THE SOURCE OF THE SPIRIT OF RELIGION
1. Fitrah as a Religious Potential
Religious nature in man is an instinct that moves his heart to do "holy" deeds inspired by God Almighty. Human nature has a holy nature, with this instinct he openly accepts the presence of God, the Most Holy. Based on the Qur'an Surah Ar Rum verse 30:
"Then put your face straight to the religion of God; stay on the nature of God who created man according to that nature. That is a straight religion, but most people do not know".
It is clear, instinctively, humans have a readiness to know and believe in the existence of God. In other words, knowledge and acknowledgment of God has actually been firmly embedded in human nature. However, the combination with the body has made various human activities to meet various demands and various temptations and other worldly deceptions have made this knowledge and recognition sometimes overlooked, some even turned to ignore.
2. Definition of Nature
There are at least 9 (nine) meanings of fitrah put forward by the scholars, namely:
a. Fitrah means holy
According to Al Auza'i, fitrah means purity in body and spirit. When it is associated with religious potential, this sanctity means human purity from inherited sin or original sin, as Ismail Raji Al Faruqi said that humans were created pure, clean, able to compose the drama of their lives, regardless of their family environment or what kind of society they are. even he was born.
b. Fitrah means Islam
Abu Hurairah argues that what is meant by fitrah is religion. This opinion is based on the hadith of the Prophet:
"Didn't I tell you about something that Allah told me in His book that Allah created Adam and his children and grandchildren with the potential to become Muslims."
Departing from the understanding of the hadith above, the child who dies will enter heaven. Because he was born with din al Islam, even though he was born in a non-Muslim family.
c. Fitrah means acknowledging the Oneness of God (Tawhid).
Humans are born with the concept of monotheism, or at least tend to monotheism of their God and try to continue to seek to achieve that monotheism. The soul of monotheism is a soul that is in harmony with human reason.
d. Fitrah in its pure meaning (Al Ikhlas)
Humans are born with various characteristics, one of which is purity
(sincerity) in carrying out an activity. This meaning is based on the hadith of the Prophet
Muhammad: "Three things that make safe, namely sincerity in the form of God's fitrah where humans
are created from Him, prayer in the form of religion and obedience in the form of a fortress".
e. Fitrah means the condition of human creation that tends to accept the truth
Fitrah in the sense of basic human potential as a tool to serve and ma'rifatullah. As the word of Allah Yasin verse 22:
"Why do I not worship (Allah) who created me"
f. Fitrah in the sense of the determination or original event of man regarding his happiness and
error. Humans are born with a decision, whether they will be happy or misguided.
g. Fitrah in the sense of human nature
Humans are born with different character traits. This character can be in the form of a child's soul or heart that can lead to ma'rifatullah. Before the age of puberty, children are not yet able to distinguish between faith and disbelief, because the form of nature is contained in the qalb which can lead to recognition of the value of truth without any hindrance.
h. Fitrah in the sense of instinct (Gharizah) and revelation from Allah (Al Munazalah)
Ibn Taimiyah divides fitrah into two kinds:
ü Fitrah Al Munazalah
Outer nature that enters human beings. This Fitrah is in the form of instructions from the Qur'an and Sunnah which are used as guidance and guidance for Fitrah Al Gharizahah
ü Fitrah Al-Gharizah
Inherent nature in humans that gives reason that is useful for
developing basic human potential.
DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN PSYCHOLOGY
Humans are explorative and potential social creatures . It is said to be an exploratory creature , because humans have the ability to develop themselves both physically and psychologically . Humans are potential beings because in humans there are a number of innate abilities that can be developed in real terms.
The religious soul including the spiritual (psychic) aspect will be very dependent on the physical aspect, and vice versa. Therefore it is often said that physical health will greatly affect mental health. In addition, development is also determined by age level. Broadly speaking, the development period is divided into:
a. Pre-natal period
b. Baby Time
g. Advanced Age
Types and Needs
1. Kinds of Needs
In his book Introduction to Criminal Psychology by Drs.Gerson W.Bawean.SH Presents The division of human needs based on the division put forward by JP Guil Ford, Individual Needs consist of:
ü Homeostasis, namely the needs demanded by the body in the process of adjusting to the environment.
ü Temperature regulation, adjustment of the body in an effort to overcome the need for changes in badr temperature .
u sleep. human needs that need to be met and avoid hallucinations.
ü Hunger, a biological need that must be met to generate the body's energy as an organic.
ü Sex, the need for sex as one of the needs that arise from the urge to maintain sex. Not fulfilling this sexual need will bring about psychiatric disorders in deviant (abnormal) sexual behavior, such as:
ü Sadism , sexual satisfaction by hurting others.
ü Mosochism , satisfaction of lust by way of self-harm.
ü Exhibitionism , satisfaction of sexual appetite by showing the forbidden area to others.
ü Scoptophilia , satisfaction of sexual appetite by way of peeping sex play.
ü Transsexual , satisfaction of lust by way of changing gender.
ü Sexualoralism , satisfaction by combining the mouth (oral) with the genitals.
ü Sodomy (non/Vagian Coitus), an Islamic term known as liwath.
Furthermore, this sexual disorder can also cause people to satisfy their sexual appetite by using other objects. Among these types of disorders include:
Ø Homosexual . Satisfaction of sexual appetite between fellow men. Fellow women are called lesbians.
Ø Pedophilia . Satisfaction of lust with children as the object.
Ø Bestiality . Satisfying lust with animals as the object.
o Zoophilia. Satisfying sexual appetite by stroking animals.
Ø Necrophilia . Satisfaction of sexual appetite by having sex with a dead body
Ø Pornography. Satisfaction of lust by looking at pictures or by reading obscene books.
Ø Obscenity. Satisfaction of lust by issuing dirty words.
Ø Incest. Satisfaction of lust by having sexual relations with relatives.
Ø Masturbation . Satisfaction of lust by way of fantasizing about what he likes, especially women.
The above description shows, although not entirely true, S.Freud's opinion about the role of sexual libido in human life needs to be considered, especially among adolescents.