Women's Education in Islam, Share This
THE ROLE OF WOMEN IN ISLAMIC EDUCATION
A. Women's Education in Islam
The Arab women before the coming of Islam had the right and the opportunity to learn which was famous at that time, so among the women there were fortune tellers and poets and people who had knowledge in writing. In Arabic books, there are many names of women who were famous during the Jahiliyyah period and the beginning of Islam.
Women's education in Islam is inseparable in the early history of the spread of Islam during the time of the Prophet Muhammad SAW, Islam taught the equality of the status of men and women in spiritual aspects and religious obligations and what differentiates them is good and bad morals. As an example, when the Prophet was still alive, a noble and high-born woman from among the Quraysh was accused of stealing and was punished for it. And there is someone who wants to defend him. Then the Prophet took a stance, saying, "will you defend someone in the law that has been determined by God?". He then gave a speech which contained the following. "O people, the people before you have gone astray, because when a nobleman steals, they let him go, and when the weak steal, they enforce the law against him,
And women get rights that are balanced with their obligations according to the makruk way. However, husbands have one level from their wives
However, in the practice of spiritual equality, it is not always accompanied by equality in the intellectual field between women and men. We can see this sometimes in the field of education. The study of education for women in the Muslim community shows two different opinions, namely those who accept and even those who reject.
a) Opinions that reject women's education
Scholars who reject women's education, that is, are not allowed to teach women other than religion and the Koran, and are prohibited from teaching writing. A woman who is taught to write is likened to a snake that inhales poison
Supporters of this opinion take the basis of Ali bin Abi Talib who found a man who was teaching writing to a woman, then he reprimanded, "don't add evil to evil." Further supporters of this opinion narrate that 'Umar bin Khattab forbade women to learn to write. In addition, they attribute women with a lack of intellect and religion, and this lack is a factor that makes it impossible to teach knowledge to women.
b) Opinions that allow women's education
Supporters who teach women use the arguments from the Prophet's hadith which recommend teaching women, part of the hadith is, "Seeking knowledge is necessary for every Muslim and Muslim woman". "Everyone who has a walidah (servant) and teaches him and educates him, then he frees him and marries him, then he will get two rewards."
History of the Advancement of Women's Education
a) Women's Education At the time of the Prophet SAW
At the time of the Prophet SAW, women began to get an honorable and equal position with men, because previously during the time of ignorance, women had a very low and despicable position, so that the birth of a daughter in a family was considered a disgrace and had to kill the child during baby.
At this time, the Prophet equated the position of women and men in terms of seeking knowledge as a manifestation of this verse. It is also narrated from the Prophet, peace be upon him, that he advocated that his wife be taught to write, and for this he said to Ash-Syifa' (a writer in the Jahiliyya period) don't you want to You taught spells to Hafsah as you taught her to write.
b) Women's Education During the Friends period
At this time, many scholars of religion and knowledge appeared, such as Sitti Hafsah, the wife of the Prophet, who was good at writing, and 'Aisyah bint Sa'ad was also good at writing. Siiti Aisyah, the Prophet's wife, is good at reading the Quran and not good at writing, but she is a famous fiqh expert as acknowledged by 'Urwah bin Zuabair, a famous fiqh expert in this regard, he said: "I have never seen a person more 'alim in the science of Fiqh , the science of medicine and the science of poetry apart from 'Aisyah". Then there is Umm Salamah who can read but is not good at writing, Al-Khansa' is a loyal poet, nationalist and fighter. Hindun binti ''tabah, Laila binti Salma and Sitti Sakinah binti al-Husain, an expert in the field of sya'''. Similarly, 'Aisyah binti Talhah is an expert in poetry criticism.
During the turbulent political conflict between Caliph Ali and Mu'awwiyah, there were several women who were well-known for participating in the political arena, such as Hindun bint 'Idi bin Qais, 'Akrasyah bint al-Athrusy etc. who they helped 'Ali against Mu'awiyah. After that Mu'awiyah was interested in using women in the royal political arena, hence the names al-Khaizuran and Syajaratud-Durr.
c. Women's Education During the Abbasid Dynasty
At this time, Islam has spread widely, as well as culture and progress during the time of Bani Abbas in the East and West, has brought forth women who participate in intellectual and artistic activities, religious knowledge, literature and art. The female slaves have a great opportunity to prepare themselves in the field of satire and art so that the price of female slaves becomes higher according to the skills they have. Women who are famous in the field of knowledge and poetry include, 'Aliyah binti al-Mahdi, Fadhlun, 'Aisyah binti Ahmad bin Qadim al-Qurthubiyah, Lubna, Walladah binti al-Khalifah al-Mustakfi Billah, Qamar.
There are also some women who are experts in the field of religion and hadith and Muslim women scholars who are known to be honest in their knowledge and trustworthy in their history. A greatest hadith expert named Al-Hapiz az-Zahabi in filtering rijalul hadith has issued 4000 hadith narrators and in this case he said, "I do not see among women people who are accused and not people who smear their names (as trusted narrators of hadith). Famous women in the hadith transmitters are Karimah Al-Marwaziyah and Sayyidah Al-Wuzara'.
Ibn Abi Ushaibi'ah mentioned in his book Thabaqatul Athibba' about two women who worked as doctors and they treated the women of Caliph al-Mansur's palace in Andalus. Among them is Zainab, a famous ophthalmologist from Bani Uwad.
If we compare the educational conditions and roles of medieval Muslim women with women in Christian Europe, there will be a striking difference, in Griek (Europe) except for Sparta and Plato, at that time women were not given equal rights in education and social affairs as they were. obtained by men, they regard women as objects that can guarantee their satisfaction and pleasure, even though they achieve high civilization and advances in science
As the conclusion of this paper, Islam provides equal rights and obligations in studying knowledge for women as men, but what is of particular concern is the emphasis on moral education. For example, Ibn Urdun argued that girls should study prayer and religion and add other subjects, but he disagreed with teaching poetry and writing to girls, and he did not approve of giving girls education together with boys in a place, even though there is an opinion that it is permissible for girls and boys to study together.
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