Jumat, 17 Maret 2023

Complete Papers on Social and Cultural Anthropology


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A. Background

Culture is the result of the thoughts of the human mind and mind that are interrelated, without us realizing that what we see and do every day cannot be separated from what is called culture. every city or country must have its own culture, and culture itself includes all of our ways of thinking or behavior and culture includes an element of knowledge which means that what we learn or look for information we can get from a culture.
Changes in culture or civilization can be caused by many factors, but the most common ones are caused by members of the community themselves and outsiders. Usually the cause of change from the community itself occurs because they too often see new things that can have positive and negative impacts on the community itself. Likewise with the causes of cultural change from newcomers, usually they are newcomers who come to a new place because their old residence was affected by natural disasters or transmigration and other things. They could leave their old place of residence but find it difficult to leave or replace their old culture with a new one.

However, with the development of an increasingly advanced era, the differences in views about this culture began to disappear. This was expressed by several experts who conducted research from several cultures they encountered. They concluded that with the development of an increasingly advanced era, some people want the culture they have to be united. with other cultures.

B. Problem Formulation
In the background that has been read, we can take the formulation of the problem, namely that we can find out how the development of anthropology goes hand in hand with the development of culture and its supporting factors.

C. Purpose of writing

1. Explain the meaning of culture
2. Knowing the elements contained in a culture
3. Explain the notion of civilization and its supporting factors
4. Knowing what methods are used by experts to observe a culture

D. Benefits of writing
1. This paper is useful for increasing knowledge and insight about culture
2. This paper is suitable as a reading reference for friends who like the world of culture.

image: Buddha


A. Definition of Culture
Culture has a broad meaning, covering all behavior and the results of human behavior, which are regulated by the rules of behavior that must be obtained by learning and all of which are arranged in people's lives. The anthropologist who was the first to formulate a definition of culture systematically and scientifically was EB TYLOR who wrote in his famous book PRIMITIVE CULTURE namely that culture is that complex whole which includes science, belief, art, morals, law, custom. -customs and other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society.
Another definition of culture is also put forward by R. LINTON in his book: THE CULTURAL BACKGROUND OF PERSONALITY, that culture is a configuration of learned behavior and the results of behavior, whose elements of formation are supported by members of a particular society. In society, many cultures are often interpreted as THE GENERAL BODY OF THE ARTS, which includes literature, music, sculpture, art, science and philosophy, or the beautiful parts of human life.

Above we have stated, that there are many definitions of culture with different sources, but if we study it, we can find the essence of the notion of culture in the points below:
1. That the culture that exists among human beings is very diverse
2. That culture is socially acquired and passed on with lessons
3. That culture consists of biological, psychological and sociological components of human existence
4. That culture is structured
5. That culture is divided into several aspects
6. That culture is dynamic
7. That value in culture is relative

B. Definition of Civilization
Human civilization is the same because it is equipped by God with creativity, taste, and intention. What differs is the embodiment of culture because the environment is different according to circumstances, time and place. The embodiment of culture which only emphasizes reason (ratio) alone will be different from the embodiment of culture which is based on reason, conscience and will. The embodiment of culture that prioritizes reason, a different civilization will emerge, because civilization will be measured from the level of human thinking, then the term high civilization will appear, no longer high culture. In contrast to those that emphasize the three elements, (taste, creativity, intention) then cultures of high value will emerge. Many opinions of experts define the notion of civilization where in general, the notion of civilization is parts of high, refined, beautiful,
While the broader understanding of civilization is a collection of the broadest identities of all the results of human cultivation, which cover all aspects of human life, both physical, for example buildings, roads, and non-physical (values, orders, arts, culture and science and technology), which are identified through general objective elements, such as language, history, religion, customs, institutions, as well as through subjective self-identification.

Civilization has characteristics or characteristics that serve to clarify civilization and also function in distinguishing civilizations and cultures where we know that many of us think that civilizations and cultures are the same, even though these civilizations and cultures are very different. Therefore, the characteristics of civilization are very helpful in distinguishing between civilization and culture.

i. General Characteristics of Civilization

a) Development of new cities with good, beautiful and modern layouts
b) Orderly system of government because there are laws and regulations.
c) The development of a variety of science and technology that is more advanced such as astronomy, medicine, forms of writing, architecture, art, geometry, religion, and others.
d) People in various types of work, expertise, and more complex social strata

ii. Civilization Supporting Factors
a) Government system
b) Economic system
c) Human resources
d) science and technology

C. Forms of Culture
1. Culture as an idea
2. Culture as an activity system
3. Culture as a result of culture

D. Elements of Culture
The culture of each nation can be divided into an unlimited number of elements. The smallest elements of culture up to those that are the largest combination, together constitute elements of culture. Regarding what is meant by cultural structure, there are several views among anthropologists, these different views and the reasons explained by KLUCKHOHN in an essay called: UNIVERSAL CATEGORYES OF CULTURE, 1953, by taking the essence of the various schemes on cultural structure compiled by several experts, we can find out the elements of culture that we can get in all nations in the world, namely:
1. Tools and equipment for human life (clothing, houses, household appliances, weapons, means of production, transportation and so on)

2. Livelihoods and economic systems (agriculture, animal husbandry, production systems, distribution systems)

3. Social system (kinship system, political organization, legal system, marriage system)

4. Language (oral or written)

5. Art (fine art, sound art, motion art)

6. Knowledge system

7. Religion

And if we combine the above cultural elements into one then a culture of an ethnic group is formed, then a cultural structure like a pyramid is composed consisting of a large number of items which are the foundation of the building.

E. Cultural Research Methods

Phenomenological Method
A method that is rooted in philosophy and psychology and focuses on one's life experience, this research examines an object phenomenon that occurs in everyday life, whether it is political, socio-cultural or the context in which the phenomenon occurs. Phenomenology seeks to understand culture through the views of cultural owners or actors, researchers will examine in depth the central issues originating from the main structure and always ask the main experiences of informants related to the subject of study to be studied by entering into the conceptual world of the subjects studied. The phenomenological approach is not influenced by philosophy but phenomenology also cannot stand alone, they will need the help of other methods in conducting research such as: hermeneutics, history,
Hermeneutic Method
Is one of the methods that study the interpretation of a meaning or the word hermeneutics comes from the Greek word hermeneuien which means interpreting, giving understanding or translating, the hermeneutics method is a process of disclosing identity and the problems of human existence itself. There are three main components in hermeneutics, the first is the presence of signs, news messages which are usually in the form of writing, the second is the presence of a group of recipients who do not understand the language sent and feel foreign to the message and the third is the existence of an intermediary or liaison between the two parties.

Descriptive method
The research method is aimed at describing phenomena that occurred in the past or present, this method can not only describe a situation but can also describe conditions in the stages of its development. describe the variable values ​​based on the indicators studied


A. Conclusion
Social anthropology is a science that studies the life of the social community and it is interrelated with the social life of the community, the development of culture and modern society.

B. Suggestion
Many people should study/know about Social Anthropology because it will make people very familiar with the knowledge of fellow social environment and social society.

Putri Ramadhani Vegita, 2011, http://vegitya.unsri.ac.id/index.php/posting/ 6

source: ajis

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