuddin explains the definition of morality. Morals are the behavior of the soul, which can easily give birth to actions, without requiring thought and consideration.

If this behavior produces a number of good and commendable deeds, both according to reason and religious guidance, this behavior is called good morals. If the deed that is issued is bad, then the behavior is called bad morals. Al-Ghazali further explains: There are four main or principles of character: (1) wisdom (al-hikmah), (2) courage, (3) self-care , and (4) justice. The purpose of wisdom is the behavior of the soul that can find the truth from wrong in all the actions that are done.

Individual measures for good and bad, good and bad differ according to differences in one's perception, differences in time, changes in circumstances and places. However, in every society and at one time or another there are common standards, meaning standards that are recognized by all or most of its members. However, for Muslims, the basis for good and bad deeds is based on the book of guidelines, namely the Al-Qur'an Sunnah.

In one of his hadiths, the Prophet Muhammad SAW. said: "Indeed I was sent only to improve morals" (HR. Ahmad). This hadith illustrates that one of the Prophet's main tasks was to improve human morals or morals, which at that time were very far from the values ​​of truth.

c. Morals

Morals come from the Arabic word khuluk which means behavior, character or manners. In terms, morals are traits that a person has, have attached and will usually be reflected in that person's behavior.

The word morality has been mentioned in (QS. Shad: 46) the following.


Meaning: "Indeed, We have purified them by (granting them) high morals, namely always reminding (humans) to the land of the Hereafter." (QS Shad: 46).

Imam Al Ghazali explained that morality is one of the characteristics that is embedded in the human soul which can lead to an action that is easy to do without any further consideration.

Kinds of morals

-Commendable Morals (Akhlakul Mahmudah)

Commendable morals or akhlakul mahmudah, namely the moral class that a Muslim should have. Akhlakul mahmudah includes patient, honest, humble, generous, polite, persistent, self-sacrificing, fair, wise, gentle and polite, trustful, and many more.

A Muslim who has good morals, in everyday life will guard his words and actions. As a Muslim, it is a must to maintain good morals in everyday life.

Prophet Muhammad SAW once said the following:

God bless you

Meaning: "Indeed among the people I love the most and the seat closest to me on the Day of Judgment are the people who have the best morals." (HR. Tirmidhi).

-Despicable Morals (Akhlakul Mazmumah)

Disgraceful morals or akhlaqul mazmumah, namely morals or bad actions that must be avoided by every human being. This mazmumah morality must be avoided because it can bring harm to oneself and others.

Rasulullah shallallahu alaihi wa said,

إِيَّاكُمْ وَالظَّنَّ فَإِنَّ الظَّنَّ أَكْذَبُ الْحَدِيْثِ وَلاَ تَحَسَّسُوا وَلاَ تَجَسَّسُوا وَلاَ تَحَاسَدُوا وَلاَتَدَابَرُوا وَلاَتَبَاغَضُوا وَكُوْنُوا عِبَادَ اللَّهِ إِخْوَانَا.

Meaning: "Avoid your bad thoughts, because bad thoughts are the most lying words.

Some examples of akhlaqul mazmumah are arrogance, envy, jealousy, greed, hasad, arrogance, backbiting, and so on. As a Muslim, we should stay away from akhlakul mazmumah. This is because this character is hated by Allah SWT.

An Example of Akhlakul Mahmudah in Everyday Life

a. Speak politely with older people.b. Always humble and not arrogant.

c. Help others who need help.

d. Maintain verbal to always say good.

e. Keeping other people's disgrace.

f. Giving good advice to others, and much more.

Examples of Mazmumah Akhlakul in Everyday Life

a. Be arrogant, miserly, arrogant, jealous.

b. Breaking promises that have been made.

c. Stealing things or taking things that are not rightfully theirs.

d. Talking rudely or disobediently to parents.

e. Be prejudiced against other people (suudzon), and so on.

d. The relationship between Sufism and morality

The basis of the teachings of Sufism is purifying oneself from sin, seeking the pleasure of Allah, and living in a state of asceticism. They decorate their hearts with love and decorate themselves with noble morals. The teachings of Sufism are based on several views, including:

In the teachings of Islamic morality and Sufism, of course there is nothing that is contradictory in substance. Islamic morality wants Muslims to get the glory of morality based on religion, while Sufism leads to that. The emphasis point on Islamic morality is based on the 3 things mentioned above, while Sufism is on love and cleanliness of the soul. The application of Sufism may have different things, but objectively it is not contradictory. The teachings of Sufism and morality both do not want the ugliness and damage that occurs.

This can be summarized in the following regarding the Relationship between Morals and Sufism:

1. Both are oriented towards love and obedience to Allah SWT

2. Equally oriented to the glory of morals and cleanliness of the soul

3. Both lead to the creation of good in this world and the hereafter

To glorify our true morals, we can also return to carrying out the Sunnah of the Prophet. Sufism is certainly not prohibited in practice if there are no things that conflict with the Al-Quran, Sunnah, pillars of faith, pillars of Islam, and the function of religion. This can be strengthened, for example by carrying out the Sunnah Before Sleeping, Adab Visiting the Grave, How to Eat the Messenger of Allah, Carrying out the Method of Bathing in Islam, Reciting Before Sleeping, carrying out Various Kinds of Sunnah Prayers, carrying out the Process of Funeral of Bodies According to Islam, etc.

e. Indikarot humans have morals

The indicator of a human being with morality (husn al-khuluq), said al-Ghazali, is the instilling of faith in the heart and the application of piety in behavior. On the other hand, a person who is immoral (su'al-khulug) is a person who has nifaq (hypocrisy) in his heart. Nifak is an attitude of duplicity towards Allah. There is no match between heart and deed.

Willing God's commands and not following the desires of lust can dazzle the heart. Conversely, committing sins and immorality can blacken the heart. Whoever commits a sin and then erases it with kindness will not have a dark heart, only that light will decrease.

In the Al-Qur'an there are many characteristics of human beings who have faith and have noble character, including:

بَلٰى مَنْ اَسْلَمَ وَجْهَهٗ لِلّٰهِ وَهُوَ مُحْسِ Do

Meaning: "(Not so) even whoever submits himself to Allah, while he is doing good, then his reward is from his Lord and there is no worry for them and they do not (also) grieve.

By quoting several verses and hadiths, al-Ghazali further stated the signs of a believer human being:

1. A believer is a person who is humble in his prayers.

2. Turn away from useless things (no benefits).

3. Always return to Allah.

4. Serve only to Allah.

5. Always praise and glorify Allah.

6. His heart trembles when God's name is called.

7. Do not hurt others either by attitude or actions.

8. Not talking much and being calm in dealing with all problems, and others.

Sufism experts suggest that indicators of human morality include having a culture of shame in interactions with others, not hurting others, a lot of kindness, being true and honest in what he says, not saying much but doing a lot, patient, calm in heart always with Allah, wise, careful in acting, liked by friends and enemies, not vindictive, does not like to pit against one another, eats little and sleeps little, is not stingy and hasad, loves for Allah and hates for Allah.

If morals are understood as a way of life, human beings with morals are humans who maintain a balance between their rights and obligations in relation to God, fellow creatures and the universe.

f. Morals and their actualization in life

Actualization of morals is a form of rights and obligations and how a person can apply his faith by applying all Islamic teachings in their daily behavior.

There are several types of actualization of morals in everyday life. Among them are the actualization of morals to Allah SWT, the actualization of morals to the Messenger of Allah, the forms of actualization of morals to oneself, the forms of actualization of morals to the family, the forms of actualization of morals to fellow human beings and the forms of actualization of morals to fellow living things.

Actualization of morals to Allah SWT. is the most important and is an obligation for all Muslims. A form of actualization of morals to Allah SWT. can be seen from the attitude, knowledge, behavior, and lifestyle of a person who is carried out in full awareness of monotheism to Allah SWT. There are several examples of forms of behavior as a manifestation of the actualization of morals to Allah SWT. Among them is to believe in monotheism of Allah, not shirk and have faith and only worship Allah Almighty. Apart from that, other forms of moral actualization are also worship, charity, dhikr and always asking Allah for forgiveness because we are human beings who always make mistakes. In short, the form of moral actualization to Allah SWT. namely by piety, obedience, charity, and worship sincerely.

Actualization of morals to the Prophet is also an obligation for Muslims. Forms of actualization of morals can be in the form of following and carrying out the Sunnah of the Prophet, such as routinely performing sunnah prayers such as the Dhuha and Nursing prayers, dhikr in the morning and evening, reading the Qur'an, and giving alms. In addition, the form of the obligation of Muslims to other Apostles is to always pray for the Prophet, because praying is an obligation established by Allah so that he can get his intercession both in this world and in the hereafter.

Actualization of morals to oneself is also an obligation that must be carried out by each individual both physically and spiritually. This morality towards oneself is also a form of becoming a better person and so that our degree is raised in the eyes of Allah SWT. Forms of self-actualization of morality can be in the form of always being humble, always patient, always grateful for the blessings that God has given and maintaining self-purity and honor by avoiding adultery. By doing things that are a form of actualizing these morals, the person within will be much better and avoid negative influences.

In addition, there is a form of actualization of morals towards fellow humans and living things which are rights and obligations for all humans. Broadly speaking, humans must have noble character and behave well towards all creatures, both animate and inanimate creatures. To fellow human beings, we must establish brotherhood and good relations because humans are social beings who need each other.

The actualization of morals towards parents includes doing good to both parents, better known as Birrul Walidain, which means fulfilling parental rights and obligations towards both of them. Keep obeying both of them, do things that make them happy and stay away from doing bad things to them.

Actualization of morals to the family which has always been the first place in development as well as human life so that it becomes the most important factor in the formation of one's morals. Then there are customs, habits, instincts or instincts from within, education, the environment, and information media. So, as a whole, the formation of a character is with the contribution of all parties.

As humans who continue to grow, humans must have guidelines and examples in carrying out life in this mortal world. By referring to the morals of the Prophet Muhammad appointed by Allah SWT. as a role model for Muslims, humans will become good individuals and have noble morals and will find it easy to live a worldly life that is full of competition and challenges.

By having good morals, humans will get rewards, strengthen faith and be loved by Allah SWT and Rasulullah SAW. Also with good morals, humans will have a stronghold to avoid bad things that come and live peacefully and prosperously. However, in the actualization of morals there are several failures of individuals because educators are not optimal in implementing them and a less harmonious family environment also affects the failure of individual moral actualization. In forming moral actualization there are also obstacles to achieving good morals, such as developments that are increasingly modern and far from religious law,




morals with ethics, and morals have the same meaning, scope and purpose. However, they also have differences from each other. In an Islamic perspective, morality and Sufism are very closely related because they both aim to get closer to Allah SWT. And it can also be concluded 4 things namely that Morals, ethics and morals is a scientific discipline that talks about good and bad issues, Between morals, ethics and morals, has similarities and differences. The similarity is that both study good and bad problems, while the difference lies in the basis used. In the historical context, between morality and Sufism have the same goal and essence, namely as a way to get closer to Allah SWT, and the indicator of a person with morality is faith. or not someone.


The advice that I will convey is that we must be able to fortify ourselves with faith and piety so that modernization and globalization do not affect our ethics, morals and morals, but we are in control of modernization and globalization which we must acquire and learn with morals, ethics, morals and the arguments we have.


https://widnaro.wordpress.com/2013/09/13/pendidikan-agama-kapal-etika-moral-dan-akhlak/. Accessed on March 3, 2023.

https://www.studocu.com/id/document/universitas-islam-45-bekasi/akunansi/KNEPH-environmental-moral-dan-akhlaq/21521635 , accessed on 3 March 2023.

https://www.orami.co.id/magazine/hadis-entang-etika, accessed on March 3, 2023.

https://kumparan.com/berita-update/hadist- regarding-akhlak-beserta-penJadian- full details-1usc0nfQtp0, accessed on March 3, 2023.

https://dalamislam.com/akhlaq/relations-akhlak-dan-tasawuf accessed on March 3, 2023.

https://www.kompasiana.com/2031719015/5ebe1bb9097f365858486892/indikator-human-berakhlak, accessed on March 3, 2023.

Islamic religious education books for universities/Wahyudin, Achmad, M.Ilyas, M.syaifulloh, Z.Muhibbin.


1. nurhayu muhni

Sufism experts suggest that indicators of human morality include having a culture of shame in interactions with others, what does it mean to have a culture of shame?

Answer: Shame is like being ashamed of committing sins, and keeping away from bad things, because we as human beings are ashamed when we have bad qualities, be it envy, arrogance, envy, etc.

2. Jesika Damayanti

While Sufism is about love and cleanliness of the soul, what is meant by cleanliness of the soul?

Answer: Cleanliness of the soul is done by remembrance, istighfar, prayer, and so on. If we Muslims have a clean soul, we will get happiness and success in this world and in the hereafter.

3. Tasya Amelia

Is backbiting a commendable character or a despicable character?

Answer: In my opinion, backbiting is neither praiseworthy nor reprehensible, because in backbiting there is good and bad. However, backbiting is better not to do.

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